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Full text of "Paris and northern France: handbook for travellers"

Baedekers Guide Books. 



Italy. Part I. Northern Italy as far as Leghorn, Florence and 

Ancona (to be published in October 1867). 
Italy. Part II. Central Italy and Borne, with 3 Maps and 

8 Plans. 1867 5 s. 

Italy. Part III. Southern Italy, Sicily and the Lipari Islands, 

with 4 Maps and 6 Plans. 1867 5 s. 

Paris, and Northern France, with 2 Maps and 19 Plans. 

Second Edition. 1867 5 s. 

The Rhine from the Dutch to the Swiss Frontier, with 15 Maps, 

13 Plans and 4 Views. Second Edition. 1864 4 s. 

Switzerland, and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and the 

Tyrol, with 19 Maps, 7 Plans, and 7 Panoramas. Third 



Edition. 1867 

The Traveller's 

French and Ita 



ROBERT W. WOODRUFF 
LIBRARY 



Belgien und Ho 
Deutschland. L 
Mittel- und N 

1867 

Oesterreich, Sud 

1867 

Ober-Italien. D 
Mittel-Italien ui 
TJnter-Italien , 

1866 

London nebst Ai 

Schottland. 't 
Paris und Nord-I 
Rheinlande. Vi 

Schweiz. Eilfte Auflage. 1867 

Conversationsbuch. Achtzehnte Auflage 




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English, German, 
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1866. 



Thlr. 20 Sgr. 

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Thlr. 10 Ssr. 

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Allemagne. Troisieme e'dition. 1865 10 frcs. 

Belgique et Hollande. Quatrieme e'dition. 1866. ... 5 frcs. 
L'ltalie septentrionale. Troisieme e'dition. 1865. 6 frcs. 25 c. 

L'ltalie centrale et Home. 1867 8 frcs. 25 c. 

L'ltalie meridionale, la Sicile et les lies Lipari. 1867. 6 frcs. 25 c. 

Les Bords du Rhin. Sixieme edition. 1864 5 frcs. 

Londres, suivi d* excursions dans l'Angleterre du Sud, 

le pays de Galles et l'Ecosse. 1866 6 frcs. 25 c 

Paris, et la France du Nord. Deuxieme e'dition. 1867. 6 frcs. 

La Suisse. Septieme edition. 1867 6 frcs. 50 c. 

Manuel de conversation. Dix-huitieme 'e'dition. 1866. 3 frcs. 25 c. 

June 1867. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

"More convenient in form . . . than the red books of Albemarle street, 
the red books of Coblenz are handier for the pocket or the knapsack, and 
are terser and more to the point in their style." 

Edinburgh 1867. Spectator. 

'■We doubt whether any extant English work on London will give the 
English reader so much useful information about his own capital as this 
German Handbook." ("Baedeker's London") 

London 1862. Saturday Review. 

"Baedeker's Paris is an excellent book for nine out of every ten visi- 
tors to Paris. It tells all they want, and not more than they want. . . . 
Although it contains much letter -press, it will really go easily into the 
pocket. The maps are very ingeniously managed. Calais, Boulogne, Dieppe 
and Rouen have all their maps and short remarks. The routes to London, 
the Rhine and Switzerland are alldescribed. There are also numerous plans." 
London 1865. Reader. 

"Baedeker's Handbooks have a great reputation all over the continent 
of Europe, and for years have been distributed in numerous editions." 
London 1863. Reader. 

"Herr Baedeker has long been famous all over the continent for his 
travellers' handbooks." London 1863. Bookseller. 

"For all who do not care for elaborate description, doubtful criticism 
and a profusion of historical reminiscences . . . there are no guide-books 
like Baedeker's. They are of convenient size, contain everything lhat the 
ordinary traveller wants to know, told accurately, sensibly, and succinctly. 
Their list of hotels and restaurants is generally trustworthy, and may be 
onsulted with confidence by persons to whom expense is of some conse- 
quence. The hand-book of Paris before us is excellent in every way, 
and gives, besides, a sufficiently minute description of the city, the two 
ordinary routes by which Americans usually enter and leave Paris." 
Sew York 1867. The Nation. 

"Baedeker is, as is well known, a singularly accurate and useful guide 
.... his information is comprehensive, minute, and carefully compiled." 
London 1867. Pall Mall Gazette. 

The Doldenhorn and Weisse Frau. Ascended for the first time 
by Abraham Roth and E. von Fellenberg. With 11 coloured 
engravings, 4 woodcuts and a coloured map in the scale of 
1 :50;000. Coblenz, 1863. Boyal 8vo, cloth 7 s. 6 d.; sewed 6 s. 

.... The coloured engravings, from sketches by Ph. Gosset and 
E. von Fellenberg, are really beautiful, and, with J. R. Stengel's coloured 
map, aid the narrative wonderfully. The book is one to be possessed by 
all Alpine climbers. u TlIE Re^ee", November 1863. 

.... The most valuable features of this charming little book are 
the excellent map of a little known region, and the beautiful chromo- 
lithographs from M. von Fellenberg's drawings, which will give the inex- 
perienced a better idea of the mysteries of the upper ice-world than any 
illustrations ever before published. 

"The Alrinf. Journal", December 1863. 

. . The pl.-.tes throughout the book are particularly well executed, 
and will prove pleasing to all, who are interested in scenery of this cha- 
racter. We do not remember my of like kind and size that equal them. 
"The AtiIen.el.m"', December 1863. 



PARIS 



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PARIS 



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NORTHERN FRANCE. 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 

BY 

K. B^DEKEB. 

With 2 Maps and 26 Plans. 
SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND AUGMENTED. 



COBLEN2, 

KARL BAEDEKER. 
1867. 
LONDON, EDINBURGH, 

WILLIAMS > NORGATE. WILLIAMS & NORGATE. 

14 Henrietta Street, Covent-Garden. 20 South Frederick Street. 

The Right of Translation i> Reserved. 



Preface. 



The object of the following volume is to render the 
visitor to the French metropolis and N. France as inde- 
pendent as possible, and enable him to apportion the time 
at his disposal to the best advantage. 

The information given concerns objects of general 
interest, described by the Editor from personal experience. 
A detailed account of all the specialties of Paris would 
far exceed the limits of a work of this character. 

Visitors to picture-galleries and other collections may 
generally dispense with catalogues, as these pages con- 
tain sufficient information respecting all the most striking 
objects of interest. 

Probably no city in the world has ever undergone such 
gigantic transformations in its external aspect as the French 
metropolis of late years Many unwholesome purlieus, 
teeming with poverty and vice, have been entirely swept 
away, to make room for spacious squares, noble avenues 
and palatial edifices. The city may even now be regarded 
in many respects as in a state of transition. This will 
explain some possible inaccuracies in the following pages, 
which might otherwise be attributed to want of fidelity 
on the part of the Editor. 

The subdivision of the Plan of the city into three 
sections of different colours, accompanied by a key-map, 
will be found materially to facilitate reference, and en- 
tirely obviates the necessity of unfolding several square 
feet of paper on every occasion. 

As many travellers merely pass through Paris on their 
way to more distant scenes, some brief itineraries to Switzer- 



VI 

land and the Rhine will, it is hoped, be found serviceable. 
A brief account of the principal towns of N. France, with 
their magnificent specimens of Gothic architecture and their 
frequent traces of old-world peculiarities, will be accep- 
table alike to the archaeologist, the architect and the non- 
professional visitor. 

Besides the first-class hotels, many establishments of 
modest pretensions are enumerated which may safely be se- 
lected by the "voyageur en garcon", with little sacrifice of 
real comfort and great saving of expenditure. Those which 
the Editor and his correspondents believe to be most 
worthy of commendation are denoted by asterisks. It should, 
however, be borne in mind that hotels are liable to constant 
changes, and that the treatment the traveller experiences 
is often contingent upon a variety of circumstances which 
can neither be foreseen nor controlled. 



N. B. Everything particularly worthy of note is indicated by an asterisk. 



Contents. 



Introduction. „ 

Page 

1. Language. Money. Passports. Douane .... XI 

II. Post and Telegraph Offices XII 

III. Embassies XIII 

IV. Shops XIII 

V. History and Statistics XV 

VI. Distribution of Time XXI 

VII. Weights and Measures XXV 

VIII. Genera] Remarks on N. France XVI 

Preliminary Information. 

1. Arrival in Paris 1 

2. Hotels and Maisons Meuble'e 3 

3. Restaurants . 8 

4. Cafe's ' 14 

5. Booksellers, Reading Rooms, Newspapers 16 

6. Shops, Bazaars, Markets 17 

7. Baths 19 

8. Voitures 19 

9. Omnibuses 21 

10. Railway-stations and Railway-omnibuses 23 

11. Steamboats 25 

12. Theatres 25 

13. Concerts and Balls 30 

14. Drive through Paris 31 

Route Right Bank of the Seine. 

1. *The Old Boulevards 33 

Place de la Bastille ... 34 

*Column of July 35 

Place Royale . . ... 35 

'Porte St. Martin and Porte St. Denis 37 
'Exchange ...... .38 

*Vendome Column ... . 40 

Chapelle Expiatoire .... .42 

2. *The Boulevards de Strasbourg and de Sevastopol . . 45 

*Tour St. Jacques de la Boucherie ... .... 46 

Place du Chatelet . . 46 

Fontaine St. Michel .46 

3. *The Palais Royal 47 

Place des Victoires . . .... 49 

i.**The Louvre and its Collections 50 

*Assyrian Antiquities ..... 51 

Collection of Casts .... 51 

Ancient Greek Reliefs and Sculptures . 52 

*Egyptian Museum 52 

Algerian Museum 52 



Page 



VIII CONTENTS. 

Route 

Renaissance Sculptures 53 

Modern Sculptures ■....'....... 54 

*Ancient Sculptures . . 54 

■"Collection of Engravings '.'.'.' '. 58 

Antique Terracottas '.'.'.' ' 58 

Modern French School of Painting . . . . . . . 58 

Jewellery and Precious Relics ........ 59 

Picture Gallery ' go 

*Greek, Etruscan, Roman, Egyptian Antiquities '. '. 68 

Muse'e des Souverains 69 

Picture Gallery of the Musee Napoleon III. . .... 69 

Mediaeval and Renaissance Curiosities of the Musee Na- 
poleon HI _ 70 

Drawings 70 

Hall of the Bronzes '.'.'.'. 71 

*Marine Museum '.'.'.'.'. 71 

Musee Ethnographique . 72 

5. The Tuileries '.'.'.'.'.'. 74 

*Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel 74 

*Jardin des Tuileries ... 77 

6.**Place de la Concorde 78 

"Obelisk of Luxor 80 

7. *Champs Elyse"es 82 

Palais de rElyse"e 83 

Palais de 1'Industrie . '.'.'.'. 83 

Maison de Francois I. ' 84 

Hotel Pompeien 84 

Pont de l'Alma '.'.'.'. 85 

Pont d'lena 85 

8. *Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile 85 

Russian Church .... 86 

*Chapelle St. Ferdinand . . . .....'. 87 

9. *Parc de Monceaux 88 

10. *Bois de Boulogne 89 

Fortifications .... 91 

*Jardin d'Acclimatation ... 91 

11. *H6tel de Ville \ [ go 

Rue de Rivoli .... . 94 

12. *Palais de Justice 94 

*Sainte Chapelle . .... 96 

Conciergerie .... . 9(j 

Prefecture de Police 97 

Place Dauphinc 97 

*Pont Neuf . . . 98 

Morgue ..... 99 

13. *Bibliotheque Impe'rialc . . .99 

Place Louvois ... ... 99 

Fontaine Moliere ... 10i 

14. Conservatoire des Arts et Me'tiers .... 102 

15. Churches on the right bank of the Seine ... 103 

*Notre Dame .... ]04 

St. Germain l'Auxerrois . .... 105 

St. Merry 107 

*St. Eustachc . . 107 

St. Roch .... . . . . . . 108 

*Madeleine .... 109 

*Notre Dame de Lorettc ... ... Ho 

*St. Vincent de Paul Ill 

*St. Jean Baptiste 112 



CONTENTS. IX 

Route Page 

St. Eugene 112 

Protestant Churches .... 112 

English Churches 112 

16. Pere Lachaise 113 

Cimetiere Picpus 122 

17. *Montmartre 122 

Cemetery of Montmartre 123 

18. *Vincennes and its Park 124 

Canal de St. Maur 127 

Charenton 127 

Left Bank of the Seine. 

19.**Palais du Luxembourg (modern pictures) .... 128 

Jardin du Luxembourg 133 

Statue of Ney 134 

Observatory 134 

20. *Musee des Thermes et de l'Hotel de Cluny .... 135 

Sorbonne . . ... 137 

21. *Pantheon 138 

Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve . . 140 

22.**Jardin des Plantes ...... ..... 141 

23. *Gobelins 145 

24. Hotel des Monnaies 148 

25. Institut de France 149 

26. *EcoIe des Beaux Arts 150 

27. Palais du Corps Legislatif 152 

28. Muse'e d'Artillerie 153 

Eglise St. Thomas d'Aquin 154 

29. *H6tel des Invalides .155 

*Napoleon's Tomb 158 

Ecole Militaire • 159 

Champ de Mars 159 

Manufacture Imperiale des Tabacs ... .... 160 

30. *Blind Institution 160 

Deaf and Dumb Institution .... 161 

31. Churches on the left bank of the Seine 162 

*St. Sulpice .... 162 

**St. Etienne du Mont . 163 

St. Germain des Pres . . 164 

Sainte Clotilde 165 

3'?. Cemetery of Mont Paniasse 166 

33. The Catacombs 167 

Environs of Paris. 

34 **Versailles 16S 

Les Trianons ... . . 184 

35. *St. Cloud 185 

Sevres 187 

36. *St. Germain- en-Laye 187 

37. *St. Denis 189 

Enghien-les-Bains ... 195 

Montmorency . . 195 

38. *Fontainebleau J96 



X CONTENTS. 

Route Page 

Northern France. 

A. Routes from London to Paris. 

39. By Folkstone, Boulogne and Amiens 202 

40. By Dover, Calais and Amiens 208 

41. By Newhaven, Dieppe and Rouen 210 

42. By Southampton, Havre and Rouen 220 

B. North-western France. 

43. From Paris to Orleans and Tours 223 

44. From Paris to Nantes by Chartres, Le Mans and Angers 228 

45. From Nantes to Brest 237 

46. From Brest to Paris by Rennes and Le Mans . 239 

47. From Paris to Caen and Cherbourg 240 

C. Routes from Paris to the Rhine and Switzerland. 

48. From Paris to Cologne 245 

a. Direct Route by Namur and Li^ge 245 

b. From Paris to Cologne by Brussels 248 

49. From Paris to Strasbourg by Chalons and Nancy . . 253 

50. Strasbourg 260 

51. From Paris to Mannheim or Coblenz (Bingen) . . . 264 

a. From Paris to Met/, 264 

b. Metz .265 

c. From Metz to Mannheim and Mayence . .... 267 

d. From Metz to Coblenz by Neunkirchen and Bingen . . 269 

52. From Paris to Bale by Troyes, Belfort and Mulhouse 270 

53. From Paris to Neuchatel by Dijon 273 

54. From Paris to Geneva by Macon, Ambe'rieu and Culoz 276 

Index 279 

List of Names in the Plan 285 

List of Maps and Plans. 

1. General Map of N. France 1 . „, .. ,.„„ „.„. 

2. Map of the Environs of Paris } before the tltle "P a P e - 

3. Plan of Paris in three Sections, after the Index. 

4. Key-Plan of Paris. 

5. Bois de Boulogne p. 88; 6. Pere Lachaise p. 114; 7. Jardin des Plantes 
p. 142; 8. Versailles p. 170; 9. St. Germain-en-Laye p. 188; 10. Fon- 
tainebleau p. 198; 11. Boulogne p. 202; 12. Dieppe p. 210; 13. Rouen 
p. 212; 14. Lo Havre p. 220; 15. Orleans p. 224; 16. Nantes p. 234; 
17. Brest p. 238; 18. Caen p. 240; 19. Cherbourg p. 242; 20. Liege 
p. 246; 21. Brussels p. 250; 22. Rheims p. 254; 23. Strasbourg p. 260; 
24. Metz p. 264. 

Abbreviations. 

M. = Engl, mile; hr. — hour; min. = minute; r. = right; 1. = left; 
N. = north, northwards, northern; S. = south etc.; E. = east etc.; 
W. = west etc.; R. = room; B. = breakfast; D. = dinner; A. = atten- 
dance; L. = light. 



Introduction. 



I. Language. Money. Passports. Douane. 

For those who are desirous of deriving instruction as well as 
pleasure from a visit to Paris, the most attractive treasury of art 
and industry in the world, some acquaintance with the French 
language is indispensable. The metropolis of France , it is true, 
possesses English hotels, English professional men, English "va- 
lets de place" , English shops etc. ; but the visitor who is de- 
pendent upon such extraneous aid cannot expect to realize to 
the fullest extent the enjoyment of which Paris is the fruit- 
ful source. 

The decimal Monetary System of France is extremely con- 
venient in keeping accounts. French Banknotes of 5000, 1000, 
500, 200 and 100 francs are everywhere received at their full 
value. Gold coins are of the value of 100, 50, 40, 20, 10 and 
5 francs; Silver coins of 5, 2, 1, 1 / 2 and Vs (20 centimes) 
franc; Copper of 10, 5, 2 and 1 centime (100 centimes = 
1 franc). "Sou" is the old name , still in common use , for 
5 centimes; thus, a 5-franc piece is sometimes termed "une 
piece de cent sous" , 2 ft. = 40 sous, 1 fr. = 20 sous , i / i fr. 
= 10 sous. 

English banknotes, gold and even silver are generally received 
at the full value , except at the shops of the money-changers, 
where a trifling deduction is made. The table at the beginning of 
the book shows the comparative value of the French and English 
currencies, when (as is usual in ordinary traffic) at par; the addition 
of a list of the coins in circulation in Germany will not be unaccep- 
table to travellers en route for the Rhine ; the currency of Switzer- 
land is the same as that of France. 

Foreign bills of exchange on Paris must be furnished with 
a stamp of 5 c. per 100 fr. , to be procured at the Timbre Im- 
perial, Rue de la Banque 13, before they are presented to the 
banker. 

With regard to the cost of a visit to Paris , it is impossible 
to offer any remarks with precision. Supposing a traveller to fre- 
quent a hotel of either first or second-rate pretensions , to dine 
at a table d'hote, or perhaps the "Diner de Paris", to partake of 
wine of a good though not extravagant quality, to visit the theatres, 
to indulge in a supper fr la carte etc. etc., a pound a day would pro- 
bably be the lowest estimate at which all this could be accomplished. 



XII POST AND TELEGRAPH. 

The thrifty and experienced traveller, who visits Paris for its 
monuments, its galleries, its collections, and not for its pleasures, 
will know how to control his expenditure in accordance with 
the extent of his resources ; but where all that can gratify the 
eye and the palate are so temptingly displayed , where luxury is 
raised to a science and where the provocatives to extravagance meet 
one at every step , each traveller must be his own mentor. 

Passports are now superfluous in France , as well as in Bel- 
gium, Holland, Germany (Austrian dominions excepted) and Switzer- 
land. Considering, however, the facility with which these docu- 
ments are procured , it is always a wise precaution to be pro- 
vided with one. Application may be made to W. J. Adams, 59 
Fleet Street, Lee and Carter, 440 Strand, E. Standford, 6 Charing 
Cross, or Letts and Co., 8 Royal Exchange. 

In order to avoid any unpleasant detention at the Custom- 
house (douane), travellers are strongly recommended to eschew 
all articles not absolutely necessary. Books and newspapers are 
occasionally regarded with suspicion. Cigars (6 only free of duty) 
pay 10 c. each. 

II. Post and Telegraph Offices. 

The General Post Office is in the Rue Jean Jacques Rousseau, 
near the church of St. Eustache, but is shortly to be transferred 
to a more central position near the Place de la Concorde. There 
is also a Bureau Principal in each of the CO arrondissements, 
besides Bureaux Supplementaires and numerous Boltes aux Lettres. 
The transmission of parcels is undertaken by the Messageries Im- 
periales, Rue Notre Dame des Victoires 2S, the Messageries Gene- 
rales , Rue St. Honore" 130, and other companies. 

The Poste-restante office (corner of the Rue Pagevin and the 
Rue Coq Heron) is open from 8 a. m. to 8 p. m., on Sundays 
till 5 p. m. In applying for letters the written or printed name, 
or passport, of the addressee should always be presented. It 
is, however, far preferable to desire letters to be addressed to 
the hotel or boarding-house where the visitor purposes residing. 

The postage for prepaid letters (10 grammes or V3 oz.; V2 fr- 
in silver weighs 2 1 /2 grammes) within the limits of Paris is 10 c; 
if not prepaid 15 c. ; for any part of France, Algeria and Corsica, 
prepaid 20 c. , not prepaid 30 c. Prepaid letters (77a grammes 
or V4 oz.) to Great Britain 40 c, not prepaid 80 c. ; to N-. America 
80 c. ; Switzerland 40 c. ; Rhine 40—50 c. ; N. Germany 50—60 c. ; 
Russia 1 fr. Registered fchargees) letters must be furnished 
with two seals and pay double postage. A receipt is given , on 
presenting which, in case of loss, a compensation of 50 fr. may 
be recovered. Postage for newspapers (always prepaid), which 
must be enclosed by a narrow band only, capable of being remo- 
ved without difficulty, for France 4 c, for Great Britain 8 c. 



EMBASSIES. Xm 

The letter-boxes for the evening-trains are emptied as follows : 
the ordinary street letter-boxes at 5 p. m.; those of the 20 
Arrondissements, as well as the General Post Office at 5. 45. If 
too late for the last clearance of the boxes letters may be posted 
till 6 for an additional sum of 20 c, and till 6. 15 for 40 c. at 
the offices Rue Tirechappe 1, Boulevard Beaumarchais 83, Rue 
des Vieilles Haudriettes 4 , Rue Cardinal Lemoine 22 , Rue 
Bonaparte 21, Rue St. Dominique 56, Place de la Madeleine 28, 
Rue St. Lazare 11, Rue du Helder 24, Rue d'Enghien 21. For 
40 c. additional, letters may also be posted till 6. 30 at the Place 
de la Bourse 4, Rue de Cle'ry 28 and at the General Post Office, 
where they are moreover received from 6. 30 till 7 for an ad- 
ditional sum of 60 c. Letters will likewise be forwarded on the 
same evening if posted at the proper railway-stations before 7. 30. 

Telegraph Offices are to be found in each of the 20 Arron- 
dissements. The most convenient are at the General Post Office, 
Rue Jean Jacques Rousseau 5; Grand Hotel du Louvre, Rue 
Rivoli 166; Place de la Bourse 12 (day and night); Hotel de 
Ville; Boulevard de Sevastopol 47 (1. bank); the Luxembourg; 
office of the minister of the interior, Rue de Grenelle St. Germain 103 
(day and night) ; Place de la Madeleine 7 ; Rue St. Lazare 126 
Avenue des Champs Elyse"es 67 (day and night) ; Rue Flechier 2 
the Grand Hotel; Caserne, Prince Eugene (Rue de la Douane) 
Boulevard St. Denis 16; Station du Nord etc. 

III. Embassies. 

Austria, rue de Grenelle St. Germain (101) (1 — 3 o'clock). 

Belgium, Rue du Faubourg St. Honore" 153 (12— 2»/ 2 ). 

Denmark, Rue de rUniversite 37 (1 — 3). 

Great Britain, Rue du Faubourg St. Honore 39 (11-2). 

Holland, Rue Circulaire 13 (11—2). 

Italy, Rond Point des Champs Elyse'es 9 (11—2). 

Prussia, Rue de Lille 78 (12— 1V 2 ). 

Russia, Rue de Grenelle St. Germain 79 (12 — 2). 

Spain, Quai d'Orsay 25 (11—1). 

Switzerland, Rue Blanche 3 (10 — 3). 

Sweden and Norway, Rue de Marignan 9 (before 2). 

United States of N. America, Rue du Centre 15 (11—3). 

The above are the present addresses; a change of residence, 
however, occasionally takes place. 

IV. Shops. 

For the convenience of the stranger > a few of the best and 
most respectable of the innumerable and tempting "magazins" of 
Paris are here enumerated : 

Amber ornaments: Scheidel, Boulevard de Sevastopol 76. 
"Articles de voyage": Censier Fils, Rue du Faubourg Poissonniere 29. 
Artificial flowers : Constantin , Rue d'Antin 7. 



XIV SHOPS. 

Bijouterie en imitation: Mourier, Boulevard des Italiens 6. 

Bootmaker: Roche, Rue Richelieu 69. 

Boots ready-made : Aux Quatre Diables, Rue Auber 1 ; Aux Docks 

de Bordeaux, Boulevard Sevastopol 17. 
Bronze models of celebrated antiques: Barbedienne et Cie., Boule- 
vard Poissonniere 30. 
Bronzes etc.: Susse Freres , Place de la Bourse 31. 

Oiroux, Boulevard des Capucines 43. 

Roussel, Place Vendome 26. 

Deniere, Rue Vivienne 15 
Cabinet-maker: Tahan, Rue de la Paix 34. 

Euler, Rue St. Louis 38, not expensive. 
Cambric handkerchiefs: Chapron, Rue de la Paix 11. 
Chocolate and tea: Marquis, Rue Vivienne 44. 

Masson, Rue Richelieu 28 bis. 
Cutlery: Touron, Rue Richelieu 101. 
Dressmaker: Mme. Servol, Boulevard Montmartre 19. 
Engravings: Goupil et Cie., Boulevard Montmartre 19. 

Lecrivain, Galerie de Valois 184 (Palais Royal). 
Fruiterers: Perron, Rue Vivienne 14. 

Jourdain, Rue Neuve des Petits Champs 52, dried fruits. 
Glovers: Boivin, Rue Castiglione 10. 

Privat , Rue Neuve St. Augustin 49. 

Rist , Boulevard des Capucines 9. 

A la Tour de Nesle , Boulevard des Italiens 3. 
Goldsmiths and Jewellers: Philippi, Rue Richelieu 19. 

Dumont, Chausse'e d'Antin 4. 

Perree, Chaussee d'Antin 8. 

Morel tt Cie., Rue Richelieu 62. 
Hatters : Bandoni Fils, Rue Vivienne 26. 
India-rubber wares: Guibal , Rue Vivienne 40. 
Ladies' boots: Meier, Rue Tronchet 17; also at the shops in the 

Rue du Dauphin , opposite to the garden of the Tuileries. 
Millinery: numerous "Nouveautes" and "Modes" in the boulevards 

and principal streets, the best with small display in the 

windows ; in the Passage du Saumon , less expensive. • — 

Madame he Blanc, Rue Cherubini 3, can be recommended. 
Money-changer: Cohen et Cie., Rue Rougemont 13. 

Meyer, Veuve Spielmann, Rue Vivienne 26. 
Opticians: Chevallier, Place du Pont Neuf 15. 

Harweiler, Boulevard Montmartre 22. 
Perfumery: Henri et Demarson, Boulevard Poissonniere 20. 

Societe Hygienique, Boulevard des Italiens 11, and Rue 
de Rivoli 79. 

Piver, Boulevard de Strasbourg 10, and Rue Vivienne 23. 
Photographers : Carjat, Rue Pigal 62. 

Beutlinger, Rue Richelieu 112, 



SHOPS. XV 

Provision Warehouse: Cuvillier, Rue de la Paix 16. 
Shawls: Bietry, Boulevard des Capucines 41. 

Frainais-Oramagnac, Rue Richelieu 82. 
Shirt-maker: Plessis Successeur, Passage des Panoramas 51. 
Silk mercers: Compagnie Lyonnaise, Boulevard des Capucines 37. 

Petit St. Thomas, Rue du Bac 27—33. 

Qrand Conde , Rue de Seine 85, 87. 

Au Louvre, in the hotel of that name. 
Silversmith: Wiese, Rue de l'Arbre Sec 48. 
Stationery: Marion, Cite' Bergere,Rue du Faubourg Montmartre. 
Surgical instruments: Luer, Place de l'Ecole de MeMicine 19. 

Charriere , Rue de l'Ecole de Medicine 6. 
Tailors: Alber el Keimel, Rue Richelieu 74. 

Aw Bon Pasteur, Rue Ste. Anne 49, and Rue Neuve des 
Petits Champs 32. 

Pappel, Rue de la Paix 6. 
Umbrellas and parasols : Farge, Galerie Feydeau 6 (Passage des 
Panoramas). 

Bison, Rue Neuve des Petits Champs 39. 

Nabrin, Galerie Vivienne 11. 

Hartmann, Boulevard des Capucines 15. 
Watches and clocks: Leroi et Fits, Palais Royal 13, 15. 

Oudin, Palais Royal 52. 

Wurtel, Passage Vivienne 38, 40. 
Wines, see p. 18. 

Those who desire to despatch their purchases at once to their 
destination should secure the services of a goods-agent. M. Hoff- 
mann, Chateau d'Eau 100, and Mcericke and Camus, Rue du Fau- 
bourg Poissonniere 25, may be mentioned as two respectable firms. 
"Commissionnaires en marchandises" (E. Hofschulte, Rue d'Haute- 
ville 17; Falcke and Dbring, Passage des Petites Ecuries 20) 
are agents through whose instrumentality extensive purchasers 
(over 500 fr.) are enabled to obtain goods at wholesale prices. 

V History and Statistics. 

At the time of the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar, the 
Parisii were a tribe settled on the banks of the Sequana or 
Seine, and their chief town was Lutetia, situated on the present 
island of La Cite. 

The first event worthy of mention was the introduction of 
Christianity by St. Denis the Areopagite, who, according to tra- 
dition, suffered martyrdom on Montmartre about the year 250. 

Constantius Chlorus is said to have founded the Palais des 
Thermes (p. 135) between 292 and 306. 

Julian resided at Lutetia in 360. The name of the town was 
then changed to Parisii and political franchises granted to it. 



XVI HISTORY. 

In the vicinity of Paris. Gratian was defeated and slain by 
Maximus in 383. 

CI o vis, son of Childeric, king of Tournay, finally expelled 
the Romans about the year 496, embraced Christianity and became 
the founder of the Merovingian dynasty. He erected a church to 
St. Peter and St. Paul , which he subsequently dedicated to Ste. 
Genevieve who died in his reign. Few of the monarchs of this 
or the subsequent dynasty resided at Paris. 

Pepin, in 752, was the founder of the second or Carlovin- 
gian dynasty. 

Charlemagne, 768. 

Louis I. (Le Debonnaire), 814. 

Charles II. (Le Chauve), 840. Paris sacked by the Normans, 
857. — The subsequent monarchs neglected the city and , when 
it was again attacked by the Normans in 885, left it to its own 
resources. This dynasty was therefore deposed and the crown 
given to Count d o , who had been instrumental in repelling 
the Normans. Under his descendant 

Hugh Capet, 987, the city rapidly increased in magnitude, 
and a palace, the present Palais de Justice, was commenced. 

Robert (Le Pieux), 996. 

Henry I., 1031. French crusades under Godfrey de Bouillon. 

Philip I., 1060. 

Louis VI. (Le Oros), 1108, founded a palace on the site of 
the Louvre. 

Louis VII. (Le Jeune), 1137. His divorced wife, Eleanor of 
Guienne and Poitou , married Henry Plantagenet , afterwards 
Henry II. of England. Foundation-stone of Notre Dame laid by 
Pope Alexander III. 1163. Suger, abbot of St. Denis, the king's 
minister. 

Philip II. (Auguste), 1180, considerably extended the city 
and surrounded it with a wall and turrets. Third Crusade, 1189. 
The English, Flemish and German troops defeated at Bow 
vines , 1214. 

Louis VIII. (Le Lion). 1223. 

Lours IX. (St. Louis), 1226. Crusades to Egypt and Tunis. 
Paris obtains various municipal advantages. The University foun- 
ded by Robert Sorbon, 1250. 

Philip III. (LeHardi), 1270. 

Philip IV. (Le Bel), 1285, founded several courts of justice. 
He caused the transfer of the papal residence to Avignon * and 
in 1307 abolished the order of Knights Templar. 

Louis X. (Le Hutin), 1314. 

Philip V. (Le Long), 1316. 

Charles IV. (Le Bel), 1322, died without issue. The House 
of Valois succeeds. 



HISTORY. XVII 

Philip VI., 1328. War with England, 1338. Battle of 
Cricy, 1346. 

John II. (Le Bon), 1350; defeated and taken prisoner by the 
English at Maupertuia, 1356. Peace of Bretigny, 1360. 

Charles V. (Le Sage). 1361, founded the Royal Library, the 
Bastille and the Palais des Tournelles. The city extended and 
re-fortified. The English expelled by Bertrand du Ouesclin. 

Charles VI., 1380, became insane twelve years afterwards. 
The French conquered by Henry V. of England at Auncourt, 
1415. Paris occupied by the English, 1421. 

Charles VI., 14'22. The siege of Orleans raised by Joan 
of Arc, 1429. The English expelled. Paris desolated by famine 
and plague. 

Louis XL, 1461. Introduction of printing and establishment 
of post-offioe. 

Charles VIIL, 1483; conquered Naples, 1495. 

Louis XII., "Le Pere du peuple", 1498, first king of the 
younger branch of the House of Valois, conquered Milan and, in 
conjunction with the Spaniards, Naples. Having quarrelled with 
the latter, he was defeated by them on the Oarigliano In 1503, 
on which occasion Bayard was present. The League of Cambrai 
formed for the purpose of expelling the Venetians from the main- 
land of Italy. The Venetians conquered at AgnadeUo , 1509. 
The French defeated at Ravenna, 1512. 

Francis L, 1515. The city was probably more consider- 
ably altered and improved in this than in any of the preceding 
reigns. Numerous new edifices erected , churches repaired and 
fortifications extended. Palace of the Louvre and Hotel de Ville 
commenced. Wars with the emperor Charles V. Francis defeated 
and taken prisoner at Pavia, 1525. 

Henry II., 1547, husband of Catherine de Midicis, accident- 
ally killed at a tournament (p. 35). Final expulsion of the 
English. 

Francis II., 1559, husband of Mary Stuart of Scotland. 

Charles IX., 1560. The Tuileries erected. Massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, August 24th. , 1572. 

Henry HI., 1574, brother of his two predecessors, assassi- 
nated at St. Cloud by Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar. 

Henry IV., 1589, first monarch of the House of Bourbon, 
conquered the Roman Catholic League at Arques in 1589, and at 
Ivry in 1590, became a Roman Catholic in 1593, besieged and 
captured Paris in 1594. Sully his minister. Religious toleration 
granted by the Edict of Nantes. Henry divorced from Margaret 
of Valois in 1599. married Marie de Me'dicis the following year ; 
assassinated by Ravaillac 1610. The metropolis greatly embellished 
during this reign. The Pont Neuf completed, additions made 
to the Louvre and Tuileries. 

Bsedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. b 



XVIII HISTORY. 

Louis XIII., 1610, banished his mother Marie de Me'dicis, 
who died at Cologne in 1642. Richelieu his minister (d. 1642). 
English fleet defeated at Rhe, 1627; La Rochelle taken from the 
Huguenots. The Palais Cardinal (now Royal) commenced by 
Richelieu, and the Luxembourg by Marie de Me'dicis. New bridges, 
quays and streets constructed. Jardin des Plantes laid out. 

Louis XIV., 1643, under the regency of his mother, Anne 
of Austria. Ministers: Mazarin (d. 1661), Louvois (d. 1691) and 
Colbert (d. 1683). Generals : Turenne (d. 1675), Conde' (d. 1686), 
Marshal Luxembourg (d. 1695). 

War of the Fronde against the court and Mazarin. Conde 
defeated the Spaniards at Rocroy, 1643, and at Lens in Holtand 
in 1645. Submission of the Fronde. Peace of the Pyrenees, 1659. 

Louis married Maria Theresa, 1660. Part of Flanders con- 
quered, 1667. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1668. — War with 
Holland, 1672. Peace of Nymwegen, 1678. Strasbourg occupied, 
1681. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685. Devastation of 
the Palatinate. The French fleet conquered by the English at 
La Hogue, 1692. Peace of Ryswyk, 1697. 

Spanish war of succession, 1701; the French frequently de- 
feated by Marlborough and Prince Eugene. Peace of Utrecht and 
Rastadt, 1714. 

During this reign upwards of eighty new streets and thirty- 
three churches were constructed. Hotel des Invalides, Observatory 
and the colonnade of the Louvre completed. College Mazarin, 
Gobelins, triumphal arches etc. commenced. Fortifications converted 
into boulevards. 

Louis XV., 1715, under the regency of the Duke of Orleans. 
Polish and Austrian wars of succession. Seven years' war with 
England. Successes of Frederick the Great and Ferdinand Duke 
of Brunswick against the French; battles of Rossbach, Crefeld, 
Minden etc. 

The Pantheon, Ecole Militaire , Palais du Corps Le'gislatif, 
Hotel des Monnaies and many other important buildings were 
erected during this reign. Jardin des Plantes extended. 

Louis XVI., 1774. 

1789. Assembly of the States General at Versailles, May 5th. 
Formation of the National Assembly, June 17th. Storming of 
the Bastille, July 14th. Confiscation of ecclesiastical property, 
Nov. 2nd. 

1790. National fete in the Champ de Mars. 

1791. The Emigration. The king and royal family escape 
from Paris, but are intercepted at Varennes, June 20th. 

1792. War with Austria, April 20th. Storming of the Tuile- 
ries, Aug. 10th. The king arrested, Aug. 13th. The National 
Convention opened and royalty abolished, Sept. 21st. Republic 
proclaimed Sept. 25th. 



HISTORY. XIX 

1793. Louis XVI. beheaded, Jan. 20th. Republican reckoning 
of time introduced, Sept. 22nd f . Reign of Terror. The queen 
beheaded, Oct. 16th. Worship of Reason introduced, Nov. 10th. 
Loss of Belgium. 

1794. Robespierre's fall and execution, July 28th. Jourdan's 
victory at Fleurus. Belgium reconquered. 

1795. Conquest of Holland by Pichegru. Bonaparte commander 
of the troops of the Convention against the Royalists under Da- 
nican, Oct. 3rd. Directory established, Oct. 28th. 

1796. Bonaparte's successes in Italy (Milan, Arcole, Rivoli, 
Mantua etc.). 

1797. Peace of Campo Fortnio. Change in the Directory 
caused by the "Revolution of 18th Fructidor", Sept. 4th. 

1798. Bonaparte in Egypt. Victory of the Pyramids, July 21st. 
Defeated by Nelson in the battle of the Nile, Aug. 1st. 

1799. Bonaparte invades Syria. Acre defended by Sir Sidney 
Smith. Victory of Aboukir, July 25th. Fall of the Directory 
Nov. 9th. Bonaparte First Consul, Dec. 25th. 

1800. Bonaparte's passage of the St Bernard, May 13th. Vic- 
tories at Piacenza, Montebello and Marengo. Moreau victorious 
at Hohenlinden, Dec. 3rd. 

1801. Peace of Lune'ville with Germany, Feb. 9th. 

1802. Peace of Amiens with England, March 27th. 

1804. Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed Emperor, May 18th. 
Coronation by Pope Pius VII., Dec. 2nd. 

1805. Renewal of war with Austria. Battle of Austerlitz, Dec. 2nd. 
Peace of Pressburg, Dec. 26th. 

1806. War with Prussia. Battles of Jena and Auerstaedt. Entry 
into Berlin, Oct. 27th. 

1807. War with Russia and Prussia. Battles of Eylau and 
Friedland. Treaty of Tilsit, July 8th. 

1808. War in Spain. 

1809. Conquest of Saragossa. Renewed war with Austria. 
Battle of Eckmuhl Vienna entered, May 13th. Battle of Wagram. 
Peace of Vienna, Oct. 14th. 



t The year had 12 months: Ve'ndemiaire (month of the vendange, 
or vintage) from Sept. 22nd to Oct. 21st, Brumaire (brume, fog) Oct. 22nd 
to Nov. 20th, Frimaire (frimas, hoar-frost) Nov. 21st to Dec. 20th, were 
the three autumn-months; — Ni vose (neige, snow) Dec. 21st to Jan. 19th, 
Pluviose (pluie, rain) Jan. 20th to Feb. 18th, Ventose (vent, wind) 
Feb. 19th to March 20th, winter-months; — Germinal (germe, germ) 
March 21st to April 19th, Flor<5al (fleur, flower) April 20th to May 19th, 
Prairial (prairie, meadow) May 20th to June 18th, spring-months; — 
Messidor (moisson, harvest) June 19th to July 18th, Thermidor (therme, 
warmth) July 19th to Aug. 17th, Fructidor (fruit, fruit), Aug. 19th to 
Sept. 16th, summer months. — Each month had 30 days and consisted of 
3 decads, weeks being abolished. At the close of the year there were 
5 Jours comptetnentaires , Sept. 17th till 21st. — The republican calender 
was discontinued by a decree of Sept. 9th, 1805. 

b* 



XX HISTORY. 

1810. Marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise, daughter of 
Francis II. of Austria, March 11th. 

1812. Renewed war with Russia. Battles of Smolensk and 
the Moshowa. Moscow entered, Sept. 15th. Retreat commenced 
Oct. 19th. Passage of the Beresina — "Wellington's victory of 
Salamanca. 

1813. Battles of Lutzen, Dresden, Leipsic, Hanau etc. 

1814. Battles of Brienne, Montmirail, Laon, Arcis sur Aube, 
and Paris. Entrance of the allies into Paris, March 31st. Ab- 
dication of the emperor, April 11th. Departure for Elba, May 4th. 
First Treaty of Paris, May 30th. 

The frightful scenes of devastation which were enacted during 
the revolution, especially in 1793, need hardly he adverted to; 
they were, however, beneficial in sweeping away the overgrown 
conventual establishments, which occupied the best sites and one- 
third of the area of the city. Under the Directory the museum 
of the Louvre was commenced. Vast improvements were effected 
under Napoleon ; the mean buildings which formerly occupied the 
Place du Carrousel were demolished; the N. gallery between the 
Louvre and the Tuileries and the handsome Rue de Rivoli were 
commenced; new streets, spacious markets, three bridges, quays, 
canals etc. constructed; numerous fountains and monuments erected; 
churches restored and embellished ; the Bourse and other public 
edifices founded. 

1814, The Restoration. Louis XVIII. king. 

1815. Napoleon's return from Elba. Battles of Ligny and 
Waterloo. Second entrance of the allies into Paris, July 7th. 
Napoleon banished to St. Helena where he died (May 5th, 1821). 

1823. Spanish campaign. 

1824. Charles X. 

1830. Conquest of Algiers. Revolution of July. Louis Phi- 
lippe elected king, Aug. 7th. 

1848. Revolution of February. Republic. Sanguinary con- 
flicts in Paris , June 23rd to 26th. Louis Napoleon elected 
President. 

1851. Dissolution of the Assemble'e Legislative, Dec, 2nd. 
Civic improvements progressed comparatively slowly under 

Louis XVIII. and Charles X. Under Louis Philippe they were 
resumed with fresh vigour. Many handsome new streets were 
opened, churches and public edifices completed, vast works un- 
dertaken for the drainage of the city, new bridges and quays con- 
structed, gardens and squares laid out etc. at an outlay exceed- 
ing 100 million francs. 

1852. Napoleon III., Emperor, elected by universal suffrage 
(plebiscite), Dec. 2nd. 

Probably no city in the world has ever witnessed such gigantic 
improvements as Paris under the present regime. Dense masses 



STATISTICS. XXI 

of houses and numerous tortuous streets have been replaced by 
broad boulevards, spacious squares and palatial edifices. Public 
works of colossal magnitude have been undertaken, whilst those 
commenced in former reigns have been brought to a successful 
completion. Embellishments on the most extensive scale have 
been effected in the public parks and gardens, and, what is of 
incalculable importance, the city is now thoroughly well drained, 
lighted, paved and supplied with water. 

Population. According to the latest census Paris contains 
1,696,141 (665,000 in 1788) souls, of whom 80,000 are Germans 
and 5000 English. About one-third of the births are illegitimate. 
The number of Protestants is estimated at 62,000, Jews 20,000, 
dissentient 30,000, the remainder being Roman Catholics. 

Extent. The circumference of Paris is upwards of 21 miles; 
its area 19,280 acres, or about 30 sq. miles. The Boulevard de. 
Sevastopol, the longest street, is about 2 M. in length. 

Revenues. The budget of the city of Paris for 1865 amounted 
to 155,590,040 fr., the expenditure being the same as the receipts. 
The following items deserve mention. For educational purposes 
4,473,101 fr. ; street-cleaning 12,847,900 fr.; drainage, pavement, 
gas etc. 22,447,595 fr. Paris at present contains 503 elementary 
schools, 293 of which are conducted by lay and 210 by ecclesiastical 
superintendents. The number of pupils amounts to 94,630. The 
inner boulevards, one of the most frequented thoroughfares in 
Paris, are daily traversed by 24,099 horses, and 32,052 daily pass 
through the former Barriere de l'Etoile , leading to the Bois do 
Boulogne. Since 1859 the water- conduits have been extended 
by upwards of 67,000 metres (4l 3 / 5 M.), the drains 39,000 metres 
(24V 5 M.). A sum of 4,752,000 fr. was also expended in 1865 
for architectural and ornamental purposes, 9,000,000 fr. for im- 
proving the streets, and 25,177,846 fr. for the construction ol 
public edifices, to be erected with the support of the government. 
The total receipts of the five years 1859 — 64 amounted to 
843,032,316 fr., the total expenditure to 832,530,330 fr. The 
annual interest of the civic debt was 13,589,363 fr. 

VI. Distribution of Time. 

A sojourn of a fortnight or three weeks in Paris may suffico 
to convey to the visitor a superficial idea of the innumerable ob- 
jects of attraction which the city contains, whilst a residence ol 
several months alone would enable him thoroughly to explore its 
vast treasures of art and industry. The following plan, which is 
topographically arranged, will be found to facilitate the move- 
ments and economize the time of the visitor. 

1st Day. General survey (p. 31). Walk in the boulevards 
(p. 33), *Place de la Concorde (p. 78), Champs Elyse"es (p. 82) 
and Palais Royal (p. 47). 



XXII DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. 

2nd Day. **Galleries of the Louvre (p. 50). Vendome column 
(p. 40), *Madeleine (p. 109) and Chapelle Expiatoire (p. 42). 

3rd Day. *St. Germain l'Auxerrois (p. 105). Second visit to 
the Louvre. Place Napole'on and Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel 
(p. 74). *Jardin des Tuileries (p. 77). 

4th Day. Palais de Justice and *Sainte Chapelle (p. 94). 
*H6tel de Ville (p. 92). *Notre Dame (p. 104). Morgue (p. 99). 

5th Day. St. Roch (p. 108). Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers 
(p. 102). St. Merry and *St. Euftache (p. 107). 

6th Day. Palais de l'Industrie (p. 83). *Arc de l'Etoile (p. 85). 
Chapelle St. Ferdinand (p. 87). Bois de Boulogne (p. 89). 

7th Day. Pere Lachaise (p. 113). *July Column (p. 35). 
Place Royale (p. 35). ' 

8th Day. **Jardin des Plantes (p. 141). *Gohelins (p. 145). 

9th Day. *Jardin du Luxembourg (p. 133). **Modem pic- 
tures in the Luxembourg (p. 128). *Pantheon (p. 138). Library 
of Ste. Genevieve (p. 140). *St. Etienne du Mont (p. 163). 

10th Day. *Muse"e des Thermes et de l'Hotel de Cluny 
(p. 135). Hotel des Monnaies (p. 148), *Ecole des Beaux Arts 
(p. 150). St. Germain des Pre"s (p. 162). *St. Sulpice (p. 162). 
Walk through the Quartier Latin (p. 14). j^. 

11th Day. *Ste. Clotilde (p. 165). *H6tel des Invalides and 
**Napoleons Tomb (p. 155). Blind Institution (p. 160). Champ i, 
de Mars (p. 159). 

12th Day. *Montmartre (p. 122). *Cemetery of Montmartre 
(p. 123). By omnibus to St. Denis (p. 189), and back by railway, 
•St. Vincent de Paul (p. 111). *Notre Dame de Lorette (p. 110). 

13th and 14th Days. **Versailles (p. 168). 

15th Day. *St. Cloud and Sevres (p. 185). *St. Germain-en- 
Laye (p. 187). 

16th Day. *Fontainebleau (p. 196). 

If the elements be unusually propitious at the commencement 
of the stranger's sojourn , he should at once embrace the oppor- 
tunity of visiting the beautiful environs of Paris (days 12—16) ; 
or these excursions may be interspersed among the other sights 
according to circumstances. 

Excursions to Versailles, St. Cloud, Sevres and St. Germain-en- 
Laye may also thus be combined. On the way to Versailles (rive 
gauche) , an hour may be devoted to Sevres ; in returning (rive 
droite), the park of St. Cloud may be visited from the Ville 
d'Avray station, after which the stranger proceeds on foot to the 
bridge at Boulogne, whence omnibuses start every 10 min. for 
Paris (or a walk through the Bois de Boulogne may be preferred). 
If a second visit be paid to Versailles, Paris should be quitted 
by the first train in the morning, in order to allow time for the 
inspection of the gardens (and the Trianons) before the opening 
of the museum. Omnibus from Versailles to St. Germain by 



DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. XXIII 

Marly (p. 188) every afternoon in 1 hr. The evening may then 
be most agreeably spent on the terrace of St. Germain, where a 
military band frequently plays. 



The appended list indicates the days and hours when the 
different collections etc. are accessible. The early morning and 
the afternoon may be most suitably devoted to the churches and 
cemeteries which are open the whole day, to the Champs Elyse"es, 
the Jardin des Tuileries, the Jardin des Plantes and the Jardin 
du Luxembourg; the evening to the theatres, concerts etc. Mon- 
day may generally be spent in this way, as the principal col- 
lections are then closed. The animated scene presented by the 
boulevards may best be witnessed from 4 to 6 in the afternoon, 
before dinner. 

It is a wise precaution never to sally forth without a pass- 
port, or at least visiting-cards, which ensure admission to the 
collections on days when the public are excluded. 

The days and hours enumerated below , though at present 
correct, are liable to occasional variations. Strangers are there- 
fore referred to Oalignani's Messenger, the Saturday number of 
which also affords information respecting the Church of England 
and other Protestant services. 

Collections etc. 
Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve (p. 140), daily 10—3 and 6 till 
10 p. m. ; closed from Sept. 1st to Oct. 15th. 

♦Blind Institution (p. 160), Wednesdays 1 — 5 (with passport 
or card). 

St. Cloud (p. 185), Sundays and Thursdays in absence of the 
emperor. 

♦Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers (p. 102), industrial collections 
open to the public Sundays and Thursdays 10—4; on other days 
fee 1 fr.; closed on Mondays. 

Deaf and Dumb Institution (p. 161), Saturdays 2—5. 
*Ecole des Beaux Arts (p. 150), containing the celebrated 
hemicycle painting of Paul Delaroche, daily 10—4, fee 1 fr. ; in 
Sept. on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays only. 

Exchange (p. 38), daily; stockbrokers' business hours 1 — 3; 
open till 5. 

♦Gobelins (p. 145), Wednesdays and Saturdays 2 — 4 (in winter 
1 — 3), with passport, ticket or visiting-card. 

♦Hotel de Ville (p. 92), Thursdays 12 — 4, by special permission. 

♦Hotel des Invalides (p. 155) and church daily. ♦♦Napoleon's 

Tomb, Mondays without, Thursdays with passport or visiting-card, 

12 — 3. Military mass on Sundays at 12, followed by parade. 



XXIV DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. 

Hotel des Monnaies (p. 148), collection of coins, Tuesdays 
and Fridays 12—3. 

*.Iardin d'Acclimatation (p. 91), daily from an early hour in 
the morning till dusk, adm. 1 fr. 

**Jardin des Plantes (p. 141), botanical the whole day, zoolo- 
gical 10 — 6, in winter 11 till dusk; nat. hist, collections open 
to the public on Tuesdays and Thursdays 2 — 5 (in winter til] 4) 
and Sundays 1 — 5 (in winter till 4), by ticket on Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays 11 — 2; hothouses, by ticket on Mon- 
days, Wednesdays and Thursdays 10 — 2 and 3 — 6; inspection of 
the cages, by ticket daily 1 — 4. 

**Louvre Galleries (p. 50), daily with passport or card 10 — 12, 
open to the public 12 — 4, Sundays 10 — 4. Closed on Mondays. 
♦♦Luxembourg (p. 128), modern paintings and sculptures, same 
hours as the Louvre. 

Muse"e d'Artillerie (p. 153) , open to the public on Thurs- 
days 12—4. 

♦Muse"e des Thermes et de l'Hotel de Cluny (p. 135), open 
to the public, on Sundays 11 — 4, with passport or card on Wednes- 
days, Thursdays and Fridays 12 — 4. 

Palais du Corps Legislatif (p. 152), picture-gallery daily, with 
permission of the president, except during the sessions. 

♦Palais de Justice (p. 94) , daily sessions of the different 
courts 11 — 3, Sundays and Mondays excepted. 

♦♦Versailles. Muse"e Historique (p. 168), daily 11 — 5 (in winter 
till 4) ; closed on Mondays. 

Diary. 

(To be compared with the preceding alphabetical list. J 

Daily. Menagery in the Jardin des Plantes 10—6, in winter 
11 till dusk. — Hotel des Invalides. — Bibliotheque St. Gene- 
vieve 10—3 and 6 — 10 p. m. — Palais du Corps Legislatif, see 
above. — Ecole des Beaux Arts 10—4. — Bourse 1—3. — 
Palais de Justice, sessions 11—3 (Sundays and Mondays excepted). 

Sunday. Louvre and Luxembourg 10—4. — Conservatoire 
des Arts et Metiers 10—4. — Muse'e des Thermes et de l'Hotel 
de Cluny 11 — 4. — Hotel des Invalides, military mass at 12, 
followed by parade. — Museum and gardens of Versailles 11—5. 

Monday. Jardin des Plantes; hothouses, by ticket 10—2 and 
3—6. — Napoleon's Tomb 12—3. — Grand Ope'ra (p. 26). — 
Museums of the Louvre, Luxembourg and Versailles closed. 

Tuesday. Louvre and Luxembourg 10 — 4 (10 — 22 with pass- 
port or card). — Jardin des Plantes, collections 2 — 5, by ticket 
also 11—2. — Conservatoire des Arts et Me'tiers 11—5, adm. 
1 fr. — Hotel des Monnaies 12—3. — Versailles 1 1 —5. 

Wednesday. Louvre and Luxembourg 10 — 4 (15 — 12 with 
passport or card). — Jardin des PlaDtes; hothouses, by ticket 



DISTRIBUTION OF TIME. XXV 

10 — 2 and 3 — 6. — Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers 11 — 5, 
adm. 1 fr. — Musee des Thermes et de l'Hotel de Cluny 12 — 4, 
with passport or card. — Gobelins 2 — 4, with passport or card. 

— Blind Institution 1 — 5, with passport or card. — Grand Opera 
(p. 26). — Horse-market after 1 (p. 19). Versailles 11 — 5. 

Thursday. Louvre and Luxembourg 10—4 (10 — 12 with 
passport or card). — Jardin des Plantes, collections 2 — 5, by 
ticket also 11 — 2; hothouses, by ticket 10 — 2 and 3 — 6. — Muse'e 
des Thermes et de l'Hotel de Cluny 12 — 4, with passport or 
card. — ■ Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers 10 — 4. — Muse'e de 
l'Artillerie 12 — 4. — Hotel de Ville, by special permission 
12 — 4. — Napoleon's Tomb 12 — 3, with passport or card. — 
Versailles 11 — 5. 

Friday. Louvre and Luxembourg 10 — 4 (10 — 12 with pass- 
port or card). — Musee des Thermes et de l'Hotel de Cluny 
12 — 4, with passport or card. — Conservatoire des Arts et Me- 
tiers 11 — 5, adm. 1 fr. — Hotel des Monnaies 12 — 3. — Grand 
Ope'ra (p. 26). — Versailles 11—5. 

Saturday. Louvre and Luxembourg 10 — 4 (10 — 12 with pass- 
port or card). — Jardin des Plantes; collections, by ticket 11 — 2. 

— Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers 11 — 5, adm. 1 fr. — Go- 
belins 2 — 4, with passport or card. — Versailles 11 — 5. — Deaf 
and Dumb Institution 2 — 5. 

VII. Weights and Measures. 

(In use since 1799.) 

The English values of the French weights and measures are 
given approximately. 

Millier — 1000 kilogrammes = 19 cwt. 2 qrs. 22 lbs. 6 oz. 
Kilogramme, unit of weight, — 2Vs lbs avoirdupois = 

2 7 / 10 lbs troy. 
Quintal — 10 myriagrammes = 100 kilogrammes = 230 lbs. 
Hectogramme (Vio kilogramme) = 1 decagrammes — 1 00 gr. 
= 1000 decigrammes. 

Myriametre = 10,000 metres = 6'/s Engl, miles. 

Kilometre = 1000 metres = 5 furlongs. 

Hectometre = 10 decametres = 100 metres. 

Metre, the unit of length, the ten -millionth part of the sphe- 
rical distance from the equator to the pole — 3,0784 
(about 3Vi3) Paris feet = 1 yd. 3V 3 in. 

Decimetre (Vio metre) = 10 centimetres = 100 millimetres. 

Hectare (square hectometre) = 100 ares = 10,000 sq. metres 
'2 t / i acres. 



XXVI WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

Are (square de'cametre) — 100 sq. metres. 
DeViare = Vlo are =: 10 sq. metres. 
Centiare = Vino are — 1 s( l- metre. 



Hectolitre = Vio cu ^ e metre = 100 litres — 22 gallons. 
Decalitre = '/loo °ube metre = 10 litres = 2 J /s gals- 
Litre, unit of capacity, = l 3 /± pint; 8 litres — 7 quarts. 

The following terms of the old system of measurements are 
still, occasionally employed: 

Livre = '/ 2 kilogramme = 1 i / i0 lb. 

Pied = i / 3 metre = 13 in. 

Aune = lVs metre = 1 yd. 11 in. 

Toise = 19/j metre = 2 yds. 4 in. 

Lieue = 2'/? miles. 

Arpent = IV25 acre. 

Setier = l 1 ^ hectolitre = 33 gals. 



The thermometers commonly used in France are the Centi- 
grade and Reaumur's. The freezing point on both of these is 
marked 0°, the boiling-point of the former 100°, of the latter 80°. 
It may easily be remembered that 5° Centigrade = 4° Reaumur 
= 9° Fahrenheit. In converting degrees of the Centigrade or 
Reaumur into degrees of Fahrenheit, 32° must be added to the 
result for temperatures above freezing; for lower temperatures the 
result must be subtracted from 32°. 

VIII. General Remarks on N. France. 

The majority of visitors to Paris will find comparatively little 
to interest them in the provinces of N. France. The scenery is 
seldom of so attractive a character as to induce a prolonged 
sojourn, whilst the towns are on a small scale mere repetitions 
of the metropolis. The taste of the present day for improvement, 
which has been so strongly developed and so magnificently 
gratified in Paris, has similarly manifested itself in the provincial 
towns. Broad and straight streets with attractive shop-windows 
are rapidly superseding old and crooked lanes ; whole quarters of 
towns are demolished, and large, regular squares take their place; 
ramparts of ancient fortifications are converted into boulevards, 
faintly resembling those at Paris. Admirably adapted as this 
utilitarian bias doubtless is to the requirements of the 19th 
century, it cannot but be profoundly regretted that the few characte- 
ristic remnants of antiquity which survived the storms of the 
wars of the Huguenots and the great Revolution, and have hitherto 
resisted the mighty centralizing influence of the metropolis, are 
now rapidly vanishing. Those who were acquainted with such 



GENERAL REMARKS ON N. FRANCE. XXVII 

towns as Rouen and Angers ten years ago will now become 
painfully aware of this fact. 

The towns of France generally present less variety than those 
of most other countries. They almost invariably rejoice in their 
boulevards, glass-arcades, jardins des plantes, theatres and cafe's, 
all feeble reproductions of the great Parisian models. Each also 
possesses its museum of natural history, interesting perhaps to 
the professional visitor, its collection of casts and antiquities and 
its picture-gallery, the latter usually consisting of a few modern 
pictures and a considerable number of mediocre works of the 
17th and 18th centuries. 

The magnificent churches, however, which most of these towns 
possess, offer attractions not to be disregarded by even the most 
hasty traveller. The Gothic style, which originated in France 
has here attained a high degree of perfection, especially in Nor- 
mandy, a district of so great importance in the middle ages. 
Architects will here find abundant material for the most attractive 
studies, and even the amateur cannot fail to be impressed by the 
gems of Gothic architecture, such as St. Ouen at Rouen or the 
cathedral of Chartres, notwithstanding the alterations which most 
of them have undergone. The Huguenots made deplorable havoc 
in the interiors of the churches, and the Revolution followed their 
example and converted the sacred edifices into "Temples of Reason." 
The task of restoring and preserving these noble monuments has 
recently been commenced and is now everywhere progressing. 

Railways. A complete network connects Paris with the 
most important provincial towns. The trains from Paris run on 
the left, those to Paris on the right line ef rails. It should 
also be observed that passengers always alight on the left side. 
The fares per English mile are approximately: 1st cl. 18 c, 
2nd cl. 1372* 3 r d c l- 10 c - The express trains ("trains express") 
generally convey first class passengers only. The first class 
carriages are inferior to those of other parts of the continent and 
resemble those on most of the English lines ; the same remark 
generally applies to the second class also. Smoking is prohibited 
if any one of the passengers object, unless, as rarely happens, 
the coupe' is specially set apart for the purpose. 

Tickets for intermediate stations are given up at the "sortie" ; 
those for termini, before the station is entered. Luggage to the 
weight of 30 kilogrammes (66 Engl, lbs.) is free ; 10 c. is charged 
for booking. The railway-porters (facteurs) are not entitled to 
remuneration, but it is usual to give a few sous for their services. 

Public omnibuses convey passengers to and from the Parisian 
stations, to which a few only of the hotels send their own 
vehicles. Fare 30—40 c, luggage 20—30 c. more. The traveller's 
taste for light literature may be gratified by a purchase at the 
book-stalls at the stations. The principal newspapers are sold 



XXVIII GENERAL REMARKS ON N. FRANCE. 

at 5 — 10 c. more here than in the town. The Petit Journal and 
Journal pour Tous cost 5 c. only. 

Hotels of the highest class and fitted up with modern acces- 
sories to comfort are encountered only in such towns as Havre, 
Rouen, Dieppe, Tours etc., where the influx of visitors is very 
great. In other places the inns generally retain their primitive 
provincial characteristics, which, were it not for the frequent 
absence of cleanliness, would prove rather an attraction than 
otherwise. Usual charges at houses of the latter description : 
R. l'/ 2 — 2 fr., L. 25—50 c, A. 50 c. As a rule the table 
d'hote dinner (3 — 4 fr.) at 5. 30 or 6 o'clock is recommended, 
as a tolerable repast is not easily procured at other places or 
hours. The dejeuner (IV2— 2 fr.) at 10 or 11 o'clock will 
generally be regarded as superfluous by the English traveller, 
especially as it consumes a considerable space of time during 
the best part of the day. A slight luncheon at a cafe, which may 
be partaken of at any hour, thus leaving the traveller entire 
master of his own time, will be found far more convenient and 
expeditious. In southern districts, as on the Loire, wine is 
usually included in the charge for dinner. In Normandy a 
species of cider is frequently drunk in addition to, or as a 
substitute for wine. The usual fee for attendance at hotels is 1 fr. 
per diem, if no charge is made in the bill; if service is charged, 
50 c. per diem in addition is generally expected. At the cafe's 
also the waiters expect a trifling gratuity, but the obnoxious 
system is not carried to such an extent as in the metropolis. 

The Churches, especially the more important, are open the 
whole day. As, however, divine service is usually celebrated in the 
morning and evening, visitors will find the middle of day or afternoon 
the most favourable time for their inspection. The attendance of 
the sacristan, or "Suisse", is generally superfluous; usual gratuity 
V2 fr., unless the contrary is stated in the following pages. 

The Museums are open to the public on Sundays and 
Thursdays from 12 to 4 o'clock and are often crowded. Visitors 
may always obtain access at other times for a gratuity (1 fr.). 
Catalogues may be borrowed from the concierge. 

The most trustworthy information with regard to the depar- 
ture of trains is contained in the Indicateur des Chemins de Fer, 
published weekly and sold (40 c.) at all the stations. 

Railway time is always that of Paris, whkh in many places 
differs considerably from the real time. Thus the Strasbourg time 
is 23 min. before, that of Brest 27 min. behind railway time. 

Considerable English communities are resident in many of 
the towns mentioned in the following pages and opportunities of 
attending English churches are frequent (e. g. at Calais, Boulogne, 
St. Omer, Dieppe, Havre, Rouen, Caen, Tours etc.). 



1. ARRIVAL IN PARIS. 

On arriving at the railway-station the traveller is recommended 
at once to secure a fiacre ("restez pour attendre les bagages"), 
as the number of these vehicles is sometimes limited. It should 
be observed that the driver expects 25 c. for this waiting if 
under, and the full charge for an hour if over 1 / i hr. When 
apartments are not easily procured, as will be the case during 
the time of the Exhibition, the traveller is recommended to 
engage his vehicle a Vheure, as otherwise every stoppage entails 
the payment of a course. After having obtained the printed 
number from the driver, he may then return to have his luggage 
inspected by the officials of the Douane, unless this has already 
been done at the frontier, which is the case if the passenger is 
not provided with a through-ticket. This formality ended, a 
facteur (15 — 25 c.) is desired to convey the luggage to the 
fiacre. Fares, within the precincts of the city, for 1 — 2 pers. 

1 fr. to 1 fr. 40 c, for 2 — 4 pers. 1 fr. 10 c. to 1 fr. 50 c; luggage 
25 c. per package; driver's fee 10 — 20 c. (comp. p. 20). 

The omnibuses, the conductors of which generally endeavour 
to take possession of the traveller and his luggage, are not re- 
commended, unless they actually pass the door of the house 
where the traveller intends to alight (fare 30 c, from midnight 
till 6 a. m. 60 c, luggage 30—50 c, comp p. 20). 

Families or large parties will find an Omnibus de Famille 
a comfortable and comparatively inexpensive conveyance. These 
vehicles generally belong to the hotel-keepers, from whom they 
must be ordered by letter, stating by what train the party may 
be expected. Or application may be made to the Chef de Gare-f. 
From the stations du Nord, de l'Est and de l'Ouest 5 fr. are 
charged for an omnibus for 6 pers., 8 fr. for 14 pers., about 

2 rwt. of luggage being allowed for the party. From the 
stations de Lyon and d'Orle"ans the charge amounts to about 1 fr. 
for each person. 

Travellers arriving at night may prefer to engage the services 
of a porter (facteur) and proceed on foot to the nearest hotel. 
Near the Station du Nord may be mentioned the Hotel Cailleux, 
(R. 2 — 4 fr.), and the Orand Hotel du Chemin de Fer du Nord, 



t A Monsieur le Chef de Qare de la Station a. Paris. 

Monsieur, je vous prie d'avoir bien Vobligeance de me /aire renir au 
train de . . heures un omnibus de famille de . . places. 

Veuillez bien, Monsieur, excuser mon importuniU et recevoir a Vavance 
mes remerciments et Vassurance de ma haute consideration. 

Beedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition, i 



2 1. ARRIVAL IN PARIS. Preliminary 

both in the Place Rouhaix (Plan, Red 10), opposite the station. 

— Hotel de St Quentin, Rue St. Quentin 27. These hotels are 
also restaurants. The Restaurant of Meysick, corner of the Rue 
Lafayette and the Boulevard de Magenta, is also recommended. 

— At the Strasbourg Station (de 1'Est) may be mentioned the 
Hotel de St. Laurent, Rue de Metz 4, to the left on leaving the 
station. Then in the Boulevard de Strasbourg: 78 Grand Hotel 
de Strasbourg, 74 *H6tel de VEurope with restaurant, 87 Hotel 
de Champagne et de Mulhouse, 72 Grand Hotel de Paris. — At 
the Station de VOuest (for Havre, Dieppe etc.) Hotel de Mayence, 
24 Rue d' Amsterdam. 

In order to avoid all unnecessary loss of time , the traveller 
should , if possible, write the forms of application for permission 
to visit the Hotel de Ville, etc. before leaving home, omitting 
however to close them, as sealed letters are liable to seizure 
at the custom-house. Suitable forms will in each case be found 
in the following pages. 

To ensure civility from servants, officials and others, the tra- 
veller in France is cautioned not to omit the inevitable "s'il vous 
plait", when making a request, or even when ordering refreshments 
at a cafe or restaurant. Thus "le cordon, s'il vous plait" is the ex- 
pression usually employed in requesting the concierge to open 
the house-door. It should, moreover, be borne in mind that it 
is customary to address persons of humble station as "Monsieur" , 
"Madame", or "Mademoiselle". 

The policercen (Sergents de Ville) who are to be met with in 
every street and place of public resort, are always ready, when 
civilly questioned , to furnish strangers with every information in 
their power. The Parisian police are so efficient and well-orga- 
nized a body, that street-robberies are of far less frequent occur- 
rence than in most other large towns. It is, however, advisable 
to be on one's guard against pickpockets, who are as adroit as 
the police are vigilant. 

Should the traveller require medical advice during his stay 
in Paris, he will do well to note down the address of some 
respectable physician residing in the neighbourhood of his apart- 
ments. Among others may be mentioned: iJr. Campbell, Rue 
Royale 24; Dr. Chepmell, Rue de Suresnes 21; ])r. Churchill, 
Rue Scribe 7; Dr. Davison,, Rue de Luxembourg 29; Dr. Higgins, 
Rue de Rivoli 212; Dr. Jahr (homoeopath), Passage Saulnier 17; 
Dr. James, Rue de Luxembourg 51; Dr. Maccarthy, Rue de la 
Ville l'Eveque 15; Sir Joseph Olliffe, Rue St. Florentin 2; Dr. 
(Hterburg, Rue Richelieu 106; Dr. Rayner, Rue du Chateau 
des Fleurs 2, Champs Elyse'es; Dr. Shrimpton, Rue d'An- 
jon 17. — Oculists: Dr. Sichel, Chausse'e d'Antin 50; Dr. Her- 
schel, Rue Laffitte 18. -- Dentists: Mr. George, Rue de Rivoli 24; 



Information. 2. HOTELS. 3 

Mr. Rogers, Rue St. Honors' 270; Mr. Seymour, Rue Castiglione 10; 
Mr. Weber, Place Vend6me 16. — Chemists and druggists: Gal- 
lois, Place Vendome 2; Hogg, Rue Castiglione 2; Pariss, Place 
Vendome 28; Roberts and Co., Place Vendome 23; Swann, Rue 
Castiglione 12. 

In the case of a serious or tedious illness, the patient cannot 
do better than enter one of the regular sanitary establishments. 
The Maison Municipale de Sante, Rue du Faubourg St. Denis 200, 
deserves special commendation; terms 4 — 15 fr. per diem, incl. 
board, lodging, medical attendance and medicines. Similar private 
establishments are more expensive, such as the Maison de Sante 
de M. le Docteur Plouviez, 39 Rue de Marbeuf, pleasantly situated; 
Etablissement Hydrotherapique de Tivoli (see p. 19), 102 Rue 
St. Lazare etc. 

Legal advisers : Mr. Castaignet , Rue Louis le Grand 28 ; Mr. 
Digweed, Rue Colyse"e 5, Champs Elyse'es; Mr. Maugham, Fau- 
bourg St. Honore' 54; Mr. Smith, Rue Ste. Anne 48. 

2. HOTELS A'ND MAISONS MEUBLEES. 

Although the average hotel-charges of the last few years are 
here stated, it need hardly be observed that during the present 
year the vast influx of visitors to the Exhibition will necessarily 
produce a marked effect on the price of every commodity in 
the French metropolis. There is, however, reason to hope that 
measures will be taken to prevent the wholesale extortion which 
is two commonly practised on such occasions. Those who are 
desirous of avoiding a most disagreeable surprise should of course 
ascertain charges beforehand. 

If a Prolonged Stay is made at an hotel, the bill should 
be demanded every 3 or 4 days, by which means errors, whether 
accidental or designed, are more easily detected. In the case of 
a departure early in the morning, the bill should be obtained 
over night; it is a favourite practice to withhold the bill till the 
last moment, when the hurry and confusion render overcharges 
less liable to discovery. 

Although Attendance is always an item in the hotel-bill, it is 
usual to give the head-waiter and the concierge a fee of 1 — 2 fr. 
per week, and the under-waiter by whom the traveller has been 
served, about 2 fr. In a few cases the payment for service is 
left to the discretion of the traveller, who is expected to give 
Y 2 — 1 fr. daily. As this is not usually distributed among the 
servants till the end of the traveller's stay, an occasional extra 
gratuity will tend greatly to ensure civility. 

Travellers are cautioned against keeping Articles of Value in 
the drawers or cupboards of their rooms. They should be en- 
trusted to the care of the landlord, or sent to a banker. 



4 2. HOTELS. Preliminary 

The largest hotels in the town, and perhaps on the entire con- 
tinent, are the two following: *Grand Hotel du Louvre, situated 
between the Louvre and Palais Royal (Plan, white 7), a huge, 
palatial edifice, the construction of which cost upwards of 50,000 1. 
The number of rooms is about 400, and upwards of 300 persons 
frequently dine at the table d'hote. *Grand Hotel, in the Boule- 
vard des Capucines, nearly opposite the Rue de la Paix (Plan, 
red 5). It contains 70 magnificently furnished saloons and about 
700 bedrooms, 5 dining-rooms, a telegraph-office, baths, billiard- 
rooms , smoking-rooms , reading-rooms etc. — The charges in 
both these establishments are as follows : R. 4 fr. and upwards, 
B. (coffee and bread and butter) 1^2 fr., table d'hote at (3 p. m. 
7 — 8 fr. incl. wine, A. 2 fr. for the first and 1 fr. for each sub- 
sequent day. — Both these hotels are replete with every comfort, and 
are especially recommended to men of business , as travellers 
are sure to find accommodation at any hour of the day or night. 
Many, however, will prefer the smaller, quieter and less ex- 
pensive establishments , especially when ladies and children are 
of the party. 

Out of the vast number of hotels which Paris contains a 
few only of the best- situated and most respectable are here 
enumerated. 

Hotel des Trois Empereurs, opposite the Hotel du Louvre, 
entrance in the Rue de Rivoli 170, table d'hote at 6 p. m. 4 fr. 
incl. wine. Adjacent to the latter is the Maison Meublee du 
Pavilion Rohan, Rue de Rivoli 172. 

The following six hotels , situated in the Rue de Rivoli, 
opposite the garden of the Tuileries, and principally frequented 
by English travellers, are of the highest class and expensive: 
*H6tel Meurice, 228; Hotel Windsor, 226: Hotel Brighton, 218; 
Hotel Wagram, 208; Hotel Rivoli, 202; Hotel de la Place du 
Palais Royal, 170. — The same remark applies to: *H6tel Bristol, 
Place Vendome 5; Hotel de Lille et d' Albion, Rue St. Honore 211. 
*H6tel du Rliin, Place Vendome 4 (PI, red 5) , table d'hote 
excl. wine 3y 2 fr-* R - 3 fr. and upwards. 

Grand Hotel de la Rue Royale, in the animated Rue Royale 
(23), leading from the Place de la Concorde to the Place de la 
Madeleine. 

Hotel Meyerbeer. Avenue Matignon, Champs Elysees, with good 
restaurant on the ground-floor , somewhat distant from the prin- 
cipal sights of the city. — Hotel Miromenil, 41 Rue Miromenil. 
In the two broad and handsome streets which lead from the 
Place Vendome (PI. red. 6) to the Boulevard and the Rue de 
Rivoli respectively, are situated the following hotels, most of 
them much frequented by English travellers, all good, but expen- 
sive: in the Rue Castiglione, No. 4, Clarendon, 5 Londres, 11 Liver- 
pool, 12 Castiglione; in the Rue de la Paix, No. 8 *Mirabeau, 



Information. 'i . H ( I T E L S . 5 

11 and 13 Westminster, 20 Hollande, 22 lies Britanniques, 
25 Douvres, 2S Canterbury, 32 de la Paix. 

in the Rue Neuve des Augustins, leading to the Rue de la 
Paix, near the Boulevard des Capucines, are the following less 
pretending hotels, which are well spoken of: No. 57, Hotel de 
I Empire, 48 Hotel de I Orient, 55 de I'Amiraute, 40 Maison Meublee 
with table d'hote at 6, 67 -"Chatham. 

In the Boulevard des Capucines , opposite the Grand Hotel, 
two large new Maisons Meublees, Nos. 25 and 29. 

* Hotel de Calais, Rue Neuve des Capucines, near the Place 
Vendome, R. 2-10 fr., B. 1 V 2 , L. %, A. % fr., D., if ordered 
at the usual hour, 4 fr. 

*Urand Hotel de France, Rue Laffitte 31 (PI., red 7), leading 
to the Boulevard des Italiens, a quiet and comfortable house, 
tables d'hote, charges moderate. — No. 24, Hotel Byron, not 
expensive, good attendance, D. inc. W. at o'cl. i l / 2 fr-; 40 
Hotel Lafitte. 

*H6tel de France et d'Angleterre, Rue Richelieu 72 (PI., red 7), 
principal entrance in the side street, Rue des Filles St. Thomas; 
table d'hote at 6 o'cl. 4 fr. incl. wine, private dinner after 
5 o'clock 4 — 6 fr. , pension 16 fr. 

Grand Hotel de Lyon, near the last, 12 Rue des Filles St. 
Thomas, D. at 5. 45 o'cl. 3*/ 2 fr. 

Hotel de Valois, Rue Richelieu 69. Near it (No. 12J Hotel 
des Hautes Alpes, near the Theatre Francais, and many others in 
the neighbourhood. 

Hotel de Custille, Rue Richelieu 101, corner of the Boulevard 
des Italiens. 

The hotels in the Rue Favart, Place Boieldieu etc., at the back 
of the OpeVa Comique, are advantageously situated for the visitor 
to Paris, less expensive than those of the Boulevards and equally 
comfortable: Hotel Richelieu, Rue Marivaux , R. 4 fr. , 110 charge 
for service; Hotel Favart, adjoining the last. Here, too, are 
several excellent restaurants, the Grande Taverne de Londres etc., 
see p. 13. 

In the Cite" Bergere (PI., red 7) several unpretending hotels: 
No. 8, Hotel de la Haute Vienne; Balavia etc. 

In the new Rue Lafayette, Square Montholon (PI., red 7), 
Hotel du Square Montholon; beyond it, in the direction of the 
Boulevards, the large new Hotel del Espagna y America; then 
the Hotel d'Angleterre et d' Allemagne. 

Hotel des Deux Mondes, Rue d'Antin 8 (PI., red 5), next the 
Marche St. Honore" and the Place Vendome. 

* Hotel des Etrangers, Rue Vivienne 3 (PI., red 7), near the 
Palais Royal ; table d'hote 5 fr. incl. wine, R. from 2V2 fr-, L. 1 fr. 
A. 75 c. ; not to be confounded with the Hotel de Widter Scott et 



g a. HOTELS. Preliminary 

des Etrangers at the back of the Exchange, and the Hotel des 
Etrangers in the Quartier Latin (p. 5). 

*H6tel du Grand Perigord, Rue de Grammont 2, between the 
Palais Royal and the Boulevard des Italiens , R. 4, table d'hote 
4 fr. ; No. 1, Hotel de Manchester. 

'■Hotel Bergere , Rue Bergere 32 and 34 (PI., red 7) , an old 
and respectable house, near the Boulevards, R. 2V2, B. IY4, 
A. 3 / 4 fr. 

Hotel de Baviere, Rue du Conservatoire 17 (PI., red 7), R. 3 fr. 
and upwards, B l i / 2 , D. at 6 o'cl. £*/ 2 fr. 

Hotel de Lyon et de Berlin , Rue du Conservatoire 7, is well 
spoken of. 

Hotel du Pavilion de I' Echiquier, Rue de l'Echiquier 36, corner of 
the Rue Hauteville, leading to the Boulevards Bonne Nouvelle and 
Poissonniere, R. 2—5, B. IV4, *table d'hote 4 fr., L. 60, A. 50 c. 
Hotel Violet , Passage Violet , Rue Hauteville 29 , and Rue du 
Faubourg Poissonniere 36, near the Boulevards, but distant from 
the Palais Royal, R. from 2, D. 4, L. 3 / 4 , A. */« fr. 

Hotel de France et d'Amerique, Rue de Trevise 10 (PI., red 7), 
R. 2—3, B. 1, D. inc. W. 4 fr. 

In the Rue du Helder (PL, red 5), near the Boulevard 
des Italiens, are situated a number of hotels, where the charges 
are more moderate than in those on the Boulevard itself: Nr. 8, 
Hotel du Tibre , not expensive , a good restaurant in the same 
house; Hotel du Helder 9 and 10, *de Richmond 11, recommen- 
ded for families, but expensive ; Lancaster 22. 

Hotel de Bade, Boulevard des Italiens 32, and Rue du Helder 6 ; 
opposite to it, Hotel des Italiens, Boulevard des Italiens 23, 
R. 5 fr., L. 1 fr., A. 1 fr. , B. l'/a fr. 

At the extremity of the Rue Taitbout, next to the Boulevard 
des Italiens, Nos. 4 and 6, Hotel d'Espagne et de Hongrie, well 
spoken of. 

Hotel de I'Opera, a new house, Boulevard des Capucines 5. 

Grand Hotel Bore et des Panoramas , Boulevard Montmartre 
(PI., red?) 3; No. 10, Grand Hotel de la Terrasse, with reading-room. 

In the Boulevard Poissonniere: No. 30, Hotel Beau Sejour, 
R. from 2 fr., B. V/ 2 fr. ; 32, Hotel St. Phar , frequented by 
French visitors from the S. provinces. Hotel Bougemont, corner of 
the Boulevard and the Rue Rougemont. 

Grand Hotel Louvois, in the quiet Place Louvois, Rup Richelieu 
(PI., red 7J, opposite the Bibliotheque Imperiale, table d'hote 4, 
R. from 4 fr., B. IV4, A. 3 / 4 fr. ; an old house, most of the rooms 
small. 

Hotel des Tuileries, Rue St. Honore 117, a German house, 
reading and smoking rooms. 

Hotel de France et de Champagne, Rue Montmartre 132, near 
the Bourse, B. 1 fr., no table d'hote. 



Information. 2. HOTELS. f 

Hotel de Tours, at the back of the Bourse, Rue Notre Dame 
des Victoires 36, a hotel garni, situated between the Boulevards 
and the Palais Royal. 

Hotel Ste. Marie, Rue de Rivoli 83 (PI., white 7), comer of 
the Rue de l'Arbre Sec , not far from the Pont Neuf , in a very 
central situation , R. 2 — 4 fr. 

Hotel Coquillilre, Rue Coquillifere , near the Palais Royal, 
restaurant and table d'hote, D. at 5. If) p'cl. 3 fr. excl. wine. 

Hotel Garni Wienrich, Rue Mazagran 11 (PI., red 7), near the 
Boulevard Bonne Nouvelle, R. from 2, B. l'/jjfr. 

Hotel de France, Rue de CaTre, R. from 2'/4 fr- > frequented 
chiefly by men of business. 

The hotels of the Boulevards de Strasbourg, de Sebastopol 
and du Prince Eugene are more distant from the focus of traffic, 
but it may be convenient to be acquainted with the names of 
several, as the influx of visitors to those already mentioned will 
probably be overwhelming during the present summer. Hotels 
in the Boulevard de Strasbourg, see p. 2. In the Boulevard de 
Sevastopol, No. 20, Hotel de Sebastopol, 112 Hotel Meuble; in the 
Square des Arts et Metiers, Hotel Vauban, opposite the Theatre 
de la Gaite; at the junction of the Boulevard du Prince Eugene 
(No. 6) with the Boulevard du Temple, Hotel International. 

The hotels on the Left Bank of the Seine are also less 
suitable for travellers whose stay in Paris is limited, as they are 
too distant from the Boulevards and the Palais Royal, where the 
principal objects of attraction are situated. The hotels of the 
Faubourg St. Germain are mostly characterized by an aristocratic, 
air [Hotel des Ambassadeurs, Rue de Lille 26; Hotel des MinUtres, 
Rue de l'Universite' 32, etc.), those of the Quartier Latin are of 
far more modest pretensions and are chiefly frequented by students. 

The following Hotels Garnis on the 1. bank of the Seine, near 
the Pont Royal are respectable and not expensive: Hotel de France, 
Rue de Beaune 5 ; Hotel de Lorraine, Rue de Beaune 7 (PI., 
white 5); Hotel de Beam. Rue de Lille 38. 

In the Boulevard St. Michel, beyond the lie du Palais, No. 6 
(to the r. by the fountain I, Hotel des Prineipautes; opposite to 
it, No. 3, Hotel ,1'Harcourt; Nos. 14, IS, 21, 41, 43 are Maisons 
Meublees. 

The * Hotel de Londres, Rue Bonapaite 3 (PI., white 6), near 
the Institut de France , is a favourite resort of scientific men. 

Maison Meublee, Rue Bonaparte 27, a clean house, with pleasant 
court, R. 25 — 60 fr. per month. 

Hotel de France, Rue Bonapaite 50, looms at all prices. 

Pension Clerambault, Rue Monsieur-le-Piince 39 (PI , white 8), 
near the Jardin du Luxembourg, about 200 fr per month. 

The following Hotels Garnis in the Quartier Latin are 
respectable houses, and suitable for the traveller of moderate 



8 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

requirements: *Maison Meublee, Rue Monsieur-le-Prince 9, 
R. 20 — 25 fr. per month; * Hotel Corneille, Rue Corneille 5, 
R. 2— 2 l / 2 fr. per day, 30—60 fr. per month; Hotel des Etrangers, 
Rue Racine 2~, R. 30 — 60 fr. per month ; Hotel St. Pierre , Rue 
de l'Ecole de Medecine 4, R. 25— 50 fr. per month, table d'hote 
at 5. 30 and 6. 30 p. m. , B. and 1). excl. wine 65—70 fr. per 
month. — Single rooms at moderate charges can nowhere be pro- 
cured so easily as in the Quartier Latin, the great majority of 
the houses being fitted up for the reception of lodgers. — *H6tel 
Britanni'iue , Cour du Commerce , near the Rue de l'Ancienne 
Come'die (PI., white 8), a house of modest pretension. 

Between Notre Dame and the Jardin des Plantes, on the Quai 
de la Tournelle, opposite the bridge of that name (PI., white 10), 
is situated the *H6tel de la Tour d Argent, a small but clean and 
comfortable house (R. 2 fr.). Opposite to this hotel is situated 
the Ecole de Natation de iUe St. Louis, where the water of the 
Seine is much purer than in the swimming-baths farther down 
the river. 

For a stay of some duration , the following lodging-houses 
may be mentioned as quiet and pleasantly situated: Maison 
Valin, Avenue des Champs Elyse'es 67 and 09; Maison Neu- 
mann, Rue des Petits Hotels 12; Hotel des Provinces, Rue 
Oeoffroy-Marie 2, Faubourg Montmartre. — Quiet lodgings on 
the 1. bank of the Seine may be found near the Luxembourg, 
opposite to the garden, in the Rue Vaugirard etc. 

3. RESTAURANTS. 

Paris is indisputably the cradle of high culinary art. The 
ordinary tables d'hote convey to the mind but a feeble idea of 
the extent to which this art is carried ; the "chefs d'eeuvre" must 
be sought for in the first-class restaurants. It must, however, 
be borne in mind that in one of these establishments the taste 
of the connoisseur can hardly be adequately gratified at a less 
expenditure than 10 — 15 fr. 

A few of the best and most respectable , especially in the 
most frequented situations (Palais Royal , Boulevards etc.) are 
here enumerated. The charges are mentioned approximately, but 
it should be observed that they have been rising steadily within 
the last few years in consequence of the enormous rents paid for 
these establishments. 

In the large restaurants the portions are usually very ample, 
so that one portion suffices for two persons or two portions for 
three. The visitor should therefore avoid dining alone. It 
is even allowable to order one portion for three persons. In the 
establishments of the better class, ladies may always without the 
slightest impropriety be of the party. 



Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 



9 



At some of the less fashionably situated restaurants (see p. 13) 
the viands are as good as those in the restaurants of the Palais 
Royal and the boulevards, but less expensive. 

The Bill of Fare often consists of a book of many pages, 
bound in velvet. Whatever dish is selected, it is sure to be found 
unexceptionable of its kind. At the smaller restaurants it is 
not prudent to order any dish which is not mentioned in the 
"carte du jour" . The subjoined list is given with a view to make 
the stranger acquainted with the names of the commonest dishes 
rather than with those of Parisian delicacies. The triumphs of 
Parisian culinary skill consist in the different kinds of filet de 
breuf, fricandeaus, mayonnaises and sauces. 

Huilres, oysters 1 fir. 10 c. — 2 a /2 fr- per doz. 

Potaye a la Julienne, soup containing finely cut vegetables. 

Potaye a la puree aux croutons, a kind of pea-soup with dice 
of toasted bread. 

Comichons, pickled cucumbers. 

Oseille, sorrel, very popular in Paris. 

Pommes, potatoes (it is not customary to add de terre"). 

Pommes sauties, potatoes stewed in butter. 

Pommes a la mattre d'hotel, potatoes with parsley and butter. 

Puree de pommes, mashed potatoes. 

Petits pois, green peas (au sucre or au beurre.) 

Haricots verts, green beans. 

Haricots blancs, white beans, a standard dish among the French 
middling classes. 

Flayeolets, a superior quality of white beans. 

Canard aux navels, roasted duck with turnips, a popular dish. 

Pieds de cochon a. la Sainte Menehould, pig's pettitoes sea- 
soned, a favourite dish, often exposed to view in shop-windows 

Beefsteak Men cuit, beefsteak well-done, saiynant underdone 

Filet de Bauf, a favourite di-di of the French. 

Chateaubriand, a kind of beefsteak, but thicker. 

Fricandeau, larded veal-cutlet. 

Oiyot, leg of mutton. 

Foie de veau, calves' liver. 

Roynons, kidneys. 

Poulel, chicken. L'n quart de poulet is a sufficient portion 
for one person. 

Filets de chevreuil, roasted venison. 

Perdrix, partridge; aux choux, with cabbage and sausages. 

Perdreaux, young partridges. 

Sole au yratin, fried sole. 

Turbot, turbot; Barbu, a superior description. 

Bale, roach. Maquereau, mackerel. Aloules, mussels. 

Omelettes of different kinds, aux confitures, aux fines herbes, 
au fromaye, au rhum, aux roynons etc. 



10 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

Beignets de pommes, apple-fritters. 

Meringues, cream-tarts. 

Carafe frappee, carafl'e of iced water. 

Vin frappee, wine in ice. 

The wines principally in vogue are (Bordeaux) St. Emilion 
and St. Julien (3 — 4 fr.) , Chateau Larose , Ch. Latour and Ch. 
Lafitte (6 — 8 fr.) ; Haute Sauternes is a white Bordeaux wine 
(3 — 4 fr.) ; Pommard and Volnay (4 — 5 fr.), Romanee and 
Chamhertin (5 — 8 fr.) are wines of Burgundy. 

Fromage Suisse is a kind of cream-cheese ; Fromage de Brie 
and Qruyere are also popular ; Camembert and Roquefort are most 
esteemed in winter. — The long rolls are termed Flutes, the 
round Gaieties. 

It may also be observed that if the diner partakes of the 
"hors d'ceuvre" presented to him between the courses, consisting 
of radishes, prawns (crevettes) etc., his bill will swell into pro- 
portions for which he is not prepared. 

The ordinary red table-wine is usually drunk mixed with, 
water, a precaution highly necessary in the inferior restaurants. 
A whole bottle is placed on the table for each person, unless an 
express order is given for half a bottle only. 

The Parisian dinner-hour is between 5 and 8 o'clock. The 
principal restaurants are generally crowded between 6 and 7 ; 
strangers will therefore do well to dine between 5 and 6. 

"Oarcon, V addition, s'il vous platt!" "Waiter, the bill!" The 
waiter then brings the account from the "dame de comptoir'' ; on 
receiving payment he expects a fee of 5 or 6 sous (4 — 5 in the 
inferior restaurants). The attention shown to the regular frequenters 
of a restaurant is of course mainly dependent on the fees which 
the waiters receive from them. 

Travellers may generally avail themselves of one of the Tables 
d'llbte (5 or 6 p. m.) at the hotels without being resident in the 
house, but in some cases they are required to give previous 
notice of their intention. 

The "Diners a Prix-fixe" have within the last few years 
come into vogue. They resemble the tables d'hote, with the 
exception that the diner is at liberty to come at any hour between 
5 and 8 (dej. from 10 to 1), and is enabled to dine much more 
expeditiously; or, if so disposed, he may prolong his repast to 
an hour or more. Payment in some instances is made at the door 
on entering. In cases where a whole bottle of table-wine is in- 
cluded in the charge for dinner, half a bottle of a better quality 
may always be obtained in its stead. Meats and vegetables are 
served separately; those who prefer them together must make 
known their wish. The cuisine is scarcely inferior to that of 
the best restaurants ; these establishments are recommended to 
those who are not au fait at ordering a French dinner. 



Information. 3. RESTAURANTS. 11 

Diners it Prix-fixe in the Palais Royal and Vicinity. 

The charges in each case vary according to the quality of the wine desired. 
North Side (Galerie Beaujolais), No. 88, Tissot, dejeuner 

1 ft. 25 c, diner 2 fr., with better wine 2 l / 2 ft. 

West Side (Galerie Montpensier) , the pleasantest on hot 
afternoons because in the shade: No. 65, Adolphe Tavernier jeune, 
D. 2 or 2'/ 2 ft- ; 40, *Moureau, same charge; 29, Hedouin, D. 2 fr. ; 
No. 23, Catelain ("Restaurant de Paris"), D. 2 ft. ; 36, Cafe des 
Mille Colonnes, de'j. i'/ 2 , D. 3 ft.; Cinq Arcades, D. 2 or 'i 1 ^ ft- 

East Side (Galerie Valois), No. 172, Restaurant Valois, de'j. 
l'/ 4 , D. 2 or 272iY.; 173 « Catelain dine, dej. IV4, D- 2«/ 2 ft- J 167, 
Richelieu, same charge; 160, Lemonnier ("Restaurant Henri IV."), 
de'j. l l /4, D. 1ft. 60 c; 154, Diner Europeen, de'j. 1 fr. 90 c, 
D. 3 or 3 3 /4 ft-, military music opposite this restaurant in the 
afternoon; 145, Tavernier dine, de'j. IV4, D. 2 or l^l^ix.; 137, 
Richard, same charges ; 123, Restaurant du Havre, D. 1 fr. 30 c. ; 
116, Demory (Restaurant de la Rotonde), de'j. IV4, D- 2 or 2 i /- i ft. 

Near the Palais Royal and the Louvre : Pestel ("Restaurant 
St. Honors'"), Rue St. Honore' 248 (PI., white 5), opposite the 
Place du Carrousel, beefsteak 1 fr. 

Colbert, Rue Vivienne 2, opposite the N. side of the Palais 
Royal, de'j. l^fr., D. 1 fr. 80 c 

Catelain, Rue Vivienne 36, D. 2 fr. 

Restaurant du Bourgeois de Paris, Passage du Saumon 78, at 
the entrance from the Rue Montmartre 74, dej. 1 fr. 90 0. or 

2 fr. 50 c 

*Beaurain, Rue Notre Dame des Victoires 16, D. inc. W. ; 
simple but good. 1 fr. 80 c, from 5 to 7 p. m , a new table 
being arranged every V4 nr - i ladies not admitted. 

Maison Dewamin, Rue du Mail 9, a similar establishment, 
dinner commences at 5, ladies admitted. 

Arnold, Rue Coquilliere 33 (PI., white 7), like the two last, 
D. 1 fr. 20 c. 

Restaurant Montesquieu, Rue et Passage Montesquieu, D. 
1 ft. 90 c 

It may be observed that the proprietors of the smaller restaurants 
in the Palais Royal devote more attention to the elegance of their 
saloons and the variety of their bills of fare than to the real 
excellence of the viands. Such establishments cannot be recom- 
mended as places of regular resort. 

Diners a Prix-fixe in the Boulevards etc. 
Diner de Paris (Boulevard Montmartre 12, entrance in the 
Passage Jouffroy 11; PL, red 7), de'j. 2, D. 4ft., the latter in- 
cluding a bottle of table-wine or half a bottle of superior quality. 
*D"mer de Commerce (Passage des Panoramas 24), dfjeuner 
1 fr. 60 c, diner 3 ft., couvert d'enfant 1 ft. 50 c. 



12 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

Diner du Rocker, Passage Jouffroy 16, de"j. l 3 / 4 , D. 3 fr. good 
tor the price. 

Pusch, Rue de la Bourse 3, a good and respectable, although 
very unpretending restaurant, dej. 1, D. 1 fr. 

Restaurants in the Palais Royal and Vicinity. 

North Side: No. 98, *Les trois Frires Provencaux, excellent 
wines; No. 81, *Vefour (beefsteak l 3 / 4 , Mayonnaise de saumon 
2 i / i fr.). These two are the most celebrated of the old-established 
Parisian restaurants. 

Two others in the Palais Royal of scarcely inferior reputation 
are: Duchesne (N.E. side, Nos. 107, 109) and Douix, Cafe Corazza 
(S.W. side, Nos. 9, 11). 

West Side: Galerie de Chartres 4 — 7, is the shop ol *Chevet, 
an unrivalled emporium of delicacies; dinners, however, are not 
provided. Chevet is restaurateur at the Cursaal at Homburg. 

Au Bauf a la Mode, Rue Valois 8, at the extremity of the 
Galerie d'Orleans in the Palais Royal, ample portions, good wine. 
'Cafe de Danemarc, Rue St. Honore 190 (p. 16). 

Restaurants in the Boulevards etc. 

The even numbers are on the N., the uneven on the S. side. 

Boulevard des Capucines (N. side), *C aft- Restaurant 
de la Paix, first class establishment (beefsteak l^fr.). 

Boulevard des Ita liens. No. 38, *Cafe Foy, corner of 
the Chausse'e d'Antin , excellent but expensive; No. 20, *Maison 
Doree; No. 16, *Cafe Riche; Cafe Anylais. These establishments 
are first rate and consequently expensive. 

*Qarny, Passage de 1'Ope'ra 10, at the end of the Galerie de 
1'Horloge, Nr. 24; D. 2, dej. !V 2 fr. 

No. 29, *Cafe du Helder, dejeuner on the ground-floor, dinner 
in the entresol, expensive (filet i x j%, V2 fowl 4 fr.). 

Boulevard Montmartre. Diner de Paris and *D1ner de 
Commerce see p. 11. Those who desire to make acquaintance with 
the Italian cuisine are recommended to go to *Qalliani, Passage 
des Panoramas, Galerie Montmartre 10 and 12. 

Boulevard Poissonni ere. No. 30, Vachette, of the first 
class; No. 26, *Desiree-Beaurain; No. 8, "Restaurant de France 
(beefsteak 1 fr. 20 c, mayonnaise de volaille 1 1 / 2 fr. j ; No. 2, 
Cafe Poissonniire. 

At the corner of the Rue Rougemont: Hotel et Restaurant 
Rouyemont (beefsteak 1 fr.' 25 c). 

Boulevard Bonne Nouvelle. No. 24, Restaurant Bonne 
Nouvelle. 

Boulevard St. Denis. No. 14, Make, good wines, well 
known for the excellence of its ''moules" (beefsteak 1 fr.) 



Information. "S. RESTAURANTS. 13 

Boulevard du Temple. No. 29, *Bonvalet, moderate 
charges. 

Place delaBastille. No. 10, Rive Charamante, good and not 
expensive. 

The two following restaurants deserve commendation, although 
less fashionable than many of the above-mentioned: *Philippe, 
Rue Montorgueil 70 (PI., red 7) and *Brebant, Rue Neuve St. Eus- 
tache 10 (filet de sole 2, beefsteak 17 2 fr)- 

The Maison Duval, Rue Montesquieu 6, owns a number of 
excellent, though unpretending eating-houses, termed "Etablisse- 
ments de Bouillon" : Boulevard St. Martin ; Boulevard de Sevasto- 
pol 144, Rue Rivoli 47, Rue Montmartre 143, Rue des Filles St. 
Thomas 7, Rue de la Monnaie 21, Rue Sartine 10, Rue Beau- 
regard 2, Boulevard St. Michel 26. The charges in these houses 
are very moderate: beefsteak 50 c, table-wine 80 c. per bottle. 
Other houses occasionally style themselves "Maison Duval", but 
are of a very inferior description. 

*Lucas, Rue de la Madeleine 14 (PI., red 5), substantial English 
cuisine, Engl, beer, not expensive. 

*Restaurant de France, Place de la Madeleine 9, Engl, cuisine, 
Engl, beer, moderate charges. 

Weber, Rue Royale 25 ("His Lordship's Larder") , an Engl, 
restaurant of humble pretension. 

*Byron's Tavern, Rue Favart 2, corner of the Rue Gre"try, 
Engl, cuisine, Engl, beer, good wines, D. at 6 o'clock 3 fr. 

*Orande Taverne de Londres, Place Boieldieu, in the rear of the 
Opeora Comique, everything excellent and not expensive, ample 
portions, filet 1, beefsteak 1 fr.). 

*Mire Morel, Rue Favart 8, simple but excellent cuisine. 
*Cafe Voisin, Rue St. Honore* 261. 

Champeaux, Place de la Bourse 13, of the first class. 

Cafe Talma, Rue Neuve des Petits Champs, Passage Choiseul. 

Among the numerous restaurants in the Champs Ely sees, 
the following are recommended. 

Restaurant au Petit Moulin Rouge, Avenue d'Antin , opposite 
the S.W. pavilion of the Palais de l'lndustrie (PI:, red 3), dinner 
in the open air, or in the pavilion. 

Ledoyen, to the 1. at the commencement of the Champs Ely- 
se*es ; *Marigny, to the r. by the Cirque de l'lmpe'ratriee, good 
cellar; *Summer and Loesch, Avenue Matignon, by the Circus; 
*Laurent, Avenue d'Antin 23; *Ravel, Rue Neuve 2 and Avenue 
de l'lmpe'ratriee (PI., red 1), conveniently situated for visitors to 
the Bois de Boulogne. 

Table d'hote for those of moderate requirements at Beaurain's, 
Rue Notre Dame desVictoires 16, incl. wine 1 fr. 80 c, 5 to 7 o'clock. 

Dischinger, Rue de la Bourse 3, a respectable restaurant of 
very modest pretensions, B. 1 fr., D. 1 fr. 



14 3. RESTAURANTS. Preliminary 

Boulevard de Sevastopol. No. 9, Cafe- Restaurant de 
la Nouvelle Poste; No. 49, Cafe de I' Union de Commerce; No. 101, 
Restaurant du Square des Arts et Metiers; No. 70, *Etablhsement 
de Bouillon, good, respectable and very moderate. 

On the Left Bank of the Seine. Cafe d'Orsay, of the first 
class, opposite the Pont Royal (PI., white 5); *Cafe Desmares, 
Rue du Bac 27, expensive; *Blot aine, Rue de Lille 33, highly 
recommended. 

In the Quartier Latin restaurants of the second and third 
class abound. Among the most respectable may be mentioned: 
*Magny, Rue Contre-escarpe Dauphine 3 (PI., white 8, near the 
Pont Neuf) ; Fo'jot, Rue de Tournon 33, opposite the entrance of 
the Palais du Luxembourg; Restaurant du Luxembourg, Rue de 
Vaugirard 22, opposite the palace (PI., white 8); Cafe Caron, Rue 
des Saints-Peres 22 (PL, white 6). 

Those who desire to dine in the vicinity of the Jardin des 
Plantes will find the *Hotel de la Tour d' Argent (Quai de la 
Tournelle 15, opposite the bridge) a respectable house. 

Amateurs of Bavarian Beer may visit one of the following 
establishments: 

Mallet, Faubourg Montmartre 4 ; *Baumann, Boulevard St. 
Martin; *Zohl's Brasserie, Rue Rougemont 3, D. about 6 o'cl. 
2 — 3 fr. ; ''Restaurant de la Foret Noire, Rue d'Enghien; Cafe du 
Midi, Rue Montmartre 50 ; FranUen, Rue Mazagran 16; Ouillaume 
Tell, Boulevard de Strasbourg 18; Fanta, Rue HaleVy 4. 

At these restaurants, which are principally frequented by Ger- 
mans, breakfast, dinner or supper may be procured. 

4. CAFES. 
These establishments should be visited by the stranger 
who desires to see Parisian life in all its phases. They 
are the after-dinner resort of the great majority of the male 
community of Paris. They are also sometimes convenient for 
breakfasting; coffee, bread and butter and waiter's fee about 
1 fr. 10 c, "the complet" 1 fr. Ices usually form one of the 
specialties of the Parisian cafe. The demi-tasse of cafe' noir, which 
is usually drunk in the afternoon, costs about 40 c, a petit-verre 
of cognac 20 c, and the waiter expects 10 c. Those who desire 
to dilute their coffee ask for un Mazagran and receive it in a 
glass with a bottle of water; un Capucin is a glass of cafe* au 
lait. — Beer may also be procured at most of the cafe's. "Un 
hoc", or "wne choppe" (25 — 35 c.) is usually asked for. — Fa- 
vourite beverages of the Parisians in warm weather are some of 
the following liqueurs diluted with water : Absinthe, Vermouthe, 
Cognac, Bitter, Syrope de Groseille, de Framboise, Orgeat etc. 
— Out of many hundreds , a few of the best only are here 
enumerated. 



Information. 4. CAF^S. 15 

Cafgs in the Palais Royal. 

North Side: *Cafe de la Rotonde, which possesses the sole 
privilege of placing chairs and tables outside the door for the 
accommodation of customers; well supplied with newspapers. 

No. 50, *Cafe Hollandais; No. 36, Estaminet des Mille Co- 
lonnes; No. 18, Casino Francois, concerts in winter. 

South Side. Cafe d'Orleans, Galerie d'Orle'ans Nos. 34 — 40: 
Sueur, Nos. 1 — 7. 

On the N. Side, where the continuation of the Rue Vivienne 
opens on the Palais Royal, is situated the subterranean Cafe des 
Aveugles, a place of popular resort, where, in addition to the 
usual concomitants of the cafe" , quaint performances are provided 
for the amusement of the frequenters. Some good ventriloquism 
may usually be heard here. 

Cafes in the Boulevards. 

BoulevarddelaMadeleine. S. side : Cafe Durand, Place 
de la Madeleine 2. Cafe de Londres, Boulevard de la "Madeleine 25. 

Boulevard des Capucines. S. side : No. 43 , Cafe du 
Congris; No. 39, Hill's Cafe, an English restaurant; No. 37, Cafe' 
d'Angleterre; No. 1, Cafe Napolitain, :: ices 1 fr. per portion (a 
mixture termed "tutti frutti" particularly good). 

Boulevard des Italiens. N. side: No. 38, Cafe Foy; a 
restaurant; No. 30, Cafe de Montmorency. — *Tortoni, of the 
first class. 

S. side : No. 29, *Cafe du Helder, a favourite resort of artists; 
No. 13, *Cafe Anglais, principally a restaurant, expensive; Cafe 
du Grand Balcon, frequented by the best billiard-players; *Cafe 
du Cardinal. 

N. side: No. 16, Cafe Riche; No. 14, Cafe Oretry; Nr. 12, 
Cafe de Paris, all three near the Passage de l'Ope'ra, frequented 
liy stockbrokers. 

Boulevard Montmartre. N. side: No. 16, Cafe' Mazarin; 
No. 12, Cafe Garen; No. 10, Cafe des Princes. — S. side: Cafe 
Veron; Cafe de Suede, adjoining the theatre; Cafe Montmartre. 

BoulevardPoissonniere. Frontin; Cafe de Madrid, coffee 
not served before 8 p. m. 

Boulevard Bonne Nouvelle. N. side: No. 44, *Cafe 
Francois; No. 39, Dejeuner de Richelieu, excellent chocolate; 
No. 30, *Cafe de la Terrasse, well supplied with newspapers, 
recommended for dejeuner; No. 26, Cafe Seruzier. 

Boulevard St. Denis. S. side: Cafe de Malte, opposite 
the Porte St. Martin. 

Boulevard St. Martin. No. 26, *Grand Cafe Parisien, 
the largest in Paris, magnificently fitted up , contains 22 billiard- 
tables, well deserving of a visit. 



jg Z~. CXFES. Preliminary 

Boulevard dn Temple. S. side: Jardin Turc, also visited 
by ladies. 

Boulevard de Sevastopol. No. 17. Cafe des Halles Cen- 
trales, 20 billiard-tables; No. 42, Cafe-Estaminet des Balcons; 
No. 68, Cafe de I'Epoque; No. Ill , Cafe Brasserie Beinert. 

Boulevard de Strasbourg. No. 7, Cafe de Bade; No. 16, 
Cafe-Concert des Folies ; No. 6, Eldorado, cafe'-chantant. 

Rue St. Honore" 161, opposite the Palais Royal, *Cafe de 
la Beyence, frequented by celebrated chess-players; No. 159. Cafe 
de I'l'nivers; No. 196, Cafe de Danemarc, also a restaurant. 

On the Left Bank of the Seine the following establishments 
deserve mention : Cafe d'Orsay , in the Faubourg St. Germain , 
opposite the Pont Royal , handsomely fitted up ; *Cafe Procope, 
Rue de l'Aucieiine Comedie 13 (PI., white 8), the oldest-established 
Parisian cafe, once frequented by Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot; 
Cafe Blot (p. 14); Cafe Desmares, Rue du Bac 27; *Cafe' de la 
Botonde. Rue de l'Ecole de MeMecine 10, well supplied with 
newspapers. 

Champs Ely sees. The various cafes-chantants , which are 
to be found here on summer evenings, afford unbounded delight 
to the middling and lower classes of Parisians. The performances 
are by no means of the first order , but are always conducted 
with strict propriety. 

Ices (Olaces) at most of the cafe's. The best are obtained at 
the following places: Tortoni, Boulevard des Italiens; Imoda, 
No. 3, Rue St. Honore; Bouze, rue Royale St. Honore 23, oppo- 
site the Madeleine ; *Poire et Blanche, in the Faubourg St. Ger- 
main , Rue St. Dominique 10; Hilaire Bouze, opposite to the 
latter, No. 11; *Neapolitan fruit-ices (p. 15), Boulevard des 
Capucines 1 [sorbet is half-frozen syrup or punch). 

Confectioners are in Paris divided into two classes, Patissiers 
and Confiseurs. Of the former class a few of those who enjoy the 
highest reputation may be here mentioned : Dubois, Rue Richelieu 92; 
Guerre, Rue Castiglione 2, opposite the garden of the Tuileries; 
Felix, Rue Vivienne 42; Colombin, Rue du Luxembourg 8; Marion, 
"English pastry-cook", Rue Royale St. Honore 10; Quillet, Rue 
de Buci 14; Chiboust, Rue St. Honore" 163; Frascati, Boulevard 
Montmartre 23. — The best bons-bons may be purchased at 
Boissier's, Boulevard des Capucines 9, or at Terrier's, Rue St. 
Honore 254. — Excellent preserved fruits (conserves) at Jourdain's, 
Rue Neuve des Petits Champs 52. 

5. BOOKSELLERS, BEADING BOOMS etc. 

Booksellers: Galignani fy Co., Rue de Rivoli 224. Publish- 
ers of The Messenger, a daily newspaper in English, containing 
the amusements, exhibitions, theatres of the day (weekly 3 fr.). 



Information. 5. BOOKSELLERS etc. tf 

Truchy , 26 Boulevard des Italiens, librairie francaise et 
anglaise. 

Librairie Franck , Rue Richelieu 67 ; Haar et Steinert , Rue 
Jacob 9; F. Klincksieck , Rue de Lille 11; these three especially 
for German and French literature. 

Reading Rooms: Galignani's Reading- Rooms, Rue de Rivoli 
224, are well supplied with English newspapers, admission per 
diem 50 c. , per fortnight 5 fr. 

Cabinet de Lecture in the Passage de l'Opera, Galerie du Ba- 
rometre 11, adm. 25 c. , per week 2 fr. , fortnight 3 fr. 50 c. 

Salon de lecture, Boulevard Montmartre 12, well supplied, 
adm. 25 c. 

Salon de Lecture on the left bank of the Seine, Cour du Com- 
merce 7 and 8, adm. 10 c. 

These reading-rooms are also convenient places for letter- 
writing. 

Newspapers. Among the most important are Le Si'tcle, 
La Patrie, La Presse, 1m France, Les Debuts, L' Opinion Rationale, 
Le Temps, La Liberte, U Etendard, which are offered in the streets 
for sale at 3 sous ; also the smaller papers, Le Petit Moniteur, Le 
Petit Journal and La Petite Presse at 1 sou. The occasional persual 
of these is also recommended as an admirable exercise for the 
student of the language. 

6. SHOPS, BAZAARS, MARKETS. 

Shops. With the exception of the houses in the aristocratic 
Faubourg St. Germain, there are few in Paris which have not 
shops on the ground-floor. The most brilliant and attractive are 
those on the Boulevards, especially the W. portion, in the Palais 
Royal, the Rue de la Paix, Rue de Richelieu , Rue Vivienne and 
in the new Rue de Rivoli. 

Extensive haberdashers : Aux Villes de France, Rue Richelieu 104, 
opposite the Passage des Princes, which leads to the Rue Vivienne ; 
A la Ville de Paris, Rue Montmartre 170. Silk-mercers : Au Louvre, 
in the hotel of that name , Rue Rivoli ; Compagnie Lyonnaise, 
Boulevard des Capucines 37. In the Faubourg St. Germain: Au 
Petit St. Thomas, Rue du Bac 27; Au Grand Condi, Rue de 
Seine 85, 87 . — Gallois-Qignoux , Boulevard de la Madeleine 21 — 23, 
well-known for the rich and attractive display in the windows. 

Beautiful copies of antiques in bronze sold by Barbedienne et 
Comp., Boulevard Poissonniere 30 ; in the vicinity, (No. 20) Henri 
et Demarson, one of the best shops in Paris for perfumery. 

Giroux et Comp., Boulevard des Capucines 43 , "bronzes, arts, 
fantaisies," one of the largest shops of the kind in Paris. On the 
approach of New Year's Day, the whole house is converted into 
a vast shop and sometimes contains 1000 visitors at one time. — 
Susse Freres, Place de la Bourse 31, a similar establishment. 

Bitdckur. »<"'•• '>■<** V.riitinn. 2 



jg U- SHOPS, BAZAARS, MARKETS. Preliminary 

Ooupil et Comp., Boulevard Montmartre 19, engravings. 

Cigars, from 5 to 50 c. each, seldom vary in quality in the 
different shops , the manufacture and importation of tobacco 
being a government monopoly. The principal depots, however, 
are on the Quay d'Orsay 63, and in the Grand Hotel, Boulevard 
des Capucines. 

A list of shops where the ordinary requirements of the tra- 
veller will be satisfied is given in the Introduction. 

Bazaars. The most extensive is in the Boulevard Bonne 
Nouvelle 20 — 22. Others: Boulevard Montmartre 12, opposite the 
Rue "Vivienne ; Boulevard Poissonniere 27 ("Bazar de l'lndustrie 
Francaise"), fixed prices. These establishments afford a pleasant 
and entertaining walk. 

Dock du Campement, Boulevard Poissonniere 14, in the Maison 
du Pont de Per, a Bazar de Voyage; Oodillot, a similar establish- 
ment, Rue de la Paix 25, corner of the Boulevard des Capucines. 

Auctions of every variety daily in the Hotel des Ventes Mo- 
bilieres, Rue Drouot 5, at the back of the Grand Ope'ra; furniture 
on the ground-floor; objects of art, pictures, coins etc. usually 
on the first floor. The articles may be inspected by the public 
on the day or morning previous to the sale. The auctioneers 
are termed Commissaires Priseurs. — Book-auctions generally take 
place in the evening at the Salle Silvestre, Rue des Bons-Enfants 28, 
near the E. side of the Palais Royal. 

Markets. The principal Flower-markets are held on Wednes- 
days and Saturdays on the quay between the Quai Napoleon and 
the Palais de Justice; on Tuesdays and Fridays on the N. and 
E. sides of the church of Ste. Madeleine ; on Mondays and Thurs- 
days near the Chateau d'Eau, Boulevard St Martin, and also in 
front of the Church of St. Sulpice. 

The new *Halles Centrales, adjoining the church of St. Eu- 
stache (PI , white 7) are well deserving of a visit. A subterranean 
railway is in course of construction to facilitate the introduction 
of the commodities into the town. — In the vicinity, in the Place 
des Innocents, is the beautiful fountain of that name, the work 
of Jean Ooujon , one of the victims of St. Bartholomew's night. 

Another interesting covered market is the Marche St. Oermain, 
to the N. of the church of St. Sulpice. 

The Halle aux Vins, or wine-depot of Paris, adjoins the Jardin 
des Plantes and extends for nearly half a mile along the bank 
of the Seine. Some half million casks here lie in bond, the duty 
being paid on their removal. — Ferd. Deiters and Co., Rue Tait- 
bout 5, Boulevard des Italiens, may here be mentioned as one of 
the many respectable firms of which pure Bordeaux may be 
purchased. The prices per hogshead of 300 bottles (half a. 
hogshead may also be procured) average as follows: sound Mpdoc 



Information. 7. BATHS. 



19 



table- wine 150 fr. ; St. Julien 350 fr.; Chateau wines of the 
Me'doc 650 fr. ; finest quality of the latter 1000 fr. ; Chateau 
Kafite, Ch. Latour and Ch. Margaux 1500— 1700 fr. English duty 
65 fr. (carriage to London 8 fr.), American at present 50 per 
cent, of the value. 

Marche aux Chevaux, S. of the Jardin des Plantes, on the 
Boulevard de l'Hopital (PL, blue 10) on Wednesday and Saturday 
afternoons. The traffic is principally in cart and other draught 
horses. (Horses of superior breed are sold on Thursday 1 — 4 o'clock 
at the ''Tattersall Francois", Rue Beaujon , and in the Champs 
Elystfes.) — In the same locality is held a dog -market on Sun- 
days 12—2 o'clock, where many a lost favourite is recognized 
and redeemed by its bereaved owner. At the Fourriere des Chiens, 
in the adjoining Rue Poliveau, dogs found straying in the streets 
are kept and fed for a week, after which they are destroyed if 
not reclaimed. 

7. BATHS. 

Warm Baths in the floating establishments at the Pont Royal 
and Pont Neuf. 

*Ecole Imperiale de Natation , on the Quay d'Orsay , near the 
Place de la Concorde (PI., white 5), admirably fitted up. 

Smaller swimming baths at the Pont Royal, *Pont Neuf (descent 
at the back of the statue of Henry IV.), *Quai de Be'thune, lie 
St-Louis (p. 8) and at Asnieres, station on the railway to Ver- 
sailles. Charges at all these baths 1 fr. incl. towel etc. 

The best establishment for mineral-baths , Turkish baths etc. 
is the *Bains de Tivoli, Rue St. Lazare 102, near the Havre 
railway station. The Etablissement Hydrotherapique du l)r. Landey 
at Auteuil, Rue Boileau 10, is especially recommended for invalids. 
In these two ''Maisons de Sante"' patients are accommodated with 
board, lodging, baths and medical attendance on terms varying 
from 150 to 1000 fr. per month. 

Other bath-houses are: *Rue Ste. Anne 63; Rue Vivienne 47; 
Rue du Temple 191. 

Sea-water baths in the floating vessel at the Pont Royal 
(PI., white 5).. 

8. VOITURES. 
By a decree of May 23rd, 1866 the former distinction between 
Fiacres ( VoiUires de Place) and Voitures de Remise was abolished 
and the following "Tarif Maximum" appointed for both, provided 
the latter are hired in the street (not from a "remise"). Une 
Course is a single drive, ft I'heure by time, in which case the 
hirer shows his watch to the driver. 



20 



8. VOITURES. 



Preliminary 



Within the City. 



Without 

the 

Fortifications. 



From G a. m. in summer. From 12. 30 at night 

(March 31st to Oct. 1st), | till 6 a. m. in summer 

and from 7 a.m. in winter (March 31st to Oct. 1st), 





(Oct. 1st to March 31st), 
till 12. 30 at night: 


and till 7 a. 
(Oct. 1st to 


m. in winter 
March 31st): 




La Course 


A Pheure 


La Course \ A Vheure 


Carr. for 2 — 3 pers. 

Can-, for 4—5 pers. 

C;irr. from a remise 
for 2—3 pers 
for 4—5 pers. 


1 fr. 50 c. 
1 fr. 70 c. 

1 fr. 80 c. 

2 fr. - c. 


2 fr. - c. 
2 fr. 25 c. 

2 fr. 25 c. 
2 fr. 50 c. 


2 fr. 25 c. 
2fr. 50 c. 

^3 fr. - c. 


2 fr. 50 c. 

2 fr. 75 c. 

|3 fr. - c. 



From 6 a. m. till 12 at night in summer (May 31st 

to Oct. 1st), or from 6 a. m. till 10 p. m. in winter 

(Oct. 1st to May 31st). 

Same charge for -une course as for une Iieure. 



When the hirer returns 

to the town in the same 

carriage : 



When the hirer dis- 
misses the carr. without 
the fortifications , he 
must make additional 
payment for the return- 
drive : 



2 fr. 50 c. 

2 fr. 75 c. 

3 fr. — c. 



\ 1 fr. - c. 
^ 2 fr. - c. 



Carr. for 2 — 3 pers. 
Carr. for 4--5pers. 
Carr. from a remise 

for 2 — 3 pers. 

for 4 — 5 pers. 

The same charge is made for luggage in carriages of either of 
the above classes : for 1 box 25 c, 2 boxes 35, 3 or more To c. 
The driver is bound to place it on and remove it from the 
vehicle. No charge for small articles which are taken inside. 

The following places are situated beyond the fortifications: 
Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, and the adjacent parishes 
of Charenton, Le Pre' St. Gervais. St. Maude', Montreuil, Bagnolet, 
Romainville, Pantin , Aubervilliers, St. Ouen, St. Denis, Clichy, 
Neuilly, Boulogne, Issy, Vanves, Montrouge, Arcueil, Gentilly, 
Ivry, Vincennes. 

The following are among the principal Stands: by the Made- 
leine, on all the principal Boulevards, Place de la Bourse, Place 
de la Bastille, du Palais Royal, St. Sulpice, de la Concorde, 
Louvois, du Louvre, on the quays and at all the railway-stations. 

Some of the more important regulations, of which every driver 
must possess a copy, are here given. 

If a carriage is sent for and kept waiting more than t / i hr. 
the charge for 1 hr. must be paid; if it is sent back at once, 
half a course, if after 74 nr - a whole course must be paid. 

If the carriage be hired for a course, the driver may select 
Ms own route; if it I'heure, he must obey the directions of his 



Information. 



8. VOITURES. 



21 



employer. If one of the passengers alights before the termination 
of the course, no additional charge can be made, unless luggage 
placed outside the vehicle is also removed, in which case one 
hour must be paid for. 

In hiring by time, the entire first hour must always be paid 
for, after which the time may be reckoned by spaces of 5 uiin. 





MINUTES 


s 


1 




o 






',' 


1.2 fr. 
'2 fr. 




<u 

a. 


25 ... . 


c 


,2 fr. 


50 ... . 




)2 fr. 

■ a fr. 


75 ... . 



5 


10 


15 


fr. ..•. 


fr. c. 


fr. c. 


„ 20 


„ 35 


„ .50 


„ '» 


„ 40 


* fiO 


„ 25 


* 45 


„ 65 


„ 25 


* 50 


„ 70 


„ 25 


„ 50 


» 75 



20 25 j 30 35 40 45 50 ! 55 

fr. c. fr. c.,fr. c. fr. p.lfr. r. fr c. fr. e.|lr. c. 
70 „ 85 1 ! „ 1 2o'l 3o'l 50 1 7o|l 85 
75 „ 95,1 15 I 35 .1 50jl 70 1 90 2 10 
85 1 05 1 25 1 50; 1 70 1 90 2 10 2 30 
95 1 15 1 40 I 6011 So 2 10J2 30 2 55 

1 „ 1 25 1 50 1 75(2 „ 12 2512 50 2 75 

If the carriage is engaged before 12. 30 at night the day- 
charges only can be demanded, if before 6 (or 7) a. m. the night- 
chart/es must be paid, although the drive be prolonged beyond 
these limits. 

Drivers are not bound to convey passengers without the forti- 
fications between midnight (or in winter 10 p. m.) and 6 a. m. 

If the horses have been used without the fortificatons for 
2 consecutive hours, the driver can demand a rest of 20 min.. at 
the expense of the hirer. 

If a carriage is engaged without the fortifications to return 
to the town, the town-charges alone can be exacted; in the re- 
verse case, the increased rate is paid from the moment the forti- 
fications are passed. 

If the hirer's destination is a theatre, concert-room etc., he 
must pay in advance. 

Bridge-toll is paid by the driver, unless the crossing has taken 
place at the express desire of the hirer. 

Gratuities cannot be demanded by the drivers, but it is 
usual to give 10 — 20 c. per course, or 2o — 50 per hour, in ad- 
dition to the fare. 

Those who are desirous of exploring Paris expeditiously and 
comfortably arc recommended to hire a Vviture de Remise by the 
day (2f> — 30 fr.) or by the week ("Combien, par jour, pourboire 
compris , pour une voiture a deux on ft qunlre places , aver un 
ou deux cheraux? La voiture sera a ma disposition de huit 
heures du matin a huit hetires du soir, et ira au Bois de Bologne, 
a Saint-Denis, ft Saint-Cloud et ft Sevres.") 



9. OMNIBUSES. 

There are 31 different lines of omnibuses in Paris, all of 
which belong to one company. They are distinguished by the 
letters of the alphabet, the colour of their lanterns and of the 
vehicles themselves. In the annexed list the starting-point and 



22 



9. OMNIBUSES. 



Preliminary 



destination of each are furnished with references to the coloured 
plan at the end of the book. 



From 


to 


Omnibus 


Lantern. 


A. Palais-Royal 


Passy and Auteuil 






(white 7) 1 . . . 


(white 1) . . . . 


yellow . . 


red 


B. Chemin de fer de 








Strasbourg (red 9) 


Chaillot (r. 2) . . . 


yellow 


red and green 


C. Louvre (w. 7) . . 


Courbevoie (r. 3) 


yellow 


red 


D. Ternes (r. 2) . . 


Boul. Filles du Cal- 








vaire (w. 9) . . . 


yellow 


red 


E. Bastille (w. 10) . 


Madeleine (r. 5) . . 


yellow . . 


red 


F. Bastille (w. 10) . 


Monceaux (r. 6) . . 


dark brown. 


red 


G. Jardin des Plantes 








(w. 10) ... . 


Batignolles (r. 6) 


brown 


green 


H. Odeon (w. 8) . . 


Avenue de Clichy 








(r. 6) 


yellow . . 


red 


I. Place Maubert 








(w. 8) .... 


Montmartre (r. 8) . . 


green . . . 


red 


J. Barriere de Pigale 








lr. 6) 


Glaciere (bl. 7) . 


yellow 


red 


K. College de France 








(w. 8) .... 


La Chapelle (r. 10) . 


yellow . . 


green and red 


L. Saint-Sulpice 








(w. 6) . . . . 


Villette (r. 10) . . 


yellow . . 


red 


M. Belleville (r. 11) . 


Ternes (r. 2) . 


yellow 


green and red 


N. Belleville (r. 11) . 


Place des Victoires 








(w. 7) 


green . . . 


red 


0. .Mvuihnontant 


Chaussee du Maine 






(r. 11) . . . 


(bl. 6) 


green . . . 


red and green 


P. Barriere de Fon- 








tainebleau (bl. 9) 


Charonne (w. 13) . . 


yellow 


red and green 


ft. Palais- Royal 


Place du Trone 






<w. 7) . . . . 


(w. 14) 


yellow . . 


red 


R. Barr. Charenton 


Faub. St. Honore 






(bl. 14) ... . 


(r. 5) 


green . 


blue and red 


S Louvre (w. 7) . . 


Bercy (bl. 13) . . . 


yellow 


red and white 


T. Place Cadet (r. 8) . 


Gare d'lvry (bl. 11) . 


yellow . . 


yellow 


V. PointeSt.Eustache 


Maison Blanche (Bar- 






(w. 7| . 


riere de Fontaine- 








bleau) (bl. 9) . . 


yellow 


green and red 


V. Chemin de fer du 








Nord (r. 10) . . 


Bar. du Maine (bl. 6) 


brown 


green and red 


X. Place du Havre 








(r. 5) . . . . 


Vaugirard (bl. 4) . . 


yellow 


green and red 


Y. Porte St. Martin 








(r. 9) 


Grenelle (w. 2) . . 


brown 


red and white 


Z. Bastille (w. 10) . 


Grenelle (w. 2) . . 


brown 


green 


AB. Place de la Bourse 








(r. 7) . . . 


Passy (w. 1) 


green . . . 


green 


AC. Cours la Reine 








(w. 3) . 


Petite Villette (r. tO) 


green . 


red and green 


AD. Chateau d'Eau (r.9) 


Pont de l'Alma (w. 1) 


green . . . 


green 



Information. 



9. OMNIBITSES. 



23 



From 


to 


Omnibus 


Lantern. 


AE. Arts et Metiers 








(r. 7) . . . . 


Vincennes (w. 14) 


green . . 


green 


AF. Pare de Monceaux 








(r. 5) . . 


Pantheon (bl 8) . . 


green . . . 


red 


AG. Chemin de fer de 








l'Est (r. 10) . . 


Montrouge (bl 3) 


brown. 


green 



It must, however, be observed that Parisians themselves find 
it difficult to form a thorough acquaintance with the above 
labyrinth of routes. The stranger who makes a stay in Paris of 
some duration and desires to avail himself of these conveyances, 
should purchase an omnibus-map of Paris (1 fr.), or a Clef des 
Omnibus (15 c), which are to be had at the omnibus offices. 

The fares for all the above routes are the same, 30 c. inside 
and 15 c. outside (imperiale). If the omnibus does not go in the 
direct route to the passenger's destination, he may apply to the 
conductor for a "correspondance" with the line which will convey 
him thither. He will then receive a "bulletin" or receipt for 
his fare and a "cachet" or check-ticket and will be set down at 
the point where the two lines cross. Here he proceeds to the 
omnibus -bureau and receives a new cachet which, without any 
additional payment, entitles him to a seat in the first omnibus 
going in the desired direction. Outside passengers are not en- 
titled to correspondance, unless they pay the full fare (30 c). 
On Sundays and holidays tickets are not issued on some lines. 

When the omnibuses are full, the conductor exhibits a ticket 
announcing that his vehicle is "complet". 

The principal omnibus-bureau is in the Place du Palais Royal, 
situated in the very heart of the city. Other offices are at the 
following places: Boulevard de la Madeleine 27, des Italiens 8, 
du Temple, des Filles du Oalvaire , de la Bastille 2, Porte 
St. Martin etc. — On the Left Bank of the Seine: Place St. Sul- 
pice 6, 8 and 10, at the Ode"on, Pont Neuf, Place du Palais de 
Justice etc. 

Horse Railway (Chemin de Fer Americain), Rue du Louvre 8 
(opposite the colonnade), from a. m. every hour (in summer 
oftener) via 

Passy , Auteuil, Iiois de Boulogne, Le Point du Jour and 
Boulogne to the Pont de St. Cloud, and via 

Auteuil, Billaucourt, Sevres and Viroflay to Versailles. 



10. RAILWAY-STATIONS. R A I LW A Y - OMNI Bl 7 SE S 
Paris possesses eight railway-stations (embarcadlres de chemin 

de fer). On the Right Bank of the Seine are the following: 
1. Rue St. Lazare (PI., red 6) (Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest, 

Lignes de Banlieuc , Lignes dc Normandie, Ligne de Ceinture), 



24 10. RAIL WAY-STATIONS. Preliminary 

Rue St. Lazare 124, for the line to Versailles (rive droite), St. Cloud, 
St. Oermain, Argenteuil, Rouen, Havre, Dieppe, Fecamp, Caen, 
Cherbourg , and for the branch line to Auteuil and the Bois de 
Boulogne. 

Special Omnibus (25 <:) , to correspond with all the trains 
.starting from this station, from the Place de la Bourse, Boulevard 
Bonne Nouvelle 14, Pointe St. Eustache, Place St. Andre des 
Arts 9, Place du Palais Royal, Place du Bouloi 7 and 9. 

2. Place Roubaix (PI., red 10) (Chemin de Fer du Nord) 
for London, Brussels. Cologne. 

Bureaux Succursales : Rue de Rivoli, in the Hotel du Louvre; 
No. 228, in the Hotel Meurice; 170, Hotel des Trois Emperaurs; 
Hotel Bedford, Rue de 1'Arcade 17 and 19; Hotel de Lille et 
d 'Albion, Rue St. Honore 211; Rue Bonaparte 59; Boulevard de 
Sevastopol 33 ; Place de la Bourse 6 ; Rue St. Martin 326 ; Rue 
Chariot 3. Omnibuses to the station from all these offices, and 
also from the Grand Hotel, Boulevard des Capucines, and Rue 
Aubry le Boucher 24. Fares 30 c, and 30 c. for luggage under 
60 lbs., for every additional 2 lbs. 1 c. ; if the omnibus deviates 
from its ordinary route, 60 c. for each pers. 

3. Place de Strasbourg (PL, red 10) (Chemin de Fer de 
l'Est), in the immediate vicinity of the Station du Nord, for Stras- 
bourg and the lines to Mannheim , Rheims , Metz, Troyes, Bale. 

Bureau Succursales: Rue du Bouloi 7 and 9; Boulevard de 
Sevastopol 34; Rue Quincampoix 47 and 49; Place de la Bastille, 
at the station of the Vincennes line ; Place St. Sulpice (i. Omni- 
buses from these offices, and also from the Hotel du Louvre, and 
Rue St. Martin 295. Fares: 30 c, luggage 30 c. 

4. Boulevard Mazas (PL, blue 12) (Chemin de Fer de 
Paris a Lyon et a la Mediterrane'e) for Fontainebleau, Lyons, Mar- 
seilles. (Opposite the station, to the N., is situated the Prison 
Mazas, capable of containing 12R0 prisoners in solitary con- 
finement). 

Bureaux Succursales: Rue Neuve des Mathurins 44; Rue 
Rossini 1 ; Rue Coq He'ron 6 ; Rue Bonaparte 59 and Place St. 
Sulpice 12; Boulevard de Strasbourg 5; Rue Rambuteau 6. 
Omnibuses from these offices to the station; fares 30 c, after 
midnight 50 c. 

5. Place de la Bastille (PL, white 10) for Vincennes. 
Special Omnibus from the Place de la Bourse 12. 

On the Left Bank of the Seine: 

6. Boulevard de l'Hopital (PL, blue 10), adjoining the 
Jardin des Plantes (new station in course of construction), for 
Fontainebleau, Orleans, Nevers, Bourges, Le Mans, St. Nazaire, La 
Rochelle, Rochefort , Limoges, Blois, Tours, Angers, Nantes, Bor- 
deaux, Bayonne. - Bureau Central: Rue deGrenelle St. Honore" 18. 



Information 12. THEATRES. 25 

Special Omnibus from the Rue St. Honore" 130, Rue "Notre 
Dame des "Victoires 28, Rue Coq H6ron 17, Rue Lepelletier 15, 
Rue de Londres 8, Rue de Cbabrol 53, Boulevard de Sevastopol 54 ; 
Rue Notre Dame de Nazareth 30, Rue de Babylone 7; Place St. 
Sulpice 6; Place de la Madeleine 7. 

7. Barriere d'Enfer (PI., blue 5) for Sceaux and Orsay. 
Special Omnibus (30 c, and luggage 30 c.) from the Rue 

St. Honore 130, Rue de Londres 8; Place St. Sulpice. 

8. Boulevard Montparnasse 44 (PI., blue 6) (Chemin 
de Fer de l'Ouest, Ligne de Bretagne) for Versailles (rive gauche), 
Rambouillet , Chartres , Le Mans , Alenc on , Rennes, Brest. — Bu- 
reaux succursales: Rue Coq He"ron 5, Rue St. Martin 300. 

Special Omnibus from the Place de la Bourse, Rue St. Mar- 
tin 326, Rue de Bourtibourg 4, Place St. Andre des Arts 9, Rue 
Royale St. Honore 24, Place du Palais Royal. 

11. STEAMBOATS. 

Small steamers ply on the Seine between the Pont Royal and 
St. Cloud, descending in 3 / 4 hr. , returning in lVa nr -i f ares 
50 c. — 1 fr. The trip is a pleasant one, the landscape picturesque 
and animated. 

12. THEATRES. 

The representations commence at various hours between 6 and 
8 o'clock , and generally last till midnight. As" the hours for 
opening the doors are frequently changed, the play-bills should 
always be consulted beforehand. 

The theatres present to the stranger a highly characteristic 
phase of Parisian life, and he should on no account omit to visit 
all the principal ones. As, however, some acquaintance with the 
colloquial and slang expressions of every day life is requisite, 
and cannot be acquired without a sojourn in Paris of considerable 
duiation , strangers are strongly recommended to purchase the 
play to be performed, and peruse it carefully beforehand. Tresse, 
Palais Royal, Galerie de Chartres 2, 3, may be mentioned as a 
dealer in all kinds of dramatic compositions. 

The best places are the stalls in front of the orchestra (fauteuils 
d'orchestre), behind which are the stalles d'orchestre; those behind 
the pit (stalles d' amphitheatre), and those in front of the first tier 
of boxes (fauteuils de balcon, de la premiere galerie). Ladies are 
not admitted in all the theatres to the orchestra stalls. 

It is a wise precaution, especially in the case of very popular 
representations, to secure a good seat by purchasing a billet de 
location beforehand at the office of the theatre, or at the prin- 
cipal office (location-office des theatres) in the morning. The visitor 
should be careful to select a numero de face and not de cote. 



26 12. THEATRES. Preliminary 

These billets de location generally cost 1 — 2 fr. more than au 
bureau, i. e. at the door, but the purchaser has the satisfaction 
of knowing that his seat is reserved. Strangers are particularly 
cautioned against purchasing tickets from "valets de place" and 
similar individuals, who frequently hover about in the vicinity of 
the theatres and endeavour to impose on the public. 

The Parterre or pit is always crowded. Those who wish to 
secure a tolerable seat in this part of the theatre should be at 
the door at least an honr before the commencement of the play, 
and, with the exact entrance-money in hand, fall into the rank 
(faire queue) of other expectants. Frequenters of the pit, on 
leaving the theatre between the acts, usually secure their seats 
by attaching their handkerchiefs to the bench. 

In order to become acquainted with the internal arrangements 
of each theatre, the stranger should consult the plan of the build- 
ing at the office. Most of them have their premieres, deuxihnes, 
troisitmes de face or de cote (box-places in the first, second or 
third row, in front or at the side), baignoires or loges de rez-de- 
chaussee (pit-boxes) etc. The best places for ladies are the boxes 
and the fauleuils de balcon. 

The Claque (or les Romains), or paid applauders, form an 
annoying, although characteristic feature in most of the theatres. 
They usually occupy the best seats in the pit and are easily re- 
cognized by the simultaneous and energetic concussions of their 
vulgar palms. There are even "entrepreneurs de succis dramatiques", 
a species of mercantile adventurers who furnish theatres with claques 
at stated terms. Strange as it may seem to the English visitor, 
all attempts to abolish this nuisance have hitherto failed. 

Paris contains upwards of 30 theatres. In consequence, how- 
ever, of a decree of January 7th., 1864, the number will soon 
increase (comp. p. 29), additional facilities for the erection of new 
theatres being thereby granted, and certain monopolies abolished. 
A list of the most important, according to the order fixed by 
the police, is here annexed. 

The Ope"ra, Rue Lepelletier 12 and Rue Drouot (PI., red 7), 
to the N. of the Boulevard des Italiens ("Grand-Opera, Academic 
imperiale de Musique"), was founded in 1671, and, in consequence 
of the murder of the Due de Berry (p. 99), removed to its present 
site in 1821. The building will eventually be superseded by a 
new structure near the Boulevard des Capucines, opposite the Rue 
de la Paix, now in course of construction and to be completed 
in 1871. The government contributes 800,000 fr. (32,000 L.) 
annually towards its support, to which 100,000 fr. (4000 L.) is 
added by the Emperor from the civil list; the gross annual re- 
ceipts are about 1,200,000 fr. The staff of performers is about 
250 in number; a good tenor receives a salary of 80,000 fr. 
(3200 L.~l; composers and authors of new pieces are each paid 



Information. 12. THEATRES. 27 

500 fr. (20 L.J for each of the first forty , and 500 fr. for each 
subsequent representation. The scenery and ballet are unrivalled. 
The house is capable of accommodating 1950 persons. Office 
in the Rue Drouot, generally open at 10 a. m. Representations 
on Mondays , Wednesdays and Fridays. Stalles d'amphithe'atre 
12 fr. {location 14 fr.) ; stalles d'orchestre 10 fr. (location 12 fr.); 
pit (seats numbered) 5 fr. (location the same). 

The Theatre Francais, Rue Richelieu 6, in the new Place 
de l'Imperatrice (PL, white 7), on the S.W. side of the Palais 
Royal, was at one time exclusively devoted to the highest order 
of dramatic composition. Although this is now no longer the 
case, it is still considered to occupy the highest rank, and the 
government contributes 240,000 fr. to its support ; the acting is 
admirable and the plays generally are of the best description. 
The actors style themselves "comediens ordinaires de I'Empereur". 
This theatre was founded in 1600, and was under the superin- 
tendence of Molitre from 1658 until his death in 1673. Voltaire's 
Irene was represented here in 1768 and received with thunders 
of applause; the author, then in his 84th year, was present on 
the occasion. — Seats for 1500. Fauteuils d'orchestre 5 fr. (loca- 
tion 7 fr.), stalles d'orchestre 4 fr., parterre 2 fr. 50 c. 

The Ode on, Place de l'Odeon (PL, white 8), near the Palais 
du Luxembourg, ranks next to the Theatre Francais, and is de- 
voted principally to the performance of the most classical dramas. 
One of the reasons which Louis XVI. assigned for the erection 
of this theatre in 1779 was, "que nos sujets, avant d"entrer et en 
sortant du spectacle, auront a proximite une promenade dans les 
jardins du Luxembourg". The "promenade en sortant" is, how- 
ever, no longer practicable, as the Luxembourg gardens are closed 
at sunset. — Seats for 1700. Fauteuils d'orchestre (to which 
ladies are admitted) 5 fr. ; (location 7 fr.), parterre 2 fr. (location 
3 fr.); no representations in summer. 

The Ope"ra Comique, Place Boieldieu or des Italiens 
(PL, red 7), is devoted to the performance of the lesser operas, 
the Dame Blanche, Postilion de Lonjumeau, Fra Diavolo, Domino 
Noir , Etoile du Nord etc. It receives an annual contribution of 
240,000 fr. from government. — Seats for 1800. Fauteuils. d'or- 
chestre 6. fr. (location 8 fr.) , fauteuils de balcon 7 fr. (location 
8 fr.), fauteils de la premiere galerie 7 fr. (location 8 fr.) ; stalles 
d'orchestre 4 fr. (location 5 fr.) parterre 2'/2 fr. 

The Theatre Italien or Italian Opera, is situated to the S. 
of the Boulevard des Italiens, in the Place Ventadour (PL, red 5): 
entrance on the N. side from the Rue Neuve St. Augustin, on 
the S. from the Rue des Petis Champs. Representations on Tues- 
days, Thursdays and Saturdays; performances of the highest 
class; admirable staff of performers. The claque (p. 26) has 



28 12. T«E A TEES. Preliminary 

happily been banished from this theatre. When Mile. Patti sings 
the prices are considerably raised. — Seats for 1700. Fauteuils 
d'orchestre (ladies admitted) and stalles de balcon 12 fr. ; stalles 
d'orchestre (formerly the parterre) 6 fr. Location not more ex- 
pensive; Ire loge 15, 2de loge 9, 3me loge 5 fr. 

The The'atre Lyrique, Place du Chatelet (PI., white 7), 
is destined for the operas of French composers, and for those of 
Mozart and "Weber. It was founded as a Theatre Historique by 
Ale.r. Dumas in 1847, on the Boulevard du Temple , whence it 
was removed to the present building in 1862. — Seats for 1600. 
Ladies admitted to all. Fauteuils d'orchestre 6 fr. (location 7 fr.); 
parterre 2 i / 2 fr. 

The Theatre du Gy mnase Dramatique, Boulevard Bonne 
Nouvelle 38 (PL, red 7), for vaudevilles and comedies, is deserv- 
ing of commendation. Its pieces are frequently deemed worthy 
of being represented in the Theatre Framjais. Scribe wrote most of 
his plays for this theatre, which enabled him to amass a considerable 
fortune. His country-seat at Cericourt bore the inscription: 

"Le theatre a paye cet asile champetre; 

Vous qui passes,, merci! je vous le dois peut-etre." 

Seats for 1000. Fauteuils d'orchestre and de balcon 7 fr. (loca- 
tion 8 fr.) ; stalles d'orchestre 5 fr. (location 6 fr.), parterre 
2 fr. 50 c. (location 3 fr.). 

The'atre du Vaudeville, Rue Vivienne 29, Place de la 
Bourse (PL, red 7). The present building is about to be taken 
down to make room for the new Hue Reaumur, and will even- 
tually be superseded by a new structure, already commenced, at 
the corner of the Chaussee d'Autin and the Boulevard des Capu- 
cines. — Seats for 1300. Fauteuils d'orchestre and de galerie 
5 fr. (location 7 fr.). 

Theatre desVarietes, Boulevard Montmartre 7 (PL, red 7), 
for Vaudevilles and farces. Seats for 1240. Fauteuils d'orchestre 
and de balcon 5 fr. (location 7 fr.), parterre 2 fr. 50 c. 

Theatre du Palais Royal, at the N.W. corner of the 
Palais Royal 7i, 75 (PI , white 7), a small but very popular 
theatre for Vaudevilles and farces, occasionally not altogether of 
an unexceptionable description. Seats for 950. Stalles and 
loges de balcon, and loges de galerie and d'orchestre 5 fr. (loca- 
tion 6 fr.); parterre 2 fr. 

Theatre de la Porte St. Martin, Boulevard St. Martin 
16, 18 (PL, red 9), for plays and ballet, one of the largest in 
Paris. The best pieces of Victor Hugo, Alex Dumas and other 
eminent dramatists were here performed for the first time. — Seats 
for 1800. Fauteuils de balcon 5 fr. (location 7 fr.); fauteuils 
d'orchestre 5 fr. (location 8 fr.) ; parterre 2 fr. 



Information. 12. THEATRES. 29 

Theatre de la Gaite, Square des Arts et Metiers (PL, 
red 9), for melodramatic pieces, newly fitted up in 1861 — 62. 
— Seats for 1800. Fauteuils d'orchestre 4 fr. (location 5 fr.); 
stalles d'orchestre 2^2 ft- ; parterre 1 y 2 fr. 

Theatre del'Ambigu-Comique, Boulevard St. Martin 2 
(PI., red 9), for melodramas and vaudevilles. Fauteuils d'orchestre 
ft fr. (location 6 fr.) ; stalles d'orchestre 3 fr. : parterre l 1 /^ fr- 

Bouffes Parisiens , Passage Choiseul (PI., red ft), adjacent 
to the Italian Opera, for vaudevilles, comedies and especially 
operettas. — Fauteuils d'orchestre 5 fr. (location 7 fr.), balcon du 
2de e"tage 4 fr. ; fauteuil du 2de e'tage 3 fr. 

The'atre Imperial du Chat el et, Place du Chatelet (PI., 
white 7), for military melodramas, especially Napoleonic, magic 
pieces and ballets. — Seats for 3352. Fauteuils d'orchestre 5 fr. ; 
stalles d'orchestre 4 fr. (location 5 fr.) ; parterre 2 fr. 

Theatre des Folies Dramatiques, Rue de Bondy 40, 
for vaudevilles and farces, good comic acting. — Fauteuils d'or- 
chestre 3 fr. ; stalles d'orchestre 1 fr. 50 c. ; parterre 1 fr. 

Theatre des Delassements Comiques, Boulevard du 
Prince Eugene. — Seats for 500. Fauteuils d'orchestre 3 fr. ; 
stalles d'orchestre 2 fr. 

Theatre Dejazet, Boulevard du Temple 41, for vaudevilles 
and farces. Avant-scene des premieres 5 fr. ; orchestre 1 fr. 50 c. ; 
parterre 1 fr. 

Theatre Beaumarchais, Boulevard Beaumarchais 55 (PI., 
white 10), for farces and vaudevilles. — Fauteuils d'orchestre 
2 fr. 25 c; stalles d'orchestre 1 fr. 75 c; parterre 1 fr. 

The'atre Seraphin, Boulevard Montmartre 12, for ombres 
chinois , magic lantern and marionette representations. 

The following are of very recent origin (1865 — 1867), having 
sprung up in consequence of the abolition of the former monopolies : 

Folies Marigny, in the Champs Elysees, for operettas, 
vaudevilles etc. Stalles d'orchestre 2 fr. ; orchestre 1 fr. 25 c. 

Theatre des Fantaisies Parisiennes, Boulevard des 
Italiens 26, for operettas and pantomimes. Fauteuils d'orchestre 
and de balcon 5 fr. ; stalles d'orchestre 3 fr. 

The'atre Robino, transferred in 1 866 to the Boulevard de 
Strasbourg, for vaudevilles and dramas. Fauteuils d'orchestre 
2 fr. ; stalles d'orchestre 1 fr. 25 c 

GrandTheatreParisien, Rue de Lyon 12, near the Bastille 
(fauteuils d'orchestre 2fr.), and Theatre des Nouveaute"s, 
Rue du Faubourg St. Martin 60 (fauteuils d'orchestre 2 fr. 50 c), 
both for vaudevilles. 

These are the most considerable of the Parisian theatres. The 
others of minor importance are principally situated in the suburbs. 



30 13- CONCERTS AND BALLS. freliminftry 

The Cirque d e l'l m peratrice in the Champs Elyse"es at 
the Rond-Point (PL, red 3). the Cirque Napoleon, in the 
Boulevard des Filles du Calvaire (PI., white 9), the Hippo- 
drome, to the W. of the Avenue de l'Imperatrice, between the 
Barriere de 1'Etoile and the Bois de Boulogne (PI., red 1), and 
the Cirque du Prince Imperial (opened in 1866), Rue de 
Malte 6, near the Boulevard du Prince Eugene, are also deserving 
of mention. The representations are precisely similar to those of 
English circuses ; they are, however, worthy of a visit on account 
of their tasteful arrangement and vast dimensions. The Hippo- 
dr6me is the largest and is capable of containing 10,000 persons. 
— Admission 1 — 2 fr. 

Conjurers: Hamilton, Boulevard des Italiens 8, represen- 
tations at 8 p. m. (admission l'/2 — 4 fr.). — Robin, Boulevard du 
Temple 49 (admission 75 c. — 4 fr.). 

13. CONCERTS AND BALLS. 

The concerts of the Conservatoire de Musique, Rue du Fau- 
bourg Poissonniere 15, of European celebrity, take place once a 
fortnight, from January to April. The highest order of classical 
music (Haydn, Beethoven, Mendelssohn etc.) is performed with the 
most exquisite taste and precision. Strangers cannot easily ob- 
tain access to them, as almost all the seats are occupied by re- 
gular subscribers. Application may, however, be made, on the 
Friday following a concert, at the office, Rue du Faubourg Pois- 
sonniere 15. Balcon and premieres loges 9 fr. ; stalles d'orchestre, 
loges du rez-de-chaussee, couloirs d'orchestre and du balcon, and 
secondes loges 6 fr. ; parterre and amphitheatre 3 fr. ; side- 
boxes 2 fr. 

Regular concerts are given at the "Concert de Paris", Rue du 
Helder 19, near the Boulevard; admission 1 — 2 fr. ; in summer 
frequently closed. 

Besides the above, there are a number of other concerts-rooms; 
Herz, Rue de la Victoire; Ste. Cecile, Rue de la Chaussee d'Antin; 
Erard, Rue du Mail; Pleyel, Rue Rochechouart; Sax, Rue St. 
George. — Lent is the principal season for concerts in Paris. 

The concerts of the Cafes Chantants are generally of a very 
inferior description. Those in the Champs Elysees (p. 16) attract 
numerous visitors in summer. The Cafe des Aveuyles in the Palais 
Royal also belongs to this class. The following are among the 
best of these establishments: Eldorado, Boulevard de Strasbourg, 
handsomely decorated hall ; vocal performances every evening from 
7 to 11 o'clock, which of late years have acquired a certain cele- 
brity from the appearance (in winter daily) of Mile. Therese. 
Casino Francais, in the Palais Royal, Galerie Montpensier 18, 



Information. 14. DRIVE THROUGH PARIS. 31 

Alcazar, Boulevard Poissonniere. Cafe-Concert Bataclan, or Palais 
Chinois, Boulevard du Prince Eugene 50. 

The public Balls ("Soirees Musicales et Dansantes"), although 
the society is by no means always of the most select description, 
deserve to be visited by the stranger on account of the gay, 
brilliant and novel spectacle they present. The following estab- 
lishments are perhaps the most respectable : Jardin Mabille, 
recently united with the former Chateau des Fleurs, near the 
Rond-Point, in the Allee des Veuves (Avenue Montaigne; PI., 
red 3), Champs Elysees, brillantly lighted and handsomely deco- 
rated, balls daily, admission 2 — 3 fr. ; Chalet des lies in the Bois 
de Boulogne (p. 90); Casino d'Asniires (p. 168), in summer only, 
generally on Thursdays. 

The Masked Balls of the Grand Opera, which last from 
the middle of December till Lent, and take place every Saturday 
evening, may be regarded as another characteristic phase of Pari- 
sian life (admission 10 fr.). They present a scene of the most 
unbridled and boisterous merriment and excitement, and where 
ladies are of the party should be witnessed by strangers from the 
boxes only. The female frequenters of these balls always wear 
masks or dominoes, the men are generally in evening costume. 

14. DRIVE THROUGH PARIS. 

Nothing will serve to convey to the stranger so good an idea 
of the general aspect and topography of the French metropolis 
as a drive on the top of an omnibus or in an open carriage through 
the principal streets. The vehicle should of course in this case 
be engaged h 1'heure, and the driver desired to convey the vi- 
sitor through the town by the following route. 

The Palais Royal is selected as the most convenient starting- 
point. Thence through the Rue de Rivoli to the Place de la 
Concorde (p. 78), the Champs Elysees (p. 82), Palais de l'lndus- 
trie (p. 83) , Arc de l'Etoile (p. 85) ; down to the Pont dTe'na, 
Champ de Mars; Hotel des Invalides (p. 155), Boulevard des Inva- 
lides, Boulevard du Mont Parnasse, at the extremity of which, 
to the r., is situated the Observatoire (p. 134); thence to the I., 
to the Boulevard St. Michel, along the Boulevard, passing Ney's 
monument, theJardindu Luxembourg (p. 133), the Pantheon (p. 138), 
the extremity of the Rue Soufflot and the Palais de Justice (p. 94), 
near which the two bridges are crossed; then to the r. through 
the Rue de Rivoli, passing the Tour St. Jacques (p. 46) and the 
H6tel de Ville (p. 92); through the Rue St. Antoine to the Place 
de la Bastille and the July Column, then along the old Boulevards 
(see p. 33) to the Madeleine. 

The drive will occupy about 3 hrs. and (according as the 
vehicle is hired at 2 fr. or 2 i / i fr. per hour) cost 6—7 fr., inclu- 



32 14 - DRIVE THROUGH PARIS. 

ding 1 fr. gratuity. It may, however, be reduced to V-^ hrs., 
if the carriage be quitted at the Colonne de Juillet. The Boule- 
vards, which would thus be omitted, may be sufficiently inspec- 
ted in the course of subsequent walks. In this case the stranger 
may proceed to the cemetery of Pere Lachaise, a walk through the 
principal parts of which occupies at least 2 hrs. 

From Menilmontant, at the corner of the Boulevards Exterieurs, 
near Pere Lachaise , an omnibus starts every quarter of an hour 
for the Boulevard de Filles du Calvaire (a drive of 10 min.), 
whence {correspondance , p. 23) omnibuses run every 5 min., 
along the entire length of the Boulevards, to the Madeleine (in 
25 min.). 

After this preliminary voyage of discovery, the stranger may 
then proceed at his leisure to explore the metropolis in detail. 



RIGHT BANK OF THE SEINE. 



1. The Old Boulevards. 

Colonne de Juillet, Place Royale, Jinprimerie linperiak, Porte St. Martin, 
Porte St. Denis, Bourse, Venddme Monument, Chapelle Expiatoire. 

In the year i 670, during the reign of Louis XIV. , the forti- 
fications (boulevards = bulwarks) which then surrounded Paris 
were taken down and the ditches filled up f. This gave rise to 
a street, the northern portion of which, on the right bank of the 
Seine, displays a richness of architecture and an array of attractive 
shop-windows, which are surpassed in no other city in the world. 

There are a number of other boulevards in Paris many of 
which have sprung up in consequence of the gigantic and still 
incomplete street-improvements (Boulevard Huusmann, de Magenta, 
du Prince Eug'tne , de I'Hopital, des Gobelins , St. Jacques, d'Enfer, 
du Montparnasse, des Invalides etc.J, but ''the Boulevards" is a 
term usually applied exclusively to the line (3 M.) of broad 
streets leading from the Bastille to the Madeleine and subdivided 
as follows: Boulevard Beaumarchais (10 min. walk), Boulevard 
des Filles du Calvaire (3 min.), Boulevard du Temple (8 min.), 
Boulevard St. Martin (8 min.) Boulevard St. Denis (3 min.), 
Boulevard Bonne Nouvelle (6 min.), Boulevard Poissonniere (6 min.), 
Boulevard Montmartre (4 min.) , Boulevard des Italiens (8 min.), 
Boulevard des Capucines (6 min.), Boulevard de la Madeleine (4 min.). 

With the bright and cheerful animation and admirable arrange- 
ment of these Boulevards no line of streets in the English, or in- 
deed any other metropolis can vie.. 

The Boulevards were formerly paved, and the stones have at 
different periods been employed in the construction of barricades. 
Since 1850 they have been macadamized and furnished with an 
asphalt pavement for foot-passengers. The trees, to which the 
gas is highly prejudicial, are a source of constant trouble to the 
city authorities. When dead they are replaced by full-grown 

t A century later Calonne, minis'er of Louis XVI., caused Paris and 
its suburbs to be enclosed by a wall, termed Boulevards extirieurs, in 
order To enable the government to levy a lax on all provisions introduced 
into the town. This gave rise to the witticism : Le mur murant Paris rend 
Paris inurnmrant, which remains true to this day. Since January 1st, 1860, 
the precincts of the city have been further extended and now comprise 20 
(instead of 12) Arrondissements , into which have been incorporated the 
parishes of Auteuil, Passy, Batignolles, Montmartre, La Chapelle, LaVil- 
lette, Belleville, Charonne, Bercy, Vaugirard and Grenelle. 

Biedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 3 



34 1. BOULEVARDS. 

substitutes , transplanted at great expense from a more healthy 
atmosphere. The small glass cabinets in which newspapers are 
sold , and the establishments where Selters water and other 
beverages are supplied to the thirsty wayfarer, known ly the 
German designation of "Trinkhalle", are all of comparatively 
recent origin. The chairs (chaises et fauteuils) , which may be 
hired (10 — 20 c.) on the most animated portions of the boulevards, 
belong to a company, and are often in great request. 

In order to inspect the Boulevards in detail , the stranger is 
strongly recommended to walk along the N. side from the Bastille 
to the Madeleine and to return on the S. side. The quietest 
and most favourable time is the forenoon. When the traffic reaches 
its climax, between 2 and 5 p. m. , the top of an omnibus is 
perhaps the best point of observation. An evening walk through 
the boulevards should also on no account be omitted; nothing 
can then exceed the brilliancy and animation of the scene. — The 
number of vehicles, from the elegant private equipage to the 
ponderous waggon, which daily traverse the boulevards , is upwards 
of 24,000. 

The shops, as well as many of the cafe's of the Boulevard 
des Italiens and those adjoining it far surpass those of the Palais 
Royal in brilliancy and magnificence. Cafe's in the Boulevards, 
see p. 15; reading-rooms, p. 17; theatres, p. 29; shops and 
bazaars, p. 17. 

A very frequent summer apparition on the Boulevards is the 
vender of coco (liquorice water and lemon-juice), with his quiver- 
like zinc vessels, shining mugs and tinkling bell. 

The Place de la Bastille is selected as the most suitable 
starting-point for the above-mentioned walk; as the stranger pro- 
ceeds from E. to W., the interest of the route gradually increases 
and the traffic becomes more animated. From the Madeleine he 
may then proceed by the Place de la Concorde and the Champs 
Elyse'es to the Arc de l'Etoile , and return thence through the 
Jardin des Tuileries, past the Palais Royal, the Hotel de Ville 
and the Caserne Napoleon , to the July Column. This circuit 
comprises a large proportion of the most striking features in Paris. 

The Place de la Bastille, or simply La Bastille as it is usually 
termed, was formerly the site of La Bastille St. Antoine, a castle 
consisting of five lofty towers connected by walls and surrounded 
by a deep fosse. This building, which formed the extremity 
of the ancient fortifications and commanded the Seine and the 
populous suburb of St. Antoine, was spared in 1670 when 
the boulevards were levelled (p. 33) , and was subsequently 
employed as a state-prison. On the 14th of July, 1789, it 
was captured and destroyed by the revolutionists ; the stones 
were then chiefly employed in the construction of the Pont de 
la Concorde. 



1. BOULEVARDS. 35 

The Boulevard Richard Lenoir, constructed above the covered 
Canal St. Martin, which is connected with the Bassin du Canal 
St. Martin on the S. side of the Place and thus with the Seine 
also, was once destined by Napoleon I. to be the site of a 
colossal elephant fountain, 72 ft. in height, to be erected in 
commemoration of the revolution. (A model is preserved in the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts, p. 151.) The steamboats pass beneath 
this beautiful promenade, and their smoke is occasionally visible 
as it issues from the air-holes concealed in the midst of the 
small plantations. 

After the revolution of 1830, however, the plan was abandoned; 
the spot was employed as a burial-place for the "July champions", 
and the present Coloune de Juillet erected over their remains. 
The monument, which is of iron, 154 ft. in height, is surmounted 
by a figure emblematical of Liberty, bearing a torch in one hand 
and a broken chain in the other. In February 1848, the "February 
champions" were here interred beside their comrades of 1830. 
The summit of the monument commands a fine view, especially 
of the cemetery Pere Lachaise; the ascent is, however, less 
recommended than that of the Tour St. Jacques (p. 46) , and 
should not be attempted by persons inclined to dizziness, on 
account of the swaying motion which is sometimes felt, especially 
in windy weather. Custodian's fee 20 c. 

The strongest barricade of the insurgents in June, 1848, 
which could not be captured without the aid of heavy artillery, 
was in the neighbouring Rue du Faubourg St. Antoine diverging 
to the r. (E.) On the 25th of June, the third day of the contest, 
Archbishop Affre (p. 105) was here killed by an insurgent's 
ball , whilst exhorting the people to peace. 

Before commencing his walk along the animated Boulevards, 
the stranger may, by way of contrast, visit the Place Royale, to 
reach which he turns to the 1. into the Rue St. Antoine and 
takes the third street (Rue Royale) to the r. Passing under an 
arch, he enters a large square planted with limes and chestnuts, 
two sides of which are adorned with fountains. In the centre 
stands the equestrian marble Statue of Louis XIII., executed by 
Dupaty and Cortot, and erected in 1829 to replace the statue of 
the same king erected by Richelieu in 1639, which had been 
destroyed in 1792. 

The square itself occupies the site of the court of the former 
Palais des Tournelles , where in 1565 a tournament, which cost 
Henry II. his life (p. 94), took place. Catherine de Medicis caused 
the palace to be taken down and the houses (not completed till 
the reign of Henry IV.), which now occupy its site, to be erected. 
They are built uniformly of red brick with lofty roofs, and 
have a series of arcades in front. Richelieu once occupied No. 21, 
Victor Hugo No. 9 at the S.E. corner, and Mademoiselle Rachel 

3* 



36 1. BOULEVARDS. 

the house opposite until her death in 1858. The present inhabi- 
tants of this gloomy, old-fashioned square, as well as of the ad- 
joining streets (Quartier du Marais) , are chiefly retired officers 
and persons of limited income. For a short time after the 
revolution of 1792, and again in 1848, the square was named 
Place des Vosges, in honour of the department of that name, which 
had been the first to send contributions in support of the po- 
pular cause. 

To the N.W. of this, if the Rue Neuve Ste. Catherine be followed, 
the Imprimerie Imperiale, the extensive and interesting printing 
establishment of the government, is reached. Admission on 
Thursdays at 2 precisely, as the premises are shown once only 
(1 fr.) 

Returning to the Place de la Bastille and entering the Bou- 
levards, the stranger first traverses the Boulevard Beau- 
marchais. The S. side consists of handsome and tastefully 
built houses, completed since 1848, the N. side principally of 
petty shops. This boulevard and that of the Filles du Cal- 
vaire are chiefly frequented by the denizens of the Faubourg 
St. Antoine with their blue blouses and printed cotton jackets. 
In fine weather the decayed gentleman and retired officer of the 
Quartier du Marais, recognisable by the ancient appearence of 
their costume , occasionally emerge to sun themselves. No. 25 is 
the Theatre Beaumarchais , the great resort of the inhabitants of 
the neighbouring Faubourg. 

The Boulevard du Temple is sometimes termed the 
Boulevard du Crime, owing, it is said, to the number 
of melodramatic and other theatres which were formerly crowded 
together on the N. side, the last of which, however, have very 
recently been demolished to make way for the new Boulevard du 
Prince Eugene (see below). 

To the latter appellation the crime of Fieschi may possibly 
have in some degree contributed. No 42 occupies the site of 
the house, whence July 28th, 1835, he discharged his infernal 
machine at Louis Philippe, which occasioned the death of Marshal 
Mortier and several others. 

Exactly opposite, on the S. side, is situated the Jardin Turc, 
and near it the restaurant Bonvalet, both frequented by the re- 
spectable denizens of the Quartier du Marais (see above). The 
Cadran Bleu, exactly opposite to the Restaurant Bonvalet, was 
formerly one of the most celebrated restaurants in Paris. On the 
same side toy and fancy shops predominate. 

The huge building on the r., which attracts the eye at the 
commencement of the Boulevard St. Martin, is the Caserne du 
Prince Engine, capable of accommodating 8000 men. It is now 
connected with Vincennes and its military establishments by the 
Boulevard du Prince Eugene, inaugurated Dec. 7th, 1862, 



1. BOULEVARDS, 37 

by the emperor. This Boulevard runs in a S. E. direction from 
the Boulevard du Temple to the Place du Trone, and intersects 
the Place du Prince Eugene, where in 1865 a bronze Statue of 
Engine Beauhamais was erected, it stands on a pedestal of 
green granite, bearing the inscription: "Au Prince Engine Na- 
poleon"; the sides are adorned with representations of the prince's 
greatest battles , and at the back is recorded the passage from 
his letter to the Emperor Alexander in 1814, in which he repu- 
diates that monarch's overtures and declares his determination of 
remaining faithful to Napoleon. (In the vicinity , in front of 
the Prison de la Roquette, is the Parisian place of execution). 
Farther on, the Boulevard traverses the most populous portion 
of the quarter inhabited by artizans. The triumphal arch, in com- 
memoration of the Russian and Italian campaigns, which it was 
proposed to erect in front of the columns of the Place du Tr6ne 
and of which a model in wood was temporarily constructed, 
will probably never be executed. 

The new Boulevard de Magenta diverges to the N. and 
the Boulevard St. Martin commences at the Chateau d'Eau, a 
handsome fountain consisting of three stories, the lowest 90 ft. 
in diameter. A flower-market is held here on Mondays and Thurs- 
days (p. 18). The Boulevard lies on a slight eminence, which in 
the middle, between the houses, was levelled in 1845 for the 
convenience of carriages. Here are situated the Thedtre des 
Folies Dramatiques, the Thedtre de VAmbigu Comique and the 
Thedtre de la Porte St. Martin. 

The Porte St. Martin is a triumphal arch, 54 ft. in height 
and 54 ft. in breadth, erected by the city in 1674 in honour of 
Louis XIV. The inscriptions and reliefs commemorate the vic- 
tories of that monarch; on the S. side are represented the cap- 
ture of Besancon and the defeat of the Triple Alliance (Germans, 
Spaniards and Dutch), on the N. the taking of Limbourg and the 
victory over the Germans. On the 31st of March, 1814, the 
German and Russian armies entered Paris by the Barriere de 
Pantin and the Rue du Faubourg St. Martin, and passed through 
the Porte St. Martin and the Boulevards to the Place de la Con- 
corde (p. 78). 

The broad, new street, which here diverges to the r. and 1. 
and intersects Paris from N. to S., is the Boulevard de Sevastopol 
and the Boulevard de Strasbourg (comp. p. 45). 

The Porte St. Denis, another triumphal arch erected by the 
city in 1672, to commemorate the brilliant successes of Louis XIV. 
in Holland and the district of the Lower Rhine, is 72 ft. in height 
and of more symmetrical proportions than the Porte St. Martin. 
The archway is 43 ft. in height and 25 ft. in width. The Latin 
inscription on the S. side is to the following effect: To Louis 
the Oreat, for having within 60 days crossed the Rhine, the Waal, 



38 1. BOULEVARDS. 

the Meuse and the Issel, conquered three provinces and captured 
40 fortified cities. On the obelisk to the r. is the vanquished and 
mournful Holland on a dead lion, to the 1. the river-god of the 
Rhine. Above the archway is represented Louis's passage of the 
Rhine at Tollhuis below Emmerich, where the river had been 
rendered unusually shallow by a long drought. The relief and 
inscription at the back commemorate the fact that the same 
monarch took Maestricht in 13 days. 

In July, 1830, both these gateways were the scene of the most 
sanguinary conflicts; here, too, in June, 1848, the first engage- 
ment between the insurgents and the military took place. 

The visitor next reaches the Boulevard Bonne Nou- 
velle (Theatre du Qymnase, p. 28), the Boulevard Pois- 
sonniere and the Boulevard Montmartre. The Theatre 
des Varietes is No. 7, on the S. side, see p. 28; No. 21 is a 
magazine of aquariums, where a large and interesting aquarium 
is exhibited (1 fr.). 

The traffic now increases in animation and the shops in splen- 
dour. In the Boulevard Poissonniere may be mentioned the 
Bazar de Voyage, No. 14; Henri, the well-known perfumer, No. 20; 
Barbedienne and Co., dealers in bronzes, Nr. 30; Bazar de Vln- 
dustrie, on the S. side, No. 27; in the Rue Montmartre the "Ville 
de Paris" ; then the Passage des Panoramas, and on the N. side 
the more recently constructed Passage Jouffroy , both containing 
numerous attractive shops. 

Cafes and restaurants, and on the S. side shops, , are now the 
most conspicuous buildings. "Au Prophete" on the S. side is a 
vast and brilliantly lighted depot for ready-made clothes. 

The Rue du Faubourg Montmartre at its junction with the 
Boulevards was on Feb. 24th, 1848, closed by a strong barricade 
which several times baffled the attempts of the municipal guard 
to take it. 

Before entering the Boulevard des Italiens, the stranger should 
turn into the Rue Vivienne, opposite to the Passage Jouffroy, 
which leads him to the Place de la Bourse. The Exchange, or 
Palais de la Bourse, is a handsome building in the Grecian style, 
surrounded by a colonnade of 66 Corinthian pillars. At the cor- 
ners stand four statues emblematical of Commerce (by Dumont), 
Commercial Equity (by Duret), Industry (by Pradier) and Agri- 
culture (by Seurre). 

The hall of the Bourse, 116 ft. in length and 76 ft. in width, 
is opened at 12 o'clock (free access from 12 to 5 o'cl. ; sticks 
and umbrellas must be given up at the entrance, 10 c.J. Nume- 
rous vehicles, especially private carriages, soon drive up, and 
the money-seeking throng crowds into the building. The parquet, 
at the end of the hall, is a railed -off space which the sworn 
brokers (agents de change) alone are privileged to enter. They 



1. BOUr.TCVARDS. 39 

congregate round the corbeille, another railed-off space in the 
centre, and make their offers in loud tones. Other groups, espe- 
cially near the parquet, are occupied in taking notes, or con- 
cluding sales or purchases, the prices being regulated by the 
transactions which take place in the parquet. Occasionally an 
offer is made to the brokers in the parquet, or instructions 
handed over to them to effect sales. 

The tumultuous scene is best surveyed from the gallery, to 
which the S. side-entrance leads. The noise, the shouting, the 
excited gestures of the speculators and the eager cupidity of 
all produce a disagreeable impression on the mind of the spec- 
tator. Amidst the din almost the only intelligible words are: 
"Je donne, je p rends, je vends!" 

At 3 o'clock the stock-exchange terminates, the brokers as- 
semble and note the prices realized in the most recently concluded 
transactions, and the exchange-list for the day is then issued and 
at once printed. The hall remains open from 3 to 5 o'clock for 
the transaction of other mercantile business. The upper apart- 
ments are employed by the Tribunal de Commerce for its public 
sessions, which are held daily, Saturdays excepted, at 10 o'clock. 
The president and judges are merchants. The new Tribunal de 
Commerce in the Boulevard de Sevastopol (p. 45), rapidly ap- 
proaches completion. 

Opposite to the Bourse is the Theatre de Vaudeville (p. 28). 

The portions of the Rue Vivienne and the parallel Rue Ri- 
chelieu, which diverge from the Boulevard to the S., are among 
the most animated business localities. The establishment " Aux 
Villes de France" has an entrance in each of these streets. Rue 
Richelieu, Place Louvois (Square Richelieu), Bibliotheque Impe- 
rial, see p. 99. 

Returning to the Boulevards, the stranger passes Frascati, the 
once notorious gambling-house, a large building to the r. at the 
end of the Rue Richelieu. The Boulevard des Italiens is 
sometimes called Boulevard de Oand from the fact that, whilst 
Louis XVIII. was during the hundred days (1815) awaiting the 
issue of affairs at Ghent, his partisans were in the habit of as- 
sembling here. It is the most animated and fashionable of all, 
and consists almost exclusively of hotels, cafe's and the choicest 
shops. The upper stories of several of the best houses are let 
to private clubs. 

Before and after the exchange hours, petty stockbrokers fre- 
quently assemble at the Passage de l'Ope"ra and exhibit the same 
eager haste and excitement as in the hall of the Bourse. These 
clusters, which often obstruct the pavement to the annoyance of 
the foot-passengers, are generally dispersed by the police, which 
is no sooner done than the offenders re-assemble in similar knots 
a few paces farther off. 



40 1. BOULEVARDS. 

The Grand Optra (p. 26) forms the N. termination of the 
passage; the front is on the W. side of the Rue Lepelletier. 

On the opposite (S.) side of the Boulevard stands the Cafe 
du Grand Balcon and behind it the Opera Comique. 

The streets which diverge from the Boulevard to the N., the 
Rue Laffltte, Rue Taitbout, and especially the Rue de la Chaussee 
d'Antin are chiefly inhabited by wealthy bankers, moneyed men 
and eminent savants, artists etc. At No. 17 Rue Laffitte, now 
the property of Baron James Rothschild, Napoleon III. was born 
Aug. 20th, 1808. 

At the Rue de la Chausse'e d'Antin the Boulevard des 
Capucines commences. On an open space on the N. side, op- 
posite to the Rue de la Paix, the extensive new Opera-house is in 
course of construction. It is intended to form the extremity of 
a new Boulevard, leading to the Station de l'Ouest (Versailles- 
Rouen), and which will be prolonged under the name of Rue de 
V Imperatrice as far as the Rue de Rivoli. Adjacent to it is the 
Grand Hotel (p. 4). On the opposite side, at the corner in the 
Rue de la Paix, Tahan, one of the best shops in Paris for 
furniture and articles of carved wood ; No. 37 is the depot of 
the Compagnie Lyonnaise; No. 41, an premier, Bietry's shawl 
magazine. 

The Rue de la Paix, which diverges to the S. from the Bou- 
levard des Capucines, is one of the handsomest streets in Paris 
and also the residence of many of the wealthiest citizens. It 
terminates in the octagonal Place Vendome, in the centre of which 
rises the Colonne Vend&me , a monument in imitation of Trajan's 
column at Rome, 135 ft. in height and 12 ft. in diameter. It was 
erected by Napoleon I. in 1810 to commemorate his victories over 
the Russians and Austrians in 1805 , as the inscription records. 
A Latin inscription on a tablet above the door is to the following 
effect : The Emperor Napoleon dedicated this monument, constructed 
of captured cannons, in commemoration of the war terminated in 
Germany within three months under his generalship, to the fame of 
the great army. — The metal of 1200 cannons was employed in 
the construction of the column. 

The reliefs of the pedestalrepresent the uniforms and weapons 
of the conquered armies, those which wind round the shaft exhibit 
in chronological order a history of the war from the departure of 
the troops from the camp of Boulogne to the battle of Austerlitz. 
The figures are each 3 ft. in height; the entire series, if in a 
straight line, would measure 840 ft in length. They possess no 
great artistic merit and owing to their height above the spectator 
cannot easily be distinguished. A good model of the column may 
be seen at the Hotel des Monnaies (p. 148). 

The original statue of Napoleon which occupied the summit 
of the column was melted down in 1814, and the metal employed 



1. BOULEVARDS. 41 

in casting the equestrian statue of Henry IV. on the Pont Neuf 
(p. 101). Subsequently, in 1831, Louis Philippe caused a new 
statue to be cast of the metal of guns captured at Algiers and 
to be placed on the summit. This was removed in December, 
1863, to the Avenue de Neuilly and replaced by a statue of the 
emperor in his imperial robes, similar to the original statue. 

The column may be ascended by means of a dark staircase 
(open from 10 a. m. to 6 p. m.). The custodian (fee 50 cent.) 
provides the visitor with a lantern. The view from the summit 
is, however, inferior to those from the Tour St. Jacques, Notre- 
Dame, the Pantheon and the Arc de l'Etoile. 

The Hdtel du Rhin, on the S. side of the square, was the 
residence of Napoleon III. when acting as deputy of the national 
assembly from September to December, 1848. 

Returning to the Rue de la Paix and following the Rue Neuve 
des Capucines, the first street to the 1., the stranger will soon 
reach the Boulevard de la Madeleine. The new buildings to the r., 
at the corner of the Boulevard des Capucines, occupy the site of 
the Hotel du Ministere des Affaires Etrangtres, which stood here 
till 1853, and was in February, 1848, the residence of Guizot, 
the prime minister at that time. On the night of February 23rd, 
1848, a shot fired from a window of this edifice, as it is alleged, 
by a mischance, was the precursor of the events which levelled 
the "July throne". 

The houses of the Boulevard de la Madeleine, the N. side 
of which is termed Rue Basse du Rempart, are all of recent 
origin, most of them having been erected in 1855 — 56. One of the 
most tempting shop-windows is that of Oallois Oignoux, Nos. 21 — 23. 

The W. termination of the Boulevards is formed by the church 
of La Madeleine (p. 109). 

A Flower-market, of considerable importance, is held here on 
Tuesdays and Fridays. One of the principal cab-stands in the 
city is on the N. and W. sides of the church. 

The broad but short Rue Royale leads hence to the Place de 
la Concorde (p. 78). In the last house to the I. are the offices 
of the minister of marine affairs. 

The Boulevard Malesherbes, 3 / 4 M. in length, inaugurated 
August 13th, 1861, and leading in a direct line to the Park of 
Monceaux (p. 88), diverges from the Madeleine in aN.W. direction, 
and forms a continuation of the old Boulevards. It is intersected 
by the new Boulevard Hausmann. About the centre of the former 
is situated the new Eglise des Auyustins, a late Gothic structure, 
with lower and upper church, not yet entirely completed. 

The remains of the illustrious victims who were guillotined in 
1793 (p. 79) were originally interred in the former churchyard 
of the Madeleine, at the N. extremity of the Rue de la Madeleine. 
In 1815 they were removed to the royal vault of St. Denis, and 



42 1. BOULEVARDS. 

on the spot where they had for 21 years reposed, the Chapelle 
Expiatoire was erected by Louis XVIII. , as the inscription over 
the entrance records. 

The chapel is built in the form of a cross, surmounted by a 
dome. The interior contains two marble groups, to the 1. that 
of the queen, supported by a figure emblematical of Religion 
(a likeness of Madame Elizabeth, the king's sister, executed 
May 12th, 1794), a work of the sculptor Cortot; underneath is 
the copy of a letter from the queen to Madame Elizabeth, dated 
Oct. 16th, 1793, which runs as follows: 

"(Test a vous , ma sceur que jYcris pour -la derniere fois; je viens 
d'etre condamn^e, non pas a une mort honteuse, elle ne. Test que pour 
les criminels: mais a aller rejoindre votre frere. Comme lui innocente, 
j'espere montrer la meme fermete que lui dans ces derniers moments. 
Je suis calme comme on Test quand la conscience ne reproche rien. 
J'ai un profond regret d'abandonner mes pauvres enfants; vous savez que 
je n'existais que pour eux et vous, ma bonne et tendre soeur; vous qui 
avez par votre amitie, tout sacrifie' pour etre avec nous. Dans quelle 
position je vous laisse! J'ai appris, par le plaidoyer meme du proces, que 
ma fllle etait se'pare'e de vous. Helas! la pauvre enfant, je n'ose pas lui 
ecrire; elle ne recevrait pas ma lettre. Je ne sais meme pas si celle-ci 
vous parviendra. Itecevez pour eux deux, ici, ma benediction; j'espere 
qu'un jour, lorsqu'ils seront plus grands, ils pourront se reunir avec vous, 
et jouir en entier de vos tendres soins. 

Qu'ils pensent tous deux a ce que je n'ai pas cesse" de leur inspirer: 
que les principes et l'execution exacte de ses devoirs sont la premiere 
base de la vie: que leur amiti^ et leur confiance mutuelle en feront le 
bonheur; que ma fllle sente qu'a l'age qu'elle a, elle doit toujours aider 
son frere par les conseils que l'experience qu'elle aura de plus que lui 
et son amitie" pourront lui inspirer; que mon ills, a son tour, rende a sa 
sceur tous les soins, les services que l'amitie" peut inspirer; qu'ils sentent 
enfln, tous deux, que, dans quelque position oil ils pourront se trouver, 
ils ne seront vraiment heureux que par leur union; qu'ils prennent ex- 
emple de nous; combien, dans nos malheurs , notre amitie nous a donne 
de consolation! Et dans le bonheur, on jouit doublement quand on peut 
le partager avec un ami ; et oil en trouver de plus tendre , de plus cher, 
que dans sa propre famille? Que mon flls n'oublie jamais les derniers 
mots de son pere, que je lui repete expresse'ment: qu'il ne cherche jamais 
a venger notre mort. 

J'ai a vous parler d'une chose bien penible a mon cceur; je sais com- 
bien cet enfant doit vous avoir fait de la peine; pardonnez lui, ma chere 
sueur; pensez a l'age qu'il a, et combien il est facile de faire dire a un 
enfant ce qu'on veut, et meme ce qu'il ne comprend pas. Un jour viendra, 
j'espere, oil il ne sentira que mieux tout le prix de vos bontes et de 
votre tendresse pour tous deux; il me reste a vous confier encore mes 
dernieres pensees. J'aurais voulu les ecrire des le commencement du 
proces; mais, outre qu'on ne me laissait pas ecrire, la marche en a e'te' 
si rapide que je n'en aurais pas re'ellement eu le temps. 

Je meurs dans la religion catholique, apostolique et romaine, dans 
celle de mes peres, dans celle oil j'ai ete ^levee et que j'ai toujours pro- 
fessed ; n'ayant aucune consolation spirituelle a attendre , ne sachant pas 
s'il existe encore ici des pretres de cette religion, et meme le lieu oil je 
suis les exposerait trop, s'ils y entraient une fois. 

Je demande sincerement pardon a Dieu de toutes les fautes que j'ai 
pu commettre depuis que j'existe. J'espere que, dans sa bonte, il voudra 
bien recevoir mes derniers voeux, ainsi que eeux que je fais depuis long- 
temps pour qu'il veuille bien recevoir mon ame dans sa mis^ricorde et sa 
bonte. Je demande pardon a tous ceux que je connais , et a vous, ma 
soeur, en particulier, de toutes les peines que, sans le vouloir, j'aurais pu 



1. BOULEVARDS. 43 

vous causer: je pardonne a tous mes ennemis le mal qu'ils m'ont fait. Je 
dis ici adieu a mes tantes et a tous mes freres et scsurs. J'avais des amis; 
ridde d'en etre separee pour jamais et leurs peines sont un des plus grands 
regrets que j'emporte en mourant: qu'ils sachent du moins que, jusqu'a 
mon dernier moment, j'ai pense a eux. Adieu, ma bonne et tendre soeur; 
puisse cette lettre vous arriver! Pensez toujours a moi; je vous embrasse 
de tout mon coeur, ainsi que ces pauvres et chers ent'ants. Mon Dieu! 
q'il est dechirant de les quitter pour toujours! Adieu' Adieu! Je ne vais 
plus m'occuper que des mes devoirs spirituels. Comme je ne suis pas libre 
dans mes actions, on m'amenera peut-etre un pretre; mais je proteste ici 
que je ne lui dirai pas un mot, et que je le traiterai comme un etre ab- 
solument etranger. 

Marie Antoinette." 

The group to the r. presents the king and an angel addressing 
him: "Fils de St. Louis, montez au del!" Underneath is a copy 
of the king's will, dated December 25th, 1792. 

"Au nom de la Tres-sainte Trinite' , du Pere, du Fils et. du Saint- 
Esprit, aujourd'hui vingt-cinq decembre mil sept cent quatre-vingt-douze. 
Moi Louis, XVI. du nom, roi de France, etant depuis plus de quatre mois 
enferme' avec ma famille, dans la Tour du Temple, a Paris, par ceux qui 
etaient mes sujets, et prive de toutes communications quelquonqxies, menie, 
depuis le onze du courant, avec ma famille; de plus implique dans un 
proces, dont il est impossible de prevoir Tissue, a cause des passions des 
hommes , et dont on ne trouve aucun pretexte ni moyen dans aucune loi 
existante, n'ayant que Dieu pour temoin des mes pensees , et auquel je 
puisse m'adresser, je declare ici en sa presence mes dernieres volont.es 
et mes sentiments. 

Je laisse mon ame a Dieu, mon cre'ateur. Je le prie de la recevoir 
dans sa misericorde, et de ne pas la juger d'apres ses merites, mais par ceux 
de notre Seigneur Jesus-Christ, qui s'est offert en sacrifice a Dieu son pere, 
pour nous autres hommes, quelque indignes que nous en fussinns, et moi 
le premier. 

Je meurs dans l'union de notre Sainte-Mere l'Eglise catholique, aposto- 
lique et romaine, qui ticnt. ses pouvoirs , par une succession non inter- 
rompue, de Saint - Pierre , auquel Jesus-Christ les avait confi^s. Je crois 
fermement et je confesse tout ce qui est contenu dans le symbole et les 
commandements de Dieu et de l'Eglise, les sacrements et les mysteres, 
tels que l'Eglise catholique nous les enseigne et les a toujours enseignes. 
Je n'ai jamais pre"tendu me rendre juge dans les differentes manieres d'ex- 
pliquer les dogmes qui de'chirent Teglise de Jesus -Christ; mais je nTen 
suis rapporte" et m'en rapporterai toujours, si Dieu m'accorde vie, aux de- 
cisions que les supeVieurs ecclesiastiques, unis a la sainte e"glise catho- 
lique, donnent et donneront conformOment a la discipline de l'Eglise, 
suivie depuis Je"sus - Christ. Je plains de tout mon cceur nos freres qui 
peuvent etre dans Terreur, mais je ne pretends pas les juger, et je ne les 
aime pas moins tous en Jesus-Christ, suivant ce que la charite* chre'tienne 
nous enseigne. 

Je prie Dieu de me pardonner tous mes pSch^s. J'ai cherche" a les 
connaitre scrupuleusement, a les d^tester et a m'humilier en sa presence. 
Ne pouvant me servir du ministere d'un pretre catholique, je prie Dieu de 
recevoir la confession que je lui en ai faite, et surtout le repentir profond 
que j'ai d'avoir mis mon nom (quoique cela fut contre ma volonte) a des 
actes qui peuvent etre contraires a la discipline et a la croyance de l'Eglise 
catholique, a laquelle je suis toujours reste sincerement uni de coeur. Je 
prie Dieu de recevoir la ferme resolution oil je suis, s'il m'accorde vie, de 
me servir, aussitot que je le pourrai , du ministere d'un pretre catholique 
pour m'accuser de tous mes pecbes, et recevoir le sacrement de penitence. 

Je prie tous ceux que je pourrais avoir offense par inadvertance (car 
je ne me rappelle pas d'avoir fait sciemment aucune offense a personne) 



44 1. BOULEVARDS. 

ou ceux a qui j'aurais pu avoir donne" de mauvais exemples ou des scah- 
dales , de me pardonner le mal qu'ils croient que je peux leur avoir fait. 

Je prie tous ceux qui ont de la charite d'unir leurs prieres aux 
miennes pour obtenir de Dieu le pardon de mes peches. 

Je pardonne de tout mon cceur a ceux qui se sont fait mes ennemis, 
sans que je leur en aie donne* aucun sujet, et je prie Dieu de leur pardon- 
ner, de meme qu'a ceux qui, par un faux zele ou par un zele malentendu, 
m'ont fait beaucoup de mal. 

Je recommande a Dieu ma femme et mes enfants*, mes soeurs, mes 
tantes, mes freres, et tous ceux qui me sont attache's par les liens du 
sang, ou par quelque autre maniere que ce puisse etre. Je prie Dieu 
particulierement de jeter des yeux de mise'ricorde sur ma femme , mes 
enfants et ma scaur, qui souffrent depuis longtemps avec moi; de les 
soutenir par sa grace , s'ils viennent a me perdre , et tant qu'ils resteront 
dans ce monde perissable. 

Je recommande mes enfants a ma femme : je n'ai jamais doute de sa 
tendresse maternelle pour eux: je lui recommande surtout d'en (aire de 
bons Chretiens et d'honnetes hommes; de ne leur faire regarder les gran- 
deurs de ce monde-ci (s'ils sont condamnes a les e*prouver) que comme 
des biens dangereux et perissables , et de tourner leurs regards vers la 
seule gloire solide et durable de l'e'ternite'. Je prie ma soeur de vouloir 
bien continuer sa tendresse a mes enfants, et de leur tenir lieu de mere, 
s'ils avaient le malheur de perdre la leur. 

Je prie ma femme de me pardonner tous les maux qu'elle souffre pour 
moi, et les chagrins que je pourrais lui avoir donnCs dans le cours de 
notre union ; comme elle peut itre sure que je ne garde rien contre elle, 
si elle croyait avoir quelque chose a se reprocher. 

Je recommande bien vivement a mes enfants, apres ce qu'ils doivent 
a Dieu, qui doit marcher avant tout, de rester toujours unis entre eux, 
soumis et obeissants a leur mere, et reconnaissants de tous les soins et 
les peines qu'elle se donne pour eux et en me'moire de moi. Je les prie 
de regarder ma soeur comme une seconde mere. 

Je recommande a mon fils, s'il avait le malheur de devenir roi, de 
songer qu'il se doit tout entier au bonheur de ses concitoyens , qu'il doit 
oublier toute haine et tout ressentiment, et nomme'ment tout ce qui a rap- 
port aux malheurs et aux chagrins que j'eprouve: qu'il ne peut faire le 
bonheur des peuples qu'en regnant suivant les lois; mais en meme temps 
qu'un roi ne peut les faire respecter, et faire le bien qui est dans son coeur, 
qu'autant qu'il a l'autorite necessaire, et qu'autrement, etant lie dans ses 
operations et n'inspirant point de respect, il est plus nuisible qu'utile. 

Je recommande a mon fils d'avoir soin de toutes les personnes qui 
m'eHaient attache'es, autant que les circonstances oil il se trouvera lui en 
donneront les facultes ; de songer que c'est une dette sacr^e que j'ai com- 
tract^e envers les enfants ou les parents de ceux qui ont pu perir pour 
moi; ensuite, de ceux qui sont malheureux pour moi. Je sais qu'il y a 
plusieurs personnes , de celles qui m'etaient attachees qui ne se sont pas 
conduites envers moi comme elles le devaient, et qui ont meme montre 
de l'ingratitude ; mais je leur pardonne (souvent, dans les moments de 
trouble et d'effervescence, on n'est pas le maitre de soi), et je prie mon 
fils, s'il en trouve l'occasion, de ne songer qu'a leur malheur. 

Je voudrais pouvoir te"moigner ici ma reconnaissance a ceux qui m'ont 
montre un attachement veritable et de'sinteresse'. D'un cote , si j'e"tais 
sensiblement touche de l'ingratitude et de la deloyaute de ceux a qui je 
n'avais jamais temoigne" que des bonte's, a eux et a leurs parents ou amis ; 
de l'autre, j'ai eu de la consolation a voir l'attachement et l'inte'ret gra- 
tuit que beaucoup de personnes m'ont montre; je les prie d'en recevoir 
tous mes remerciments. Dans la situation oil sont encore les choses, je 
craindrais de les compromettre si je parlais plus explicitement: mais je 
recommande spe'cialement a mon fils de chercher les occasions de pouvoir 
les reconnaitre. Je croirais calomnier cependant les sentiments de la na- 
tion , si je ne recommandais ouvertement a mon fils MM. de Chamilly et 
Hue, que leur veritable attachement pour moi avait porte^ a s'enfermer 



1. BOULEVARDS. 45 

avec moi dans ce triste sejour, et qui ont pense en etre les malheureuses 
victimes. Je lui recommande aussi Clery, des soins duquel j'ai eu tout 
lieu de me louer depuis qu'il est avec moi. Comme c'est lui qui est reste 
avec moi jusqu'a la fin, je prie Messieurs de la Commune de lui remettre 
mes hardes , mes livres , ma montre , ma bourse et les autres petits efl'ets 
qui sont deposes au conseil de la Commune. 

Je pardonne encore tres-volontiers, a ceux qui me gardaient, les mau- 
vais traitements et les genes dont ils ont cru devoir user envers moi. J'ai 
trouv^ quelques ames sensibles et compatissantes; que celles-la jouissent 
dans leur cceur de la tranquillite que doit leur donner leur facon de penser. 

Je prie MM. de Malesherbes, Tronchet et Deseze, de recevoir ici tous 
mes remerciments et Texpression de ma sensibilite pour tous les soins et 
les peines qu'ils se sont donn^es pour moi. 

Je finis en declarant devant Dieu, et pret a paraitre devant lui, que 
je ne me reproche aucun des crimes qui sont avances contre moi. 

L o u i s." 

Above the portal , in the interior , is an allegorical represen- 
tation of the removal of the royal remains to St. Denis, a relief 
by Lemaire. 

The adjacent building is tenanted by two clergymen who per- 
form service here. Mass every morning at 9 o'clock , at other 
times admission obtained by applying to the sacristan (fee 50 c). 

2. The Boulevards de Strasbourg and de Sebastopol. 

Tour St. Jacques de la Boucherie. Place du Ch&telet. Fontaine St. Michel. 

One of the more recent and magnificent improvements of the 
present reign was the construction of the already mentioned (p. 37} 
Boulevard de Strasbourg and Boulevard de Sevastopol, 
intersecting the old Boulevards between the Porte St. Denis and 
the Porte St. Martin, and traversing the greater portion of the city 
from N. to S. The former name is applied to the direct line of 
communication between the Strasbourg railway station and the 
old Boulevards. Thence to the Seine the street is termed Boulevard 
de Sevastopol ; its prolongation, traversing the great southern quarter 
of the city, and extending to the external Boulevard, has recently 
been named Boulevard St. Michel. Like the old Boulevards, they are 
furnished with broad asphalt pavements, rows of trees etc., and 
traverse the most animated quarters of the city. The Boulevard 
de Sevastopol especially, which is of more recent origin than the 
other portion, presents an uninterrupted succession of handsome 
edifices with numerous shops and cafe's. 

The Boulevard de Strasbourg, nearly Va M. in length, 
presents little worthy of note. At its commencement it is inter- 
sected by the new Boulevard de Magenta. The Boulevard de 
Sebastopol, commencing at the old Boulevards, leads to the 
(3 min.) Square des Arts et Metiers, to the 1., in which is situated the 
new Theatre de la Gaite"; in the rear, Rue St. Martin 292, rises 
the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers (comp. p. 102). About 8 min. 
walk farther is seen, to the r. , the church of St. Leu, with its 
adjoining parsonage-house, built in the same style as the church, 



46 2. BOULEVARDS. 

A short distance farther the new and unfinished Hue Turbigo inter- 
sects the Boulevard. Beyond it, through the second street to the 
right, may be perceived the lofty iron arches of the Halles Centrales 
(p. 18); 5 min. farther the Rue de Rivoli (p. 94) is crossed. To the 
W. in the Rue de Rivoli, rises triS solitary *Tour St. Jacques de la 
Boucherie, a handsome square Gothic tower, 164 ft. in height, 
erected in 1508 — 22, now the sole remnant of a church which was 
taken down in 17b9 and sold as national property. The view from 
the summit (adru. 10 c.) is incontestibly the finest in Paris, as the 
tower occupies a very central position; in the immediate vicinity 
flows the Seine with its numerous bridges, at the spectator's feet 
lie the new buildings oi the Rue de Rivoli and Boulevard de 
Se'bastopol , the Hotel de Ville etc. The purchase and restoration 
of the tower have cost the city nearly a million francs (40,000 L.) — 
In the hall on the ground-floor is a statue of the philosopher Pascal. 

Beyond the Tour St. Jacques a glimpse is obtained to the 1. 
of the Hotel de Ville (p. 92). — The Place du Chatelet, situated 
on the Seine and intersected by the Boulevard de Sebastopol, is 
next reached. 

The Monument which stands here was erected by Napoleon 1. 
in 1807 in commemoration of his victories. Beneath are four 
figures representing Fidelity, Vigilance, Law and Power; a brazen 
palm in the centre is inscribed with names of battles ; at the 
summit a statue of Victory, with raised hands, as if in the act 
of conferring wreaths of laurel. The whole is a work of Bosio. 
The monument originally stood farther from the Seine , but was 
removed entire to its present position on the construction of the 
Boulevard de Sebastopol. 

To the r. and 1. of the Place du Chatelet are situated the 
Theatre Lyrique and the Theatre du Chatelet respectively (conip. 
pp. 28, 29). 

The Pont au Change, of equal breatdh with the Boulevard 
itself, here crosses an arm of the Seine to the Cite island, on 
which is situated (to the r.) the Palais de Justice (p. 94). Oppo- 
site to it stands the newly erected Tribunal de Commerce, 
which will supersede the chamber at present employed for the 
purpose at the Bourse. This handsome building with its dome 
lies exactly in the line of the Boulevard de Se'bastopol, and forms 
a most appropriate termination to this portion of the street. 
Quitting the island by the Pont St. Michel , the stranger reaches 
the quay of that name with the Fontaine St. Michel, a vast and 
imposing structure , but in somewhat questionable taste. In the 
centre is represented St. Michel's victory over Satan, modelled 
by Duret , emblematical of Louis Napoleon's victory over the re- 
volution; at the top, female figures personifying the four cardinal 
virtues of a monarch. The inscription is as follows: "Fonde sous 



3. PALAIS ROYAL. 47 

It regne de Napoleon III., Empereur des Francais, ce monument 
a ete eleve par la ville de Paris en I860." 

The reddish stone, resembling marble, which is seen in this and 
many other recent structures is quarried in the Vosges mountains. 

Here the Boulevard St. Michel commences and is soon inter- 
sected by the new Boulevard St. Germain (which is to be pro- 
longed to the Corps Legislatif); at the corner of the latter, to 
the 1., is situated the Musee de Cluny (p. 135); then the broad 
Rue des Ecules (in the vicinity, to the 1., the College de France, 
founded by Francis I. in 1529 and greatly extended .of late 
years), beyond which the Sorbonne (p. 137) is reached, and opposite 
to it the Lycee St. Louis. Farther on. to the r. , is the long 
front of the Jardin du Luxembourg (the >S. portion of which is 
destined to be converted into new streets) , and the Ecole des 
Mines; nearly opposite to the latter the Deaf and Dumb Institute 
(p. 161). To the 1., near the commencement of the garden of 
the Luxembourg, the Pantheon (p. 138) may be seen through the 
Rue Soufflot. Farther on, to the 1. , through the Rue du Val 
de Grace , is seen the military Hopital du Val de Grace , which 
at a distance somewhat resembles the Pantheon. In the Carrefour 
de l'Observatoire is situated the Statue of Key, mentioned p. 134. 

3. The Palais Royal. 

Place des Victoires. 

In the year 1636 Cardinal Richelieu erected a palace for 
himself, opposite to the Louvre, and termed it the Palais Cardi- 
nal. After his death it was tenanted by Anne of Austria, widow 
of Louis XIII., with her two sons Louis XIV. and Philip of Or- 
leans , then both in their minority. Thenceforward the building 
was called the Palais Royal. 

It was afterwards presented by Louis XIV. to his brother the 
Duke of Orleans, by whose son the Regent Duke of Orleans it 
was subsequently occupied. The disgraceful orgies which here 
took place during the regentship of the latter are too well known 
to require description. St. Simon , an eyewitness of these scenes, 
thus alludes to them : 

"Les soupers du regent etaient toujours avec des compagnies fort 
etrangers, avec ses maitresses , quelquefois des filles de l'Opera, souvent 
avec la duchesse de Berry (sa fllle), quelques dames de moyenne vertu et 
quelques gens sans nom, mais brillants par leur esprit et leur d^bauche. 
On buvait beaucoup et du meilleur vin, on s'^chaufl'ait, on disait des or- 
dures a gorge deployee, des impie'tes a qui mieux mieux, et quand on 
avait fait du bruit et qu'on etait bien ivre, on allait se coucher." 

The Palais Royal now continued to be the property of the 
house of Orleans. Philippe [Egalite (p. 80), who was beheaded 
in 1793, grandson of the regent, led a scarcely less riotous and 
extravagant life than his grandfather. In order to replenish his 
exhausted coffers, he caused the entire garden to be surrounded 



48 3. PALAIS ROYAL. 

with rows of houses which he let to merchants and others, and 
thus materially improved his revenues. 

The upper apartments of these buildings were formerly de- 
voted to play, whilst in the lower rooms, generally used as cafe's, 
democrats and malcontents where in the habit of assembling to 
discuss their plans. Here Camille Desmoulins, one of the most 
conspicuous republican ringleaders, called the populace to arms, 
July 12th, 1789, and on the following day led the way to the 
Bastille (p. 34) which fell on the 14th. 

The appellation of Palais Egalite was then given to the Palais 
Royal , and subsequently that of Palais du Tribunat , during the 
years 1801 — 1807 when Napoleon assembled the Tribunate there. 
From 1807 to 1814 the palace itself was unoccupied; in 1815, 
during the hundred days, it was the residence of Lucian Bonaparte. 

On the Restoration of the Bourbons in 1815 the Orleans 
family again came into possession of the Palais Royal, and it was 
occupied by Louis Philippe until 1830, when he ascended the throne. 

Shortly before the outbreak of the revolution of July , he 
here gave a sumptuous ball in honour of the Neapolitan notabi- 
lities then visiting Paris, which gave rise to Salvandy's witticism : 
"Nous dansons sur un volcan." 

On the 24th of February, 184^, the mob destroyed the royal 
apartments in the most ruthless manner. Notwithstanding the 
request : " Respectez les tableaux," which some well-meaning hand 
had written on the walls, the pictures generally shared the same 
fate as the other objects of value. The fact, that 50,000 lbs. of 
glass and china alone were broken in the palace , may serve to 
convey a faint idea of the extent of the devastation. After this 
the palace was termed the Palais National. Under the present 
regime it has resumed its original name. 

The apartments in the S. wing of the Palais Royal, opposite 
to the new Louvre buildings, are now tenanted by Prince Napo- 
leon , cousin of the emperor and son of Jerome , formerly king 
of Westphalia. 

Beyond its historical associations , the Palais Royal possesses 
little that is worthy of note. The garden contains bronze copies 
of the Apollo Belvedere and Diana of Versailles and several mo- 
dern works: A youth preparing to bathe, by Espercieux: Boy 
struggling with a goat, by Lemoine; Ulysses on the sea-shore, by 
Bra; Eurydice bitten by the snake, by Nanteuil. 

The Palais Royal is, however, the great point of attraction 
for the stranger, when considered as the nucleus of the commercial 
life of Paris. It is situated almost in the heart of the city and 
has not inaptly been termed "la Capitate de Paris". The ma- 
jority of foot-passengers proceeding from the Louvre and the ad- 
joining quarters of the town on the I. bank of the Seine to the 
western boulevards usually traverse the arcades of the Palais 



3. PALAIS ROYAL. 49 

Royal , so that , especially on the W. side , it presents a most 
animated scene from hoon to midnight. 

The lower stories of the houses are almost exclusively occupied 
by shops which exhibit a tempting display of "objets de luxe". 
These, though inferior to the similar establishments in the Boule- 
vard des Italiens, are among the best of the kind in Paris. The 
rent of these shops is high, the smallest realizing 120 — 150 1. 

The most brilliant portion of the Palais Royal is the Qalerie 
d'Orleans (S. side) , an arcade 300 ft. in length and 40 ft. in 
width, covered in with glass and paved with slabs of marble. It 
was constructed in 1830 and occupies the site of the disreputable 
stalls which formerly stood here. 

The first floors of most of the houses are employed as cafe's 
and restaurants. The best of these, however, the Trois Frires 
Brovencaux, Vifour, and Cafe de la Botonde are on the ground- 
floor. The last-named enjoys the sole privilege of placing chairs 
in the garden for the convenience of its guests, a monopoly 
purchased for an annual sum of 40,000 fr. (1600 L.) from the 
former Cafe" de Foy. In the N.E. corner is the Cafe des Aveugles, 
in the N.W. the entrance to the Theatre du Palais Royal; in 
the. S.W. portion of the palace itself is the Theatre Francais. 
The E. side is termed Qalerie Valois, the W. side Qalerie Mont- 
pensier, the N. side Qalerie Beaujolais. 

The Garden, to which allusion has already been made, is 
about 310 yds. in length and 130 yds. in breadth. It is some- 
what scantily shaded by a quadruple row of elms. In the centre 
is a round basin of water, near which a military band generally 
plays on summer afternoons. On each side are long, enclosed 
flower-beds. 

The small cannon on the grass at the S. extremity of the 
flower-garden is fired by means of a burning-glass when the sun 
is at the meridian. 

On : the N. and S. sides are small kiosks or stands where 
newspapers are lent out at 5 c. each. The chafers under the elms 
are let at 10 c. each. 

The garden presents a most brilliant aspect in the evening, 
when, in addition to the 200 lamps of the arcades, each shop 
contributes its utmost to turn night into day. All the entrances 
to the garden are closed at midnight ; the gallery, being a thorough- 
fare, alone remains open. 

The long street on the N. side" of the Palais Royal is the 
Rue Neuve des Petits Champs, which is terminated to the E. by 
the small, circular Place des Victoires, with an equestrian statue 
of Louis XIV. In 1686 an equestrian" statue of that monarch 
was here erected, and the Place called after him. The monument 
was destroyed in 1792 and superseded by a pyramid inscribed 
with a list of victorious battles fought by the republican army, 

Baedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 4 



50 4. LOUVRE. 

whence the Place derives its present appellation. This pyramid 
was in its turn replaced by a statue of General Desaix (p. 97) 
in 1806, which was in 1814 melted down to aid in the con- 
struction of the monument of Henry IV. on the Pont Neuf (p. 98). 
The present monument was erected in 1822 from a design by 
Bosio. The figure of the horse, in a rearing attitude, rests on 
the hind-legs and tail; the rider is garbed as a Roman general. 
The long inscriptions record that the statue was erected to re- 
place the original one, destroyed "per infanda tempora". The 
reliefs at the sides represent the king's passage of the Rhine 
and the distribution of military honours. 

4. The Louvre and its Collections. 

Of all the public edifices in Paris the **Louvre flupara) 
(the Old and the New) is the most important, and on account of 
its vast and valuable collections the most interesting to strangers. 
It occupies the site of a fortress, which Francis I. caused to be 
demolished in 1541 in order to make way for the present palace. 
It was subsequently occupied by Catherine de Medicis and her 
son Charles IX. Here, Aug. 19th, 1572, the marriage of the 
Princess Margaret of Valois with the king of Navarre , afterwards 
Henry IV. of France, at which most of the Huguenot chiefs were 
present, was solemnized. Five days later, on the night of Aug. 
24th, the order emanated hence for the massacre of the Huguenots, 
at a signal given by the neighbouring church bell of St. Germain 
l'Auxerrois. From this palace the guards went forth and assassinated 
Admiral Coligny at his residence , the H6tel Ponthieu near the 
Place du Louvre, on the spot where the Cafe Coligny now stands, 
Rue de Rivoli 114. Tradition alleges that out of one of the S. 
windows of the palace Charles IX. fired upon his subjects, and 
an inscription to that effect was accordingly engraved under the 
window in question: "Gest de cette fenttre que Vinfame Charles IX., 
d'execruble memoire, a tir£ sur le peuple avec une carabine." Six 
years later, however, this inscription was erased, it having been 
discovered that that portion of the building had not been erected 
till the reign of Henry IV. The window whence the shot was 
actually fired was in that part of the palace afterwards demolished 
by Louis XIII. to make room for improvements. 

After the murder of Henry IV. (by Bavaillac, May 14th, 1610), 
whose remains were laid out on a bed still existing, Louis XIII. 
only occasionally resided in the palace. The subsequent monarchs 
were accustomed to reside at St. Germain , Versailles or in the 
Tuileries. The Louvre then became the seat of various govern- 
ment establishments, and was rapidly falling to decay when Na- 
poleon I. ordered it to be entirely restored in 1805. As early 
as 1796 several apartments were poorly fitted up for the recep- 



4. LOUVRE. 51 

tion of the treasures of art captured in the Italian war. Since 
that time the destination of the Louvre has remained the same. 

The apartments on the basement story contain Statuary from 
the Assyrian and Egyptian down to modern times; on the first 
floor are Pictures, Drawings, Antiquities, valuable 
Relics etc., on the second floor Marine and Ethnological 
collections. 

All the collections are accessible daily (Mondays excepted) 
from 10 to 12 to visitors with a passport (or visiting-card), from 
12 to 4 open to the public. The morning hours are the quietest 
and most favourable for the enjoyment of the collections. In 
the afternoon, between 1 and 4 o'clock, the crowd is generally 
very great, especially in the Picture Gallery. The fact that 
upwards of 4000 L. is annually paid for the care of sticks and 
umbrellas will convey some idea of the vast influx of visitors. 

The annexed plan will serve to afford a clue to the po- 
sition of the various chambers and their contents; the openings 
in the lines denote entrances. — Sticks and umbrellas must be 
given into custody at the doors; a charge of 10 c. each is made. 
The principal entrance is below the clock, in the hall leading 
from the Cour du Louvre to the Place Napoleon. 

Some of the most interesting objects in the different collections 
on the Basement-story are here enumerated: 

The ^Assyrian Antiquities (Musee Assyrien) (separate entrance 
in the hall between the Cour du Louvre and Place du Louvre) 
•are the result of excavations made (1843 — 45) in the vicinity 
of Niniveh, under the superintendence of M. Bolta, French consul 
in Syria. The winged bulls with human heads and the reliefs 
on the walls are similar to those contained in the British Museum. 
Fragments of a vast palace, perhaps upwards of 4000 years old, 
are especially remarkable. The winged bulls, which formed the 
entrance to the palace, are monoliths. Adjacent are two heroes, 
each holding a young lion under one arm and a scourge in (he 
other hand, alleged to represent the Assyrian kings Nebuchad- 
nezzar and Senaccherib. The various specimens of Assyrian 
hieroglyphics, which are to be seen here, have hitherto defied 
the research of the antiquary. 

The following hall contains 

Antiquities from Asia Minor. By the wall: *Frieze of the 
temple of Artemis Leucophrys (Diana with the white forehead) 
at Magnesia near Ephesus. *Vase from Pergamos, presented in 
1838 by Sultan Mahmoud. Fragments, of other edifices, Greek 
inscriptions etc. 

Then the Collection of Casts (Sculptures Moulees), continued 
on the staircase leading to the collections of the first-floor, and 
comprising a number of well-known antiques. 



52 4. LOUVRE. 

To the 1. a room with Assyrian Antiquities is entered, ■which 
as well as the following, contains a collection of remarkable 
Phoenician sarcophagi, on which the head of the deceased is 
represented in elaborate carving. The next room contains reliefs 
from the palace of Nineveh of a less remote date (7th cent. B. C.) 

The last room is dedicated to Ancient Greek Beliefs and 
Sculptures. In the centre a trilateral altar with representations 
of the twelve great gods, on the r. a damaged group of Orestes 
and Pylades. A *Metope and a fragment of the frieze of the 
Parthenon at Athens; Metopae from the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia; reliefs, some of them of beautiful workmanship; in- 
scriptions; architectural fragments etc. The contiguous cabinets 
contains sarcophagi and fragments of buildings from Jerusalem. 

The *Egyptian Museum (separate entrance opposite the 
Assyrian Museum] on the basement story contains the larger 
antiquities (the smaller see p. 68), (A.) gods, kings, statues 
and sphynxes, (B.) basreliefs. (C.) shafts of pillars with hiero- 
glyphics and inscriptions, (D.) sarcophagi, pyramids, votive-tablets. 
Of these the most interesting are perhaps the following: 

Close to the entrance. *A. 23, a huge Sphynx of reddish 
granite, representing king Meneptah, son of Ramses II., who 
reigned in the 15th cent, before Christ, believed to be the 
"Pharaoh" who oppressed the Israelites. The emblem of royalty 
is engraved on the chest and right shoulder. 

*D. 8 and 9, two sarcophagi of grey granite and basalt, with 
admirably preserved inscriptions and insignia. 

*D. 38, to the 1. in the centre of the wall: cast of a bas- 
relief termed the Zodiac of Denderah , brought from the ruins 
of a temple of Isis in the village of Denderah in Upper Egypt. 
The female figures at the corners represent the four cardinal 
points. The original is in the library (p. 99). 

D. 29, a royal monolith chapel, of reddish granite, 9 J /2 ft- 
high and 4Va ft- in breadth , raised from the bottom of the harbour 
of Alexandria in 1825 , dating from B.C. 580. 

A. 12, adjacent to the latter, a small group in reddish granite 
representing king Ramses II., adorned with the Pschent, a peculiar 
head-dress; on either side are the gods Osiris and Horus. Figures 
of the goddess Pacht with the lion's head occur frequently. 

From the 2nd Room, containing Smaller Egyptian Monuments, 
a staircase leads to the first floor. Before ascending, however, 
the stranger is recommended to complete his inspection of the 
collections of the basement story. 

From the same room a long corridor diverges, destined for 
the Algerian Museum, still incomplete, which contains several 
antiquities found in Algiers, inscriptions, busts, statues and 
architectural fragments of the Roman imperial period. Among the 
most interesting objects are a mosaic, representing Neptune and 



4. LOUVRE. 



53 



Amphitrite, and a fragment of a mosaic from Carthage representing 
a man on horseback. At the extremity of the passage are a few 
Arabian inscriptions. 

The Benaissance Sculptures (entrance from the court), dating 
from the commencement of the 16th cent., are arranged in 

North aide. 
Rue de Rivoli. 





0) 

e 




o 

_s_ 






Ipture. 


Basemi 




Scul 









Muse'e 
Assyrien. 



o _ _ 

°f Entree 
Ss principale. 



3 > 



3. rt. 
n a 
3 



Cour du Louvre. 






alle des -2* 
npereursl o 



Sculp 
tures 
ant. 



Sculptures, 
antiques. 







"" 


V 

c 






H 








CD g 
























2 n» 

9 


0>* 

3 


Moyen- 


Renais- 




Age.j 


sance. 


^iinir 



a. 
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Seine. 
Pont des Arts. 

South side. 



five compartments. Passing through to the last corner apartment 
on the r., the Salle de Michel Colombe (d. 1514), the visitor should 
here inspect the *basrelief of St. George and the Dragon , and 
*two recumbent stone figures, the female figure with the rosary 
particularly good. 

Salle de Jean de Douai, or Jean de Bologne (Giovanni da 
Bologna) : *two prisoners , unfinished marble statues by Michael 
Angelo ; a *haut-relief in bronze, the ''Nymph of Fontainebleau" 
by Benvenuto Cellini ; *Mercury and Psyche , by Adrian de Vriea 
(1593). 



54 4. LOUVRE. 

Salle de Jean Ooujon (d. 1572): *Diana with the stag, the 
celebrated "Diane Chasseresse", a large group , at the side two 
dogs, a likeness of Diane de Poitiers, the favourite of Henry II. 

Salle des Anguiers (Francois Anguier d. 1699, Michel Anguier 
d. 1686) : pyramidal monument to the Due Henri de Longueville 
(d. 1633), who after the death of Bernard of Weimar in the 
30 Years' War succeeded him in the command of his army. By 
Francheville (1548), a large group in bronze, representing the 
four nations conquered by Henri IV., which formerly stood on 
the Pont Neuf beside the equestrian statue of that monarch. A 
few fragments of the latter are all that now remain. 

In the small room to the 1. (at present closed) , at the en- 
trance, a cast of the celebrated carved wood chimney-piece in 
the council-chamber of the Palais de Justice at Bruges, with 
statues of (in the centre) Charles V. , (to the 1.) Mary of Burgundy 
and Maximilian I. of Austria, (to the r.) Charles the Bold and 
Margaret of York. Also the tombstones of Charles the Bold 
(d. 1477) and Mary of Burgundy (d. 1482), casts from the origi- 
nals at Bruges. 

The Modern Sculptures (entrance from the court) are con- 
tained in five different halls to the 1. 

Salle de Coyzevox (1640—1720): Busts of Richelieu and 
Bossuet ; tombstone of Cardinal Mazarin. 

Salle de Puget (1620—1694): Milo, the athlete of Crotona, 
torn to pieces by a lion , a celebrated group in marble (p. 66) ; 
Perseus releasing Andromeda ; Alexander and Diogenes, a high 
relief; Caryatides, casts from those of the Hotel de Ville at Toulon. 

Salle des Coustou (Nicolas 1658 — 1733, bis brother Guillaume 
1678 — 1746) : Louis XV. as Jupiter, and Maria Lesczinska his 
consort as Juno. By Bouchardon (1698 — 1762): Cupid cutting 
his bow from the club of Hercules. 

Salle de Houdon : Diana, a bronze statue by Houdon (d. 1828); 
Ganymede with the eagle, by Julien. — Cupid and Psyche, by Delaistre. 

Salle de Chaudet (d. 1810): Narcissus, by Caldelari; Nisus 
and Euryalus, by Roman (d. 1835); Biblis metamorphosed into 
a fountain, by Dupaty (d. 1825) ; colossal bust of Napoleon I. in 
bronze , by Bartolini ; a young Neapolitan tortoise-catcher , by 
Rude (d. 1854); Cupid with the butterfly, by Chaudet; the shepherd 
Phorbas carrying the young GSdipus, by the same ; *Cupid and Psyche, 
two different groups, both admirable, by Canova (d. 1822); the 
nymph Salmacis, by Bosio (d. 1843) ; Zephyr and Psyche by Rutschiel 
(d. 1837) ; *son of Niobe struck by an arrow, by Pradier (d. 1852). 

The *Ancient Sculptures (Musee des Marbres Antiques) 
(approached by the principal entrance) occupy the S.W. wing 
of the Louvre and a wing of the new building to the S. In 
order to facilitate the stranger's search for the objects here 
enumerated, their height in feet and inches is given. 



4. LOUVRE. 55 

The Salle des Caryatides is the hall in which Henry IV. so- 
lemnized his union with Margaret of Valois ; here, too, after his 
assassination his body was placed. Here in 1593 the Ligue held 
its sessions, and here in the following year the Duke of Guise 
caused four of its most zealous members to be hanged. Sub- 
sequently (1659) this hall was employed by Moliere as a theatre, 
in the performances of which he himself played a prominent part. 

The Caryatides which support the gallery at the N. end , and 
whence the hall derives its appellation, are by Jean Ooujon, who 
being a Huguenot was here shot whilst at work on the Night 
of St. Bartholomew. The finest works are in the centre: 712. 
*Germanicus as Mercury, sometimes termed "the Orator" (5 ft. 
6 in.); 711. *The Borghese Vase, of Pentelic marble, with 
Bacchanalian relief (5 ft. 3 in.); 710. *Jason (4 ft. 9 in.); 709. 
*Silenus with the infant Bacchus; 1. 694. Boy with a goose 
(2 ft. 10 in.); 1. 698. The "Venus Accroupie" or stooping 
Venus (2ft. 11 in.); In the room shut off by partitions: 134. 
Centaur overcome by the young Bacchus (4 ft. 6 in.); 1. Lion 
from Platsea; Hercules with the Apples of the Hesperides; 
r. 527. Recumbent Hermaphrodite (4 ft. 6 in. in length). 

The principal apartments of the collection, separated by half- 
partitions only, are now entered. At the extremity of the long 
gallery the Venus of Milo is visible. The visitor turns to the 
r. to the 

Salle du Tibre. 249. The Tiber as a river-god, recumbent, 
at the side Romulus and Remus and the she-wolf, a large group 
in marble , 5 ft. 4 in. high , 9 ft. 9 in wide. In the centre : 
144. *Achilles; 1. Recumbent Fountain - nymph ; 234. Antinous 
as Hercules. 

Salle du Hlros Combattant. 262. The **"Borghese Gladiator" 
(6 ft. 1 in.), a celebrated work of the Greek sculptor Agasius; 
1. 272. Roman portrait-figures as Venus and Mars; 1. 281. *Wounded 
Amazon (5 ft. 9 in.); 1. 282. *Venus of Aries (6 ft.) found at 
Aries in Provence in 1651 ; 281. Wounded Amazon (5 ft. 9 in.). 

Salle de Pallas. This room contains several draped statues 
restored as Muses; among them: 1. 299. Praying nymph, erro- 
neously restored as Euterpe. (6 ft. 2 in.) ; 1. 306. a so-called 
Polyhymnia; 310. Pallas (Minerva) with helmet and shield (9 ft. 
4 in.), the drapery much admired, found in 1797 at Velletri near 
Rome, hence termed the "Pallas of Velletri". 

Salle de la Melpomene. 348. Melpomene (12 ft. 1 in.) , the 
Muse of Tragedy, the drapery admirable. In front of the statue 
modern mosaics by Belloni from designs by Gerard; r. Bust of 
Alexander the Great. 

In the adjacent room : The **"Venus of Milo" (6 ft. 3 in.), 
a Venus Victrix treading on a helmet, found in 1820 in the is- 
land of Melos or Milo, the gem of the whole collection, a per- 



56 



4. LOUVRE. 



feet master-piece of the best period of Greek art. The two adja- 
cent statues of Venus of a late Roman period may be contrasted 
with it. 

Salle de la Psyche. 403. and 383. Dancing Fauns (4 ft. 2 in.) ; 
1. 387. Psyche tormented (4 ft); 1. Euripides, with a list of his 
dramas; 391. Young Athlete. 

Salle de I'Aruspice. Large Sarcophagus found at Salonica, 
representing combats of Greeks and Amazons in life-size relief, 
on the cover the recumbent statues of the spouses for whom it 
was destined; r. 452. Reposing Mercury ; r. 441. Daughter of Niohe. 

Salle d'Hercule et Teliphe. 1. 180. Venus Victrix ; 1. 450. Her- 
cules with his son Telephus in his arms, at the side the hind 
by which the latter was reared (7 ft. 6 in.); r. 462. Zingarella. 
(gipsy), or Diana (?) (4 ft. 10 in), flesh portions of bronze. 

Salle de la Medee. 1. 486. Drunken Silenus; Sarcophagus with 
reliefs representing the revenge of Medea; r. 496. Cupid an.d 
Psyche; r. Sleeping Ariadne; 1. 671. Faun, a bust. 

Salle de Pan. 1. 446. Barbarian; r. 192. *Minerva "au collier'' 
(6 ft. 5 in.). 

Salle d'Apollon. r. 19. *Apollo Sauroctonos (lizard - slayer), 
the youthful Apollo about to transfix a lizard on the stem of a 
tree, formerly in the Villa Borghese at Rome (4 ft. 7 in.) ; 1. Pe-; 
dagogue and younger son, from the great group of the Children 
of Niobe. 

Salle de Diane, so named from the celebrated "Diana of 
Versailles" formerly preserved here , now in the Picture Gallery 



(North side.) 

Place Napoleon. 



Peinture francaise 
ancienne. 



I Peinture ^_^ 

francaise jus- I I 

,qu'& Louis XIV. 1 — * 



Cours du Nou- 

(Cour Caulaincourt.) 




Peint. francaise] 
I Idepuis LouisXV 
^-■jusqu'a present, 






veau Louvre. 

(Cour Vincenti.) 



\n/ 






Peinture. 
Neerlandais. 



Peint. Peinture. Peinture. 

Allem. Espagnols et Ital. Italiens. 



Vesti- 
bule. 



i"i 



Seine. 
Quai des Tuileries. 

(South side.) 



4. LOUVRE. 



57 



(p. 60). 216. Dog (1 ft. 5 in.), formerly in the Villa Bor- 
ghese at Rome ; 230. Marsyas suspended from a pine-tree, awai- 
ting the execution of the sentence of Apollo that he should be 
flayed alive (8 ft. 2 in.). 

To the r. of this gallery is a suite of apartments of inferior 

{North side.) 

Rue de liivoli. 



Salle dea 
bijoux. 



(2. Antiq. 
Ainfir 



u 



Dessins. 
2. Etimogr .\GT&vnri'.<* et (lessins. Peintures 
2 .Vust'e maritime. Gn pastel 
J I I 



Mus^e Napol^onlll.h 

Objetsdemoyenager 

et de renaissance. ' 



CO rf 



" 1-1 «■ ttk 
a p 

B * ® 3. 



mini 



g-d) i 2" 



Premior Etage. 

Peintures, gravuros, dessins etantiqnite's. 



Cour du Louvre. 



Deuxieme Etage. 

Musee Ethnographique. 
Muse"e de Marine. 



Autiquites 
egyptknnes. 



E2 

•d to 
sp"d 
P o 



►8° 



Salle flea 7. Antiquites 

sane aes i i , recques et roma ines, 

Ecole I 

francaise. ■ Musee Napoleon III. I Viises etl PeintureB antiques. 
I Collecition Cam|pana. 

Seine. 
Font des Arts. 

(South tide.) 

interest to the above, to which access has been denied for some 
years past. They were in February, 1867, in process of being 
re-decorated, and their contents re-arrangod. An enumeration of 
the more interesting objects they formerly contained may, how- 
ever, be found useful. 

The Rotonde contains several busts of Roman emperors ; 7. and 
11. Prisoners, probably barbarian chiefs who figured in the triumphal 
processions of some Roman emperor. 

Salle des Empereurs. 411. Mars (5 ft. 10 in.). 



58 4. LOUVRE. 

Salle des Saisons. 46. Venus Genitrix (5 ft.), bearing in her 
hand the apple of Paris ; 20. Wounded Gladiator (2 ft. 7 in.). 

Salle de la Paix. 92. Demosthenes (4 ft. 2 in.), in a sitting 
posture, in his hand a scroll (probably the history of Thucydides). — 
The eight granite columns are from the cathedral atAix-la-Chapelle. 

Salle des Romains, consisting of three rooms. 116. Roma, a 
bust in marble (2 ft. 9 in.); 126. Antinous, a bust in marble 
(2 ft. 11 in.); 697. Marcus Aurelius (7 ft. 10 in.); 113. Augustus 
(4 ft. 6 in.). 

Finally on the ground-floor (entrance from the court) is si- 
tuated the Collection of Engravings (Musee de Chalcographie), 
accessible for purposes of study only. 

The First Floor of the Louvre contains the following collec- 
tions: in the Grande Oalerie or New Louvre, connecting the Old 
Louvre with the Tuileries, in the S. wing, pictures of the Italian, 
Spanish, Dutch and German schools; in the parallel wing facing 
the Place Napoleon, and in the transverse wing uniting the two, 
pictures of the French school; in the Old Louvre , drawings, 
engravings, Greek, Roman, Etiuscan and Egyptian antiquities, 
the Musee Napoleon III. (or Campana; antique terracottas and 
inscriptions, mediaeval and renaissance curiosities), and the Musee 
des Souverains, containing souvenirs of the French kings and of 
Napoleon I. 

In a N. wing of the Second Floor is the considerable Musee 
de la Marine, together with the Musee Ethnographique. 

Entering from the Cour du Louvre the vestibule which con- 
nects it with the Place Napole'on, the visitor ascends by a stair- 
case to the 1. to the first floor (W. wing). Here the room of 
the bronzes is situated to the 1., and beyond it that of the draw- 
ings (p. 70); to the r. the terra-cottas , beyond which is the 
Picture Gallery. 

The first room to the r. of the staircase should first be entered, 
which, as well as the smaller one adjacent, belonging to the Musee 
Napoleon III., contains Antique Terracottas, being a portion of 
the Campana Collection, purchased from the Papal government 
and consisting of 12,000 different specimens (the remaining portion 
see p. 67). Most of them were discovered in Etruscan tombs. 
There are among them numerous cinerary urns with partially 
painted reliefs and Etruscan inscriptions recording the names and 
ages of the deceased. 

The contiguous Salle des Sept Cheminees contains *chefs d'oeuvre 
of the Modern French School. 

r. 240. Gerard (d. 1837), portrait of the artist Isabey. 

256. Granet (d. 1852), lower church of S. Francesco at Assisi. 
*274. Gros (d. 1835), Bonaparte in the plague-hospital at Jaffa. 



4. LOUVRE. 59 

252. Girodet-Trioson (d. 1824), Atala's Interment, from the 
work of Chateaubriand. 

236. Gerard, Cupid and Psyche. 

279. and opposite to it 282. Guerin (d. 1833). Agamemnon 
and Clytemnestra. 

152. David (d. 1825), Belisarius. 
*Gericault (d. 18*23), Shipwreck of the Medusa; to the r. and 
1. his *Hussar and *Cuirassier, the two latter purchased from the 
collection of Louis Philippe in the Palais Royal for 23,400 fr. 
(936 L.). 

David, Portrait of Pope Pius VII., painted in 1805. 

Madame Lebrun, two portraits. 
*Prudhon (d. 1823), Crime pursued by Justice and Divine 
Vengeance. 

*Gros, Battle of Eylau. 

Girodet-Trioson, Endymion; Deluge. 
*David, The Sabine women interpose between the Roman and 
Sabine combatants ; above it, Leonidas. 

The Salle des Bijoux (to the W. ; on the r. of the entrance ) 
contains a collection of Plate, Jewellery and Ornaments, chiefly 
mediaeval and of the renaissance period. 

From the adjoining Vestibule a handsome wrought-iron door, 
of the time of Henry II., leads to the 1. into the Galerie d'Apollon, 
100 yds. in length. The painting on the central compartment 
of the ceiling, by Delacroix, completed in 1852, represents Apollo's 
contest with the Python. The oriel window at the extremity of 
the hall is erroneously (see p. 50) believed to be the same from 
which Charles IX. fired on the people on the night of St. Bar- 
tholomew. The walls are adorned with representation of the 
busts of celebrated French artists in *tapestry from the Gobelins 
(comp. p. 145), recently manufactured there. In the centre En- 
amelled Ornaments and Jewellery, vases, goblets, fayence 
articles etc. 

To the r. the picture-gallery is entered. Catalogues may be 
purchased at the entrance, the Italian and Spanish schools 2 fr., 
Dutch and German 1 fr., French 3 fr., all bound together 7 fr. 
75 c. These catalogues contain copious and interesting infor- 
mation with regard to the pictures and their history, the artists 
and their biography, and are indispensable to those who desire 
an intimate acquaintance with the gallery ; for the ordinary visitor, 
however, they are superfluous. For visitors of the former class 
the "Essai d'une analyse critique de la 'Notice des tableaux italiens 
du Musee du Louvre', accompagne d' observations et de documents 
relatifs a ces mimes tableaux", by M. Miindler, is also a most 
valuable companion (price 2V2 fr.). — By an arrangement very 
recently introduced, the pictures are all to be furnished with 
tablets, recording the names of the artists, the dates of their 



60 4. LOOVRE. 

birth and death, and descriptions of the paintings taken from 
the official catalogue. This has already been effected in the 
Salon Carre" (see below) and is in course of progress in the Italian 
Gallery (p. 62). ' 

It should be observed that in the official catalogues the artists' 
family names are arranged alphabetically; thus, instead of Ra- 
phael, Sanzio (or Santi); instead of Titian, Vecellio. The Italian 
school, for example, commences with the name of Albani (No. 1) 
and terminates with Zampieri (Domenichino , No. 502). The 
Italian and Spanish pictures are provided with red numbers, the 
Dutch and German with blue, and the French with black. In 
order to obtain permission to copy In the Louvre or Luxembourg, 
a written application must be addressed to the Senateur Sur- 
intendant des Beaux Arts (Comte de Nieuwekerke). 

The subjoined lists will suffice for the visitor whose time is 
limited and enable him to form some acquaintance with the most 
celebrated works in the gallery. A more lengthy enumeration would 
be beyond the scope of the present volume. The finest pictures 
are generally so surrounded with artists and their easels, that the 
visitor occasionally finds considerable difficulty in approaching 
them. On Sundays the gallery is usually over- crowded. The 
entire gallery is nearly 3 / 4 M. in length. 

The **Gr and Salon Carre", or entrance-hall, contains the 
choicest gems of the entire gallery. The light is, however, un- 
fortunately somewhat too subdued. Each picture deserves the 
most careful inspection. In the annexed list the year of the 
artist's death is appended where his name is mentioned for the 
first time, but afterwards omitted. 

?1$ In the centre of the hall is placed the celebrated and ad- 
mirably preserved **Diana with the Stag, which seeks the goddess's 
protection (6 ft. 1 in.), sometimes termed the " Diana of Versailles", 
because formerly there preserved, or "Diane a la Biche". 

The enumeration commences on the r. of the entrance. 

442. Perugino (d. 1524), Madonna and Child, with St. Rosa 
and St. Catharine and two angels, purchased from the King of 
Holland's collection for 53,000 fr. (2120 L.). 

447. Poussin (d. 1665), Portrait of himself. 
*465. Titian (Vecellio, d. 1576), Entombment of Christ, pur- 
chased by Louis XIV. from the celebrated collection of the Co- 
logne banker Jabach, then resident in Paris. 

28. Correggio (Allegri, d. 1534), Sleeping Antiope , watched 
by Jupiter in the form of a Satyr, formerly erroneously termed 
a "sleeping Venus''. 

337. Ouido Beni, Dejanira abducted by the centaur Nessus. 

242. Luini (d. about 1530), Salome, daughter of Herodias, 
with the head of John the Baptist. 



4. LOUVRE. 61 

138. Annibale Caracci (A. 1609), The Virgin appearing to 
St. Luke and St^ Catharine. 

403. Solari, or II Gobbo (d. 1509), Madonna and Child. 

94. Bronzino (d. 1572), Portrait of a sculptor. 

419. Rembrandt (d. 1669), Portrait of a woman. 

239. Fra Sebastiano del Piombo [Sebast. Luciano, d. 1547), 
Meeting of Mary and Elisabeth. 

*104. Paolo Veronese (Caliari, d. 1588), The Repast in the 
house of Simon the Pharisee, 31 ft. long, 14 1 / 2 ft. hish. 

*376. Raphael (Sanzio , d. 1520), Virgin and sleeping Child, 
with St. John. 

*471. Titian, Girl at her toilette, behind her a man holding 
a mirror, known as "Titien et sa mattresse". 

460. Rubens (d. 1640), Portrait of his second wife with her 
two sons. 
**546. (bis). Murillo (d. 1682), Conception of the Virgin, pur- 
chased from the collection of Marshal Soult in 1852 for the 
enormous sum of 615,300 fr. (24,612 1.). The artist evidently 
borrowed his idea from the passage : "And there appeared a great 
wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon 
under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars." 
Rev. XII. 1. 

*121. O. Dow (d. about 1674), La femme hydropique, the 
artist's master-piece, purchased 150 years ago by an Elector Pa- 
latine for the sum of 2500 L. and presented to Prince Eugene. 

150. Van Dyck, A Portrait. 
*378. Franc. Francia (Raibolini, d. 1517), Portrait of a man, 
once erroneously attributed to Raphael. 

162. J. van Eyck (d. 1441), Virgin and Child crowned by 
an angel, at her feet the person for whom the picture was painted. 

204. Dom. Ohirlandajo (d. 1495), Meeting of Mary and Elisabeth. 
*484. Leonardo da Vinci (d. 1519), Portrait of Mona Lisa, 
wife of Francesco del Giocondo of Florence. 

546. Murillo, Conception of the Virgin, similar to one of the 
same subject before mentioned (No. 546, bis). 

378., 380., 381. Raphael, Three small pictures, Madonna with 
Elisabeth, St. Michael and St. George. 
**377. Raphael, The Holy Family, with the young St. John, 
St. Elizabeth and St. Joseph. 

140. An. Caracci, Mourning for the dead Saviour. 

453. Poussin (d. 1665), Landscape. 

87. Phil, de Champaigne (d. 1674), Portrait of Cardinal 
Richelieu. 

293. Metsu (d. 1658), An officer paying his respects to a 
young lady. 

*375. Raphael, Virgin and Child with St. John ("la belle jar- 
diniere"). 



62 4. LOUVRE. 

526. Terburg (d. 1681). Officer offering gold to a young wife. 

228. and 229. Claude Lorrain (Gele'e, d. 1682), Small Land- 
scapes. 

79. Phil, de Champaigne, Christ in the Sepulchre. 

477. Rigaud (d. 1743), Portrait of the celebrated preacher 
Bossuet. 

288. Memling (d. 1184), John the Baptist. 

208. Holbein (d. 1554), Portrait of Erasmus. 
*481. Leonardo da Vinci, Virgin and Child and St. Anna. 

438. Andrea del Sarto {Vannuccld, d. 1530), Holy Family. 

433. Rubens, Tomyris, queen of the Scythians, placing the 
head of Cyrus in a vessel filled with blood. 

**103. Paolo Veronese, The Marriage at Cana, the largest 
picture in the collection, 32 ft. long and 21 ft. high, occupying 
almost the entire S. wall, containing numerous portraits : Eleanor 
of Austria, the young queen of France, at her side. Francis I. ; 
then Mary of England in a yellow robe, Sultan Soliman near a 
negro prince; at the corner of the table the emperor Charles V. 
with the golden fleece. The musicians are portraits of Venetian 
painters of the day. Paolo Veronese himself, in white, plays on 
the violoncello, behind him Tintoretto with a similar instrument, 
on the other side Titian with a bass viol, Bassano with a flute, etc. 
*27. Correggio, St. Catharine dedicated to the infant Jesus. 

142. VanDyck (d. 1641), Portrait of Charles I. of England. 

382. Raphael, St. Michael overthrows the wicked Angel. 
*211. Hans Holbein, the Younger (d. 1543), Anne of Cleve, 
wife of Henry VIII. of England. 



The adjoining Grande Galerie (about i / i M. in length), 
which is now entered, contains the Italian, Spanish, German and 
Dutch schools. A chronological order is observed in the number- 
ing of the pictures , those of the same master being placed as 
near together as possible: r. denotes to the right, and I. to the 
left of the entrance from the Salon Carre'. 

First Division: Italian School. 

The first numbers on the r. belong to the earliest Italian 
schools. 

209. Giotto (d. 1336) , St. Francis of Assisi receiving the 
stigmata. 

174. Cimabue b. (1240), Madonna surrounded by Angels. 

196. Sandro Botticelli {Alessandro Filipepi, d. 1515), Madonna. 

1. 214. Fiesole {Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, d. 1455), Coronation 
of the Virgin; below are seven small pictures representing the 
miracles of St. Dominic. 

1. 72. Benozzo Gozzoli (d. after 1485), Triumph of St. Thomas 
of Aquinas. 



4. LOUVRE. 63 

'• 234. Fra Filippo Lippi (d. 1469), Madonna with Saints. 

1. 214 (bis) Giovanni di Pietro, surnamed Lo Spagna fd after 
1530), Adoration of the Child. 

1. 292. Pinturicchio (Bernardino di Benedetto, d. 1512, Madonna. 

1. 318 Francia {Francesco Kaibolini, d. 1">17), Crucifixion. 

r. 486. Copy executed in the 16th cent, of Leonardo da Vinci's 
Last Supper at Milan. 

*1. 468. Titian, Jupiter and Antiope. 

1. 240. Luini, Holy Family. 

1. 81. Bonifazio {A. 1562), Raising of Lazarus. 
*1. 464. Titian, Christ crowned with thorns. 

r. 242. Luini, Equipment of Cupid, a fresco. 
*r. 458. Titian, Madonna with St. Stephen , Ft. Ambrose and 
St. Maurice. 

r. 389. Copy of Raphael's Madonna of Loretto. 

r. 453. Giorgio Vasari, The Salutation. 

1. 474. Titian, Portrait. 

1. 107. Paolo Veronese (Caliari), The disciples at Emmaus ; 
the other figures are said to represent the painter and his family. 

1. 108. P. Veronese, Portrait. 

Second Division: Italian and Spanish Schools. 

r. 136. Annibale Caracci, Virgin and Child, St. Joseph offer- 
ing the latter cherries ("la Vierge aux cerises"). 

1. H26. Guido Beni, Christ delivers to Peter the Keys of Heaven. 
•J. 372. Sassoferrato, Madonna. 

1. 328. Guido Reni, Ecce Homo. 

1. 329. Guido Reni, Penitent Magdalene. 

1. 332. Guido Reni, St. Sebastian. 

67. Battoni, Madonna. 

1. 113. Canaletto {Connie, d. 1768), View of Venice , Church 
of S. Maria della Salute. 

r. 207. Luca Giordano {A. 1705), The Infant Jesus receiving 
from angels the instruments of his sufferings. 

r. 74. Pietro da Cortona {Berretini, d. 1669), Nativity of 
the Virgin. 

1. 494. Domenichino {Zampieri, d. 1641), St. Cecilia. 
*1. 360. Salvator Rosa (d. 1673), Skirmish among the ruins 
of a temple. 

1. 186. Poussin, Landscape. 

1. 361. Salvator Rosa, Rocky landscape. 

r. 57. Guercino {Barbieri, d. 1666), Circe. 

1. 651. Murillo, Beggar -boy, "cherchant a detruire ce qui 
l'incommode". 

1. 317. Procaccini (d. about 1626), Virgin and Child, John 
the Baptist, St. Francis and St. Catharine. 

1. 320. Guido Reni, David with Goliath's head. 



64 4. LODVRE. 

*]. 546. Murillo, the Nativity, a very large picture. 

*1. 547. Murillo, Virgin and Child, the latter playing with a 
rosary ("la Vierge au chapelet"). 

*1 Velasquez, Portrait of the Infanta Margaretha Theresia, 
(d. 1673), first consort of the Emperor Leopold I. 

In the centre of this compartment: 348. Daniele da Volterra 
[Ricciarelli , d. 1566), David slaying Goliath, a picture with 
two sides. 

Third Division: German and Dutch Schools. 
1. 279. Quintin Massys or Messys (d. 1530), The money-changer 
and his wife. 

*1. 206. Holbein (d. 1554), Portrait of Nic. Kratzer, a Bava- 
rian, Astronomer-royal to Henry VIII. of England. 

*1. 207. Holbein, William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Fourth Division: Dutch School. 

1. 255. Jordaens (d. 1678), Feast of the Magi ("le roi boit"). 

1. 256. Jordaens, "Concert de famille". 

1. 253. Jordaens, The four Evangelists. 

1. 413., 414. and 415. Rembrandt, Portrait of himself. 

1. 416. Rembrandt, Portrait of an old man. 

r. 153., 154. Van Dyck, Portraits of men. 

r. 105., 106. A. Cuyp (d. after 1672), Starting for a ride, 
The ride. 

1. 428. Rubens, Mary as queen of heaven. 

1. 464. Rubens, Landscape. 

r. 431. Rubens, Crucifixion. 

r. 459. Rubens, Portrait. 

r. 470. Ruisdael (d. 1681), Forest scene. 

r. and 1. 434 — 454 Rubens, a series of large pictures designed 
by order of Marie de Medicis, queen of Henry IV. of France, in 
commemoration of events in her life, destined to adorn the Palais 
du Luxembourg, and partly executed by the artist himself, 
partly by his pupils, in 1621 — 25. The most successful are: r. 
454. Victory of Truth; 436. Education of the Princess; 1. 438. 
Her nuptials (Oct. 5th, 1500); *1. 441. Birth of Louis XIII. 

Under and between these pictures of Rubens, returning to the 
commencement of the series: 

1. 512. Teniers (d. 1694), The Prodigal son, or rather a scene 
in a tavern. 

1. 472. Ruisdael, Landscape in a storm. 

1. 518. Teniers, "Exteneur de cabaret". 

1. 417. Rembrandt, Portrait of a youth. 

1. 425. Rubens, Departure of Lot. 
*1. 458. Rubens, Portrait of Baron Henri de Vicq, Dutch am- 
bassador in Paris , purchased in 1850 from the collection of the 
King of Holland for 15,984 fr. (640 L.). 



4. LOUVRE. 65 

1. 412. Rembrandt, Portrait of himself. 

1. and r. Several pictures by Dow {A. 1674); Mieris {Francis, 
d. 1G81; William, d. 1747); Ostwle (Adrian and Isaac); Teniers, 
genre-paintings. 

1. 369. Ostade {Adrian, d. 1685), The painter himself and 
his family. 

r. 514. Teniers, Temptation of St. Antony. 

r. 292. Mehu (d. 1658), Vegetable-market at Amsterdam. 

1. 224. de Hooch or Uooge {Peter, d. about 1540), Interior of 
a Dutch dwelling. 

r. 119. Dow, "La lecture de la Bible". 

r. 41. Bol {A. 1681), Portrait of a mathematician. 

1. 572. Wourerman (A. 16(18), Cavalry attack. 

1. 527. Terburg (d. 1681), Music-lesson. 

r. 143. Van Dyck, The children of Charles I. of England. 

r. 528. Terburg, A lady singing. 

r. 400. Potter {A. 1654), Oxen and sheep. 

1. 147 Van Dyck, Portrait of Francis de Moncade. 

r. 471. Ruisdael, A storm at sea. 

r. 137. Van Dyck, Madonna. 

r. 149. Van Dyck, Portrait. 

1. 152. Van Dyck, Portrait of himself. 

1. 144. Van Dyck, The Counts Palatine Lewis and Rupert. 

462. Rubens, Carousal of peasants and dance. 

French School. 

The first five rooms contain the French masters down to 
Louis XIV. 

1st Room. Older Pictures: Death of Christ and saints 
on a gold ground; series of portraits by Francois Clouet. dit 
Janet {A. 1572) and his pupils, etc. 

2nd Room. Twenty-two pictures by Eustache Lesueur {A. at 
Paris 1655) from the life of St. Bruno. 

3rd Room. Scenes from classical mythology, most of them 
by Lesueur. 

4th Room. Fifteen large sea-pieces by Joseph Vernet {A. 1789), 
representing the harbours of France. 

A large, oblong hall is next entered, principally dedicated 
to pictures by Nicholas Poussin {A. at Rome 1665). and by 
Claude Lorrain {A. at Rome 1682), all of which deserve careful 
inspection. Among them may be mentioned, r. : 

435. Nicolas Poussin, Rape of the Sabines. 

298. Jean Jouvenet {A. in Paris 1717), Raising of Lazarus. 

521. E. Lesueur, St. Paul preaching at Ephesus. s 

297. Jouvenet, Miraculous draught of fishes. 

222. Claude Lorrain, Seaport. 

496. Santerre {A. at Paris 1717), Susanna bathing. 

Biedeker. Paris 2nd Edition. 0. 



66 4. LOUVRE. 

225. Claude Lorrain, Harbour. 

415. Nicholas Poussin, Rebecca at the well. 

A lofty saloon with vaulted ceiling is now entered, containing 
tour large pictures by ('. Lebrun from the life of Alexander. 
In the four lunettes of the ceiling are paintings by Charles Miiller, 
bearing reference to the history of French art: St. Louis and the 
Sainte Chapelle, Francis I. in the studio of one of his artists, 
Louis XIV. commencing the construction of the Louvre, Napo- 
leon I. directing the Louvre to be completed. To the r. of this 
is situated the Salle des Etats, in which the annual opening of 
the Chambers by the Emperor takes place. Opposite the visitor, 
on the 1. side: 

432. N. Poussin, Baptism in the Jordan. 

475. Kigaud (d. at Paris 1743), Portrait of Louis XIV. 
349. Mignard (d. at Paris 1695}, The Virgin with a bunch 

of grapes. 

446. Poussin, Time rescues Truth from the attacks of Envy 
and Discord, ordered by Cardinal Richelieu as a ceiling-painting. 

223. CI. Lorrain, Disembarcation of Cleopatra at Tarsus. 

250. Lesueur, St. Gervasius and St. Protasius refuse to offer 
sacrifice to Jupiter. 

476. liiyaud, Portrait of Philip V of Spain (d. 1746). 
76. C. Lebrun (d. at Paris 1690), Death of Meleager. 

In the Second Saloon pictures by modern masters, on the r. : 
329 C. van Loo (d. at Paris 1765), Hunters' breakfast. 

261. Oreuze (d. at Paris 1805), The paternal curse. 

262. Oreuze, The chastised son. 
*2H3. Greuze, The broken pitcher. 

330. C. van Loo, Portrait of Maria Lesczinska, Consort of 
Louis XV. 

*82. Madame Lebrun (Elisabeth Louise Vigee, d. 1842), Portrait 
of herself and daughter. 

276. Gros (d. at Paris 1835), Francis I. and Charles V. visiting 
the tombs of St. Denis. 

154. David (A. at Brussels 1825), Paris and Helen. 
633. C. Vernet (father of Horace, son of Joseph), Hunting scene 
in the forest of Meudon. 

*281. Guerin (d. at Rome 1833), ./Eneas relating to Dido the 
fate of Troy. 

On the short wall : 

499. Sigalon (d. at Rome 1837), The love-letter. 
"494. L. Robert (d. at Venice 1835), Festival of the Madonna del 
Arco at Naples. 

*493. L. Robert, Reaper in the Pontinian marches. 
On the left side (towards the Place Napole'on): 
577. Tocqut {d. at Paris 1772), Portrait of Maria Lesczinska. 
150. David, Oath of the Horatii. 



4. LOUVRE. 67 

321. Lethilre, Brutus condemning his sons to death. 
235. Gerard (d. 1837), Entry of Henry IV. into Paris. 

A passage now leads to the Qalerie des Sept Mitres, so-called 
from its breadth , which contains a selection of pictures of the 
older Italian school. At the entrance *Diana, an ancient marble 
statue found at Gabii near Rome. On the W. wall : 

r. 252. Andrea Manteyna (d. 1506) , Wisdom conquers Vice. 

43. Oiorgione (Barbarelli, d. 1511), Madonna with saints and 
portrait of the person for whom the picture was painted. 

472 Titian, Portrait of a man. 
*384. Raphael, Portrait of the Princess Joan of Arragon. 

89. Titian, Portrait of a man. 

437. Andrea del Sarto , Caritas, a woman with three children. 

88. Bordone, Vertumnus and Pomona. 
*95. Johann Stephan of Calcur (born at Calcar on the Lower 
Rhine in 1499, d. at Naples in 1546, one of Titian's best pupils), 
Portrait of a man. 

469. Titian, Portrait of Francis I. of France. 

*277. Palma {"11 Vecchio", d. 1548), Adoration of the Shepherds. 
241 Luini, Virgin and sleeping Child. 
On the E. wall: 
1. *251. Andrea Mantegna, Dance of the Muses, an allegory. 

470. Titian, Portrait of Alphonso of Avalos, Marquis of Guasto, 
commander of the armies of the emperor Charles V. in Italy and 
his wife Mary of Arragon, a celebrated beauty , to whom Cupid 
Flora and Zephyr are represented as doing homage. 

99. P. Veronese, Ahasuerus and Esther ("1'e'vanouissement 
d'Esther"). 

459. Titian, Holy Family with St. Catharine and a white rabbit, 
("la Vierge au lapin"). 

480. Leonardo da Vinci, John the Baptist. 

385. Raphael, Portrait of a youth, erroneously said to be 
Raphael himself. 

483. L. da Vinci, Portrait of a woman. 
*482. L. da Vinci , The Virgin in the Sepulchre. 

379. Raphael, St. Margaret. 

283. Raphael, Portrait of Count Balthasar Castiglione. 

173. Conegliano (Cima, d. after 1517), Virgin and saints. 

186 Raphael, Portrait. 

Returning through the Oalerie d'Apollon to the large French 
picture-gallery {Salle des Sept Cheminees, p. 47), the visitor now 
turns to the r. and by a door in the corner enters the halls of 
the Musee Napoleon III. (suite of rooms towards the .Seine), an 
admirable collection of Etrurian and Greek vases, Greek and 
Phoenician inscriptions, busts, tombstones, idols, bronzes, statuettes, 
antiquities etc., some of them from the Campana collection (p. 56), 

5* 



08 4. LOUVRE. 

others brought from Syria by E. Renan , from Macedonia and 
Thessaly by Henzey , and from Asia Minor by Perrault. 

Paintings on the ceiling: 1 st Room. Alaux, Nic. Poussin being 
introduced to Louis XIII. (Phoenician inscriptions; statues, sta- 
tuettes, busts and inscriptions from Cyprus; vases, phials and 
terracottas from Rhodes; in the cabinets by the window amulets and 
ornaments from different districts of Syria, Moabitish pottery etc. 
— 2nd Room. Steuben, Francis I at the battle of Marignano. 
(Red vases for domestic purposes, amphorae etc.) — 3rd Room. 
Eug. Deveria, Louis XIV. at Versailles inspecting Puget's marble 
group of Milo of Crotona (p. 54). (Etruscan vases, commencing 
with those of the rudest form.) — 4th Room. Fragonard, Andrea 
del Sarto showing his picture of "Caritas" to Francis I. (Etruscan 
terracottas, reliefs, cinerary urns etc.) — 5th Room. heim, Revival 
of the arts in EVance , with eight small lateral pictures (Vases 
of the most ancient style.) — 6th Room. Fragonard, Francis I. 
knighted by Bayard. (Ancient vases.) — 7th Room. Sehnetz, 
Charlemagne and Alcuin , founder of the university of Paris. 
(Vases of more modern style.) — 8th Room. Drolling, Louis XII. 
saluted as father of his people by the states -general at Tours. 
(Small vessels in clay, drinking-cups etc.) — 9th Room. *Leon 
Cogniet, Bonaparte in Egypt. (Objects in glass; also a collection 
of *frescoes from houses of Pompeii, presented in 1825 by Francis I. 
of Naples.) 

The visitor should now retrace his steps to the Salle des 
Sept Cheininees and by a door to the 1. enter the Musee de 
Charles X., which contains a valuable collection of smaller Greek, 
Etruscan, Roman and Egyptian 'Antiquities ; the paintings on the 
ceilings date from 1827,. and are as follows: 

1st Room. Ingres, *Deification of Homer. — Collection of vases 
of glass and enamel. 

2nd Room. Heim, Jupiter entrusts Vulcan with the fire for 
the destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii. — Vases on the 
table well deserving inspection, found in S. Italy. 

3rd Room. Meynier, Nymphs of Parthenope (Naples) emigra- 
ting to the Seine. — Collection of beautiful Greek terracottas, 
statuettes , urns etc. 

4th Room. Picot, Cybele protecting Herculaneum from total 
destruction. — Etruscan vases in the glass cases. 

5th Room (passage-room, the so-called throne-room). Oros, 
Allegorical painting in honour of Louis XIV. — This and the 
four following rooms contain Egyptian Antiquities. 

6th Room. Picot, France unveils Egypt. — Egyptian Anti- 
quities: carved stones with hieroglyphics (scarabaei), amulets, figures 
of animals, idols, Isis and Osiris, figures in brass and clay. 

7th Room. Abel de Pujol, Egypt seeking Joseph's protection 
from the seven plagues. — Collection of mummies , scarabaei, 



4. LOUVRE. 69 

hieroglyphics on parchment and linen etc. Bust of the celebrated 
archaeologist Charnpollion. 

8th Room. *Horace Vernet, Raphael and Michael Angclo in 
the presence of Pope Julius II. — Collection of Egyptian im- 
plements, weapons, manufactures, ornaments and carving. 

9th Room. Gros, "Le genie de la France aide l'art et 1'hu- 
manite'". — Collection of mummies, inscriptions, bronze utensils, 
weapons, scarabsei. 

In the centre of the large Staircase Hall which is now entered, 
sarcophagi and statues; among the latter Rameses II. in a sitting 
posture. In the recess a colossal black statue of Isis. 

Turning to the 1. the visitor now enters the Musee des Sou- 
verains. The first two rooms, with richly gilded ceilings, con- 
tain Sevres vases and a silver statue of Henry IV. when a boy , 
the third contains a complete model of a chapel of Henry III. 
( 1578); in the fourth, armour of French monarchs; the chair of king 
Dagobert; the reputed crown of Charlemagne ("dite de Charle- 
magne", for it is a well known fact that the genuine crown is 
at Vienna), worn by Napoleon at his coronation; reminiscences of 
French kings; prayer-books (one of Charles the Bald, richly or- 
namented with carved ivory and precious stones); weapons, the 
font of "St. Louis"; costumes of various orders; the helmet and 
shield of Charles IX., richly plated with gold ; the sceptre, "main 
de justice", sword and spurs of Charlemagne ; a valuable cabinet 
of Marie Antoinette; candelabra of polished stones, presented to 
Marie de Medicis by the republic of Venice; *jewel casket of 
queen Anna; writing-table of Louis XVIII. employed by him when 
a prisoner; coronation robes of Charles X. ; secretaire of Louis Phi- 
lippe, bearing traces of having been broken open (February. 1848). 

The fifth room is a spacious apartment, exclusively devoted 
to *Souvenirs of Napoleon I. It contains the emperor's camp 
bed, his grey coat and the three-cornered hat, the round hat he 
wore in St. Helena, his state and coronation robes, richly decorated 
saddles etc.: also the cradle of the king of Rome, "ayant depuis 
servi au Due de Bordeaux". 

The three next rooms contain the Picture Gallery of the 
Musee Napoleon III , devoted exclusively to mediaeval paintings. 

1st Room. Byzantine Pictures, most of them figures of saints 
on a gold ground, some with Greek inscriptions. 

2nd Room. On the principal wall : '263. Portrait of Pope 
Sixtus IV., of the Flemish school; 267. Portrait of Dante, of the 
same school; 270. Portrait of Thomas Aquinas, by a Flemish master; 
99. A battle, a curious picture by Paolo Vrcello, who died in Flo- 
rence about 1479 in his 83rd year; 236. Dante and Beatrix, two 
portraits in the same frame, of the Italian school. 

3rd Room. 279. Francis Pourbus (Flemish school of the 16th 
cent.), Portrait of Marie de Medicis; 22a. Raphael's School, 



70 4. LOUVRE. 

St. Catharine; 252. School of Bologna (17th cent.), Portrait of 
Gregory II.; 247. Sassoferrato, Virgin and Child; 246. Same master; 
250. Copy of the same subject. 

The visitor now enters a suite of apartments of various sizes 
fa staircase ascends from the first of these to the Naval Museum), 
occupying one half of the N! wing and comprising Mediaeval and 
Renaissance Curiosities of the Musee Napoleon III. The first 
two rooms contain carved Oak Furniture and Italian Fayence. 
The next room contains specimens of the Fayence Work of the 
celebrated Bernard de Palissy (d. 1589), consisting principally of 
dishes with moulded representations of snakes, frogs, lizards, fishes, 
plants etc. 

The 4th Room is devoted to Metallic and Bronze Articles, such 
as knives, locks, embossed plates etc. Two Bronze Reliefs are 
here especially worthy of note, the originals of which were 
executed in marble by Pierre Bontemps in 1552 for the tomb- 
stone of Francis I. in the burial chapel of St. Denis ; they are 
placed on the side walls opposite to each other. On the wall 
opposite to the window is a beautiful enamel picture from the 
manufactory of Limoges, representing the various events of the 
Passion. 

In the 5th Room mediaeval Glass and Porcelain. Opposite to 
the window, on the wall, a Olass Mosaic, representing the lion 
of Venice, executed by Antonio Fasolo in the manufactory of Mu- 
rano in the 16th cent. 

The (ith Room, the Salle Sauvageot, contains a collection of 
mediaeval miniature pictures, carved wood, vases etc., bequeathed 
to the Louvre by M. Sauvageot. Between the windows a life- 
size portrait of Henry II. 

In the 7th Room, the last of the Musee Napole'on III., the 
attention of the visitor will be arrested by an *Altarpiece of carved 
ivory, about 6 ft. in height, a perfect master-piece of its kind, 
dating from the end of the 14th cent. It was brought from the 
town of Poissy, and stands by the wall, opposite the window. 

The 8th Room, the central apartment of this N. wing, situated 
immediately over the entrance to the Cour du Louvre from the 
Rue de Rivoli, contains Crayon Drawings, most of them por- 
traits. The following suite of rooms, occupying half of the N. 
and half of the W. wings, is devoted exclusively to a very exten- 
sive and valuable collection of Drawings, of great interest in 
the study of art, some of which are not without attraction for 
the ordinary visitor. 

9th Room. Drawings of the Early French School. 

10th Room. Crayon Drawings, miniatures, Chinese pictures etc. 

11th Room. Drawings of the Modem French School. Here 
is preserved an unfinished oil painting by David, probably in- 



4. LOUVRE. 71 

tended to represent the revolutionist meeting in the Jeu de 
Paume (p. 170). One of the four finished heads is that of Mira- 
beau. The nude figures serve to show the amount of rare David 
bestowed on anatomical proportions. 

l'2th Room. Modem French School. Antoine Wattenu. 

13th Room. French School. Charles Lebrun. 

14th Room. Lesueur, Sketches of his illustrations of the life 
of St. Bruno (p. 65). 

15th Room. Claude Lorrain, N. Poussin, Lesueur. 

16th Room. Dutch and German Schools: Diirer , Holbein, 
Rubens, Rembrandt, Tenters etc. On the wall facing the visitor: 
Cavalry skirmish, sketch by Rubens from Leon, da Vinci. 

17th Room. Bolognese School. Ceiling Painting: Mauxaisse, 
Divine Wisdom giving laws to kings and legislators. 

18th Room. Italian School: Drawings, two in crayons, by 
Correggio. Ceiling-painting: Drolling, Law descends to the earth. 

19th Room. Italian School : Drawings by the most cele- 
brated masters, Leon, da Vinci, Michael Angelo, Raphael, those 
of the first particularly well executed. On the ceiling: Blondel, 
France receives the Charter from Louis XVIII. 

20th Room. Earlier Italian School. On the ceiling: Blondel, 
Fiance victorious after the battle of Bouvines. 

At the egress from the collection of drawings are placed the 
tools with which the foundation-stone of the New Louvre was 
laid, July 25th, 1852. They were presented by the architect 
Visconti, who died before the completion of the structure. 

Contiguous to the small ante-chamber, with bronze copies of 
celebrated antiques, on the r., is the Hall of the Bronzes of the 
Muse'e Napole*on III. The handsome door of wrought iron leads 
(o an isolated saloon, containing a valuable collection of ancient 
utensils, weapons and statuettes. A magnificent view is enjoyed 
hence. In the centre-cabinet are preserved ornaments in gold 
and silver, mirrors, buckles, keys, seals, bracelets; also a gilded 
helmet found at Amfreville in the Departement Eure, in 1861. 
By the window a gilded bronze statue- of Apollo, over life-size; 
1. antique Apollo; then seats, candelabra, busts and statuettes. 
In the cabinet on the r. several toilet caskets with engraving, 
found at Palestrina near Rome, vases, lamps etc. In the ca- 
binets by the wall are statuettes; 1. beautiful selection of *Roman 
weapons, helmets, shields, swords, lances etc. 



Having thus completed his circuit of the first floor of the 
Louvre, the visitor should not omit now to proceed to the 'Musee 
de la Marine, situated on the second floor (ascent by the stair 
mentioned at p. 70; comp. ground-plan, p. 57). 

This museum contains a valuable collection of various objects 
connected with ship-building , navigation etc. , such as models of 



72 4. LOUVRE. 

vessels and machines, plans and drawings of harbours and piers, 
weapons and relics of historical interest. For the non-professional 
visitor the following objects are perhaps those most deserving 
of inspection : 

1st Room. The French fleet from 1786 to 1824. No. ,'53. 
Large plastic representation of the embarkation and transport of 
the obelisk of Luxor (p. 8"); 34. The erection of the obelisk in 
the Place de la Concorde. On the principal wall an inscription 
to the memory of the heroic Lieutenant Bellot of the French 
navy, who perished in 1853 in an Arctic expedition, placed there 
by English resident^ in France. 

2nd Room. 150. Machine for adjusting the masts of a ship. 
3. Relief-plan of the town and harbour of Brest: Models of ships. 
3rd Room. Models of pumps and machines; 349. Ship in the 
stocks about to be launched; 5. Relief-plan of the town and 
harbour of Lorient; 522. Model of the "Valmy", a ship of the 
line of the first class. 

4th Room 621. Large model of a 120 gun ship, occupying 
the entire apartment 

5th Room. 960. Bell from the chapel of the citadel of St. Jean 
d'Ulloa (Mexico) , which was pierced by a cannon-ball from a 
French corvette in 1838; small sailing-vessels etc. 

6th Room. 885 to 958. Large obelisk decorated with relics 
of the frigates "Boussole" and "Astrolabe", which had been sent 
on a voyage of discovery under the command of Captain de La- 
perouse in 1783, and foundered at sea. Traces of the ill-fated 
expedition had been discovered by the English Captain Dillon in 
the island of Ticopia in 1828, whereupon a French vessel was des- 
patched for the purpose of bringing home the relics 956. Letter 
written by Laperouse : 780. Bust of Lape"rouse. — Busts of 
celebrated French navigators and naval heroe-. — Models of ships. 
7th Room. 721. Model of the steam vessel of war "le Ve'loce". 
8th Room. Rigging and ships chains. Two relief-plans of 
Toulon, dating from 1790 and 1850. 

9th Room. Fire-arms of various calibres. 
10th Room Scientific instruments , sextants etc. ; also a very 
large geographical globe. 

11th Room. 640. Model of "le Louis XV.", a man of war of 
the middle of the last century. 640. Model of "La Reale", an 
admiral's ship built at the close of the 17th cent, and artistically 
adorned by the celebrated sculptor Pupet (p. 54). The original 
carving in gilded wood (No 760—775) hangs on the wall. 
4. Relief-plan of the town and harbour of Rochefort. 

The adjoining rooms contain the Musee Ethnographique , 
recently founded. 

1st Room. Curiosities from Africa, most of them presented 
by M. Delaporte, consul at Cairo. 32. Model of the slip from 



4. LOUVRE. 73 

which "le Majestueux" , a man-of-war of the first class, was 
launched at Toulon in 1829; 659. Model of the machine by- 
means of which the "Ilivoli", a ship of 7'2 guns, was raised in 
the harbour of Venice in 1812. 

2nd Room. A collection of the spoil captured in various 
French naval expeditions, consisting principally of curiosities from 
Japan, China and Mexico. Model of the pagoda of Juggernaut 
in India surmounted by the image of Wischnu, the principal 
deity of the Indians, to whose shrine every Indian is bound to 
make a pilgrimage at least once in his life. 

Beyond this are three rooms with curiosities from China, 
most of them collected during the French expedition of 1860: 
porcelain, paintings, boxes, idols, models of Chinese buildings, 
weapons etc. 

American Antiquities. The commencement of a collection 
of implements, tools, idols and ornaments, most of them of stone, 
from Mexico , Chili and Peru , resembling in many respects the 
Egyptian antiquities, and proving that the aboriginal inhabitants 
of America were, on the discovery of America by Columbus (1492) 
not far behind the Egyptians in civilization. The collection is 
temporarily placed in a passage on the second floor near the 
outlet of the Musee Ethnographique. 



On quitting the old Palais du Louvre, the visitor should direct 
his steps to the magnificent New Buildings connecting the Louvre 
with the Tuileries on the N. side. This gigantic work was com- 
menced in 1848 from designs by Visconti and rapidly completed 
(11S50 — 56 J under Napoleon 111. at a cost, as it is estimated, of 
75 million francs (3 million L.). 

The portal is decorated with a group representing Intelligence 
and Labour, the former unfolding the plan of the edifice, the 
latter with a cornucopia ; beneath is a statue of France leaning 
on a sceptre. 

In niches on the exterior, at the entrance to the Place du 
Carrousel in the Rue de Rivoli (Pavilion, <Ie Rohan), are placed 
statues of the following celebrated generals of the first Republic 
and Empire: Hoche, Kle'ber, Lannes, Ma^se'na, Desaix, Marceau, 
Soult and Ney. 

The galleries of this new structure (Place Napoleon) are oc- 
cupied by a long scries of statues of literary celebrities : La 
Fontaine, Pascal, Mezeray, Moliere, lioileau , Fe'nelon, La Roche- 
foucauld , Corneille etc. 

The ministerial offices of the state and imperial household 
are now situated in this edifice. Here, too, is the Louvre Library 
(private library of the emperor). On the ground-floor the Impe- 
rial Stud, comprising the Emperor's private saddle-horses (among 



74 5. TUILERIES. 

others Buckingham, ridden by him at Magenta, and Ajax at 
Solferino) and the gorgeous carriages of state. A second extensive 
stud is situated on the Quai d'Orsay, at the corner of the 
Avenue Rapp , at the extremity of the Pont de l'Alma (p. 85). 
Permission to inspect these establishments is obtained by addres- 
sing a written application (p. 92) to General Fleury, "Premier 
Ecuyer de S. M. l'Empereur', at the Tuileries. 

5. The Tuileries. 

Palais et Jardin des Tuileries. Arc de Triompke du Carrousel. 

Betweeen the Louvre and the Tuileries extends an open space, 
1600 ft. in length, bounded on the N. side by the new structure 
above mentioned. The E. and narrower portion (400 ft. broad) 
of this space, contiguous to the Palais du Louvre, is termed the 
Place Napoleon III. It is intended to adorn these large squares 
with equestrian statues of Napoleon I. and Louis XIV. 

The space in front of the Tuileries, the Place du Carrousel, 
is of double the width, and derives its name from a tournament 
held here in 1662 by Louis XIV. Here, in front of the central 
entrance to the court of the Tuileries which is separated from 
the Place by an elegant iron railing, rises the *Arc de Triomphe 
du Carrousel, 45 ft. in height, 48 ft. in width and 26 ft. in 
thickness, and consisting of three lateral and one transversal 
arcade. This structure was erected by Napoleon I. in 1806 in 
imitation of the triumphal arch of Severus at Rome. Handsome 
as it undoubtedly is, its proportions do not harmonize with the 
vast dimensions of the surrounding palaces. 

The Marble Reliefs on the front of the, arch represent the 
battle of Austerlitz (r.) and the capitulation of the Austrian 
General Mack at Ulm ; those in the rear the conclusion of peace 
at Tilsit (r.) and the entry into Munich ; those on the N. side 
represent the entry into Vienna, S. side the conclusion of the 
peace at Pressburg. 

The Marble Statues over the columns represent soldiers of the 
empire in their respective uniforms ; in front: a cuirassier, dragoon, 
chasseur a cheval and carabinier; in the rear: a grenadier, cara- 
binier, artillery-man and sapper. 

The arch is surmounted by a Quadriga, or chariot with four 
horses, a group in bronze designed by Bosio, replacing the' ce- 
lebrated horses of Lysippus which formerly occupied the summit, 
but were restored by the allies in 1814 to their original position 
over the portal of St. Mark's at Venice. 

The Parade of the Imperial Guard, with military music, 
takes place daily at 12 o'clock in the railed off court of the 
palace. 



5. TUILERIES. 75 

From the latter a passage leads towards the S., whence on the 
28th of June, 1830, Alibaud fired a pistol at Louis Philippe who 
was on the quay, on the point of starting for Neuilly. On the 
N. side the palace-court possesses another entrance, where Feb. 
28th, 1848, the royal carriage was waylaid and the attendants 
murdered by the infuriated populace. 

The Palais des Tuileries was founded in l. r )64 by Catharine 
de Medicis and designed by the architect Phiiibert Delorme. It 
occupies the site of a former brick or tile-yard, whence its 
appellation. Additions were made to the palace at various periods: 
it is now upwards of 1000 ft. in length and 105 in width, and 
its dimensions alone entitle the exterior to inspection. It was 
not till the year 1856 that the principal facade towards the gar- 
den acquired some degree of symmetry. 

In former times the Tuileries was never employed by the 
sovereigns of France as a permanent residence. On Feb. 1st, 
1800, it became the principal abode of Bonaparte when first con- 
sul , since which period it has been regarded as the official re- 
sidence of the reigning monarch. 

The N. wing, the Pavilion Marsnn , was during the reign of 
Louis Philippe occupied by the Duchess of Orleans. The S. wing 
is termed the Pavilion de Flore. Between these two is situated 
the Pavilion de VHorloge. The latter contains the Salle des 
Marechaux, a hall occupying the entire width of the building and 
two stories in height, adorned with portraits of eminent French 
marshals and generals. Adjoining this hall are the Throne-room, 
the Oalerie de Diane, the Salon du Premier Consul and the other 
state-apartments employed for the celebration of great court festi- 
vals. The chambers occupied by the imperial family are situated 
on the S. side, between the Pavilion de l'Horloge and the Pa- 
vilion de Flore. The latter, together with the contiguous portions 
of the Louvre, were taken down in 18R1 and are now in process 
of re-erection. In the N. half of the palace are the chapel and 
the theatre. In this portion of the building the Convention held 
its meetings. 

Within the last 12 years the apartments of the Tuileries have 
been fitted up in a style of almost unparalleled magnificence. 
They cannot perhaps lay claim to numerous works of high art, 
but contain hangings, carpets, mirrors and decorations of the most 
gorgeous description. The private apartments are not shown, 
but in the absence of the imperial Family access may be obtained 
to the others on application by letter to the "Ministre de la maison 
de VEmpereur". 

No edifice in Paris is so rich in historial associations as the 
Tuileries. On Oct. 5th, 1789, Louis XVI. was conveyed from 
Versailles to Paris by the "Dames de la Halle" and took up his 
abode in this palace. Successes had emboldened the revolutionists. 



76 3. TUILERIES. 

The well known manifest of the Duke of Brunswick was used 
as a pretext for deliberating on the dethronement of the ill-fated 
monarch. On Aug. 10th, 1792, an armed mob appeared in front 
of the palace. The fidelity of the national guard posted in the 
palace yard and garden began to waver The king, yielding to 
the earnest solicitations of his friends, quitted the palace with 
his family about 8 p. m. and repaired to the Maneye or riding- 
school, situated on the N. side of the garden (in the present Rue 
deRivoli), where he passed the night. 

The withdrawal of the king at first appeared likely to avert 
the impending contest. The maddened populace , however, soon 
found some pretext for commencing hostilities. After a fierce 
contest the palace was taken by storm, and the greater number 
of its gallant defenders, consisting of a number of French nobles 
and the Swiss guard, mercilessly butchered. Of the latter alone 
800 men and 26 officers fell victims to their unwavering con- 
stancy, "ne sacramenti fidem fallerent" (lest they should become 
perjured), as the inscription under the Lion monument at Lu- 
cerne records. 

On Aug. 13th, the king was conducted as a prisoner to the 
Tour du Temple the ancient residence of the knights Templar 
in the Rue du Temple , now removed to make way for a new 
market-place. The 10th of the month had already sealed the 
fate of the kingdom. 

The kingdom of the Restoration was also here terminated, 
July 29th, 1830, by the capture of the Tuileries and by the flight 
of Charles X. from St. Cloud to Rambouillrt. 

The July kingdom, likewise, met with its death-blow in a similar 
manner, Feb. 24th, 1848. The conflict between the insurgents 
and the royal troops gradually approached the Tuileries. To de- 
fend the palace would have been no difficult matter. Louis 
Philippe, however, trusted by making concessions to secure the 
throne to his grandson, the Count of Paris. He preferred abandon- 
ing the palace to (he popular fury. About 1 p. m. he quitted 
the Tuileries by the garden and repaired with his family to the 
Place de la Concorde whence two fiacres conveyed the fugitives 
to St. Cloud. 

The capture of the palace was succeeded by the most fright- 
ful scenes of devastation. The royal carriages and furniture were 
burned in the palace yard, the throne at the foot of the July 
Column (p. 35). The apartments of the Duchess of Orleans 
(d. 18.')8) alone were spared. 

On Feb. 26th, 1848, the Provisional Government (Dupont de 
1'Eure, Lamartine, F. Arago, Ledru-Rollin etc.) decreed that the 
Tuileries should be converted into an asylum for invalid artizanS. 
Although this decree was never carried into effect, the palace 
served during several months as a hospital for the wounded. 



5. TTJILERIES. 77 

The *Garden (Jar din des Tuileries), 2230 ft. long and 870 ft. 
broad, retains the same general features as when it was first 
designed in the reign of Louis XIV. by the celebrated land- 
scape-gardener he Notre. Some alterations took place in 1858: 
the smaller garden laid out by Louis Philippe was extended as 
far as the central basin and separated from the public garden 
by a ditch and an iron railing. Several of the sculptures, which 
formerly constituted one of the principal ornaments of the public 
garden, are now placed in the imperial garden (jardin reserce), 
to which access cannot be obtained except during the absence 
of the imperial family. 

The entrance to the public garden from the river (S.J side 
is by an archway under the Terraxse du Bord de I'Eau, once the 
playground of the King of Rome, then of the Duke of Bordeaux 
and afterwards of the Count of Paris. At the end of this terrace 
are the Orangeries. Passing under the terrace, the visitor enters 
the "parterre" (flower-beds and lawns), on which the utmost care 
is bestowed , bounded on the W. side by a shady grove of lofty 
trees. The public garden is surrounded on the three other sides 
by terraces which (especially that on the W. side) afford a beau- 
tiful prospect of the Seine , the Place de la Concorde and the 
Champs Elysees as far as the Arc de l'Etoile. 

The Terrasse des Feuillants on the N. side derives its appel- 
lation from a Benedictine monastery of the "Feuillant'' order 
which stood here previous to the revolution and where the re- 
publican club founded by Lafayette in 1791 held its sittings. 
A public tennis-court now occupies the site (entrance for spec- 
tators on the S. side). The riding-school mentioned at p. 76 was 
in the immediate vicinity. 

A number of marble and bronze Statues adorn the garden. 
The following are arranged along the railing which separates 
the Jardin Reserve from the public garden: 1. The Listening 
Slave, a bronze cast, executed in 1(!88, from the well-known 
original in the gallery at Florence; 2. Phidias, by Pradier; ;>. Dying 
Warrior, by Cortot; 4. Pericles, by Debay; 5. Truth triumphant; 
6. Boreas carrying off Orythia, by Regnaudin; 7. Themistocles, 
by Lemaire; 8. Theseus killing the Minotaur, by Ramey jun. ; 
9. Spartacus, by Foyatier; 10. Laocoon, a copy in bronze of the 
celebrated antique in the Vatican ; opposite to it Ugolino with 
his sons (?); at the E. extremity of the Alle"e des Orangers stands 
a Hercules, by Bosio; at the opposite extremity, a Meleager; 
other statues surround the basin. 

In each of the groves to the r. and 1. of the broad central 
walk is a semi-circular space with a white marble enclosure. 
Triese are termed Carres d'At<dante and were constructed in 17915, 
from designs by Robespierre, as seats for the council of old men 



78 5. TUILERIES. 

who were to preside over the floral games in the month of Ger- 
minal (March 21st to April 19th). 

At the W. extremity of this small grove is an octagonal basin 
300 yds. in circumference, with a fountain in the centre. Beyond 
it are four fine groups in marble : S., The Nile, by Bourdot, The 
Rhine and Moselle, by Van Cleve; N., The Rhone and Saone, by 
O. Coustou, The Tiber, by Van Cleve. The 16 children which 
surround the Nile are emblematical of the fertility occasioned by 
the i?iundations of the river which usually rises at these periods 
to a height of 16 ells above its usual level. The Nile is a copy 
of the antique in the Vatican, the Tiber of one in the Louvre 
(p. 55). 

The pillars at the entrance from the Place de la Concorde 
are surmounted by two handsome groups (by Coyzevox) of Mer- 
cury and Fame on winged steeds. This outlet derives its ap- 
pellation of Porte du Pont-tournant from a swing bridge which 
formerly existed here. 

''La Petite Provence" is a term applied to this W. side of the 
garden from its sunny aspect. It is a favourite resort of nursery- 
maids and children, as well as of elderly persons, who repair 
hither to avail themselves of the shelter and warmth which this 
spot affords. 

The garden of the Tuileries is, indeed, the favourite resort 
of Parisians of all classes , more especially the N. side , some- 
times termed the Cote des Chaises from the numerous chairs which 
stand here and may be hired for 10 — 20 c. The other portions 
of the garden are furnished with wooden benches for the accom- 
modation of visitors. The Allee des Orangers (the older trees 
250 — 300 years old, the younger 100 years), which in summer 
here diffuse the most delicious fragrance, occupies the ground 
which during the reign of terror (1793) was a potato-field Here, 
too, is one of the inevitable Parisian cafes. 

The garden of the Tuileries is opened soon after daybreak 
and is closed in winter at 4, in summer at 9 o'clock. Visitors 
are apprised of the closing of the gates by the beat of a 
drum. The sentinels here , as well as those at the Louvre and 
the Palais Royal, are usually soldiers of the imperial guard or 
Zouaves. 



6. Place de la Concorde. 

The largest and most strikingly beautiful square in Paris is 
the **Place de la Concorde, 400 paces in length and of nearly 
the same width, bounded on the S. by the Seine, W. by the 
Champs Elysees, N. by the Rue de Rivoli and E. by the garden 
of the Tuileries. From the centre of the square a view is ob- 
tained of the Palais du Corps Ltfgislatif (p. 152), the Madeleine, the 



6. PLACE DE LA CONCORDE. 79 

Tuileries and the Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile. When viewed by 
gas-light, the scene is scarcely less striking, the lamps in the 
direction of the Champs Elyse"es as far as the Triumphal Arch 
forming an apparently interminable avenue. The two magni- 
ficent edifices of exactly uniform exterior on the N. side of the 
square, separated from each other by the Rue Royale leading to 
the Madeleine , served as Garde-Meubles of the crown before the 
time of the first revolution : that to the E. is now the seat of 
the minister of the marine. . 

One hundred years ago the site of this magnificent Place was 
little more than a piece of waste ground. After the peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle (Oct. 18th, 1748) which terminated the Austrian 
war of succession, Louis XV. "graciously permitted" the mayor 
and municipal dignitaries (eVhevins) to erect a statue to him. 
The work was at once commenced, but was not completed till 
1763, when the equestrian statue in bronze by Bouchardon was 
erected in the Place , which then received the appellation of 
Place de Louis XV. The pedestal was adorned with four figures 
by Pigalle, emblematical of Strength, Wisdom, Justice and Peace. 
Soon after the erection of the statue the following pasquinade 
appeared on the pedestal : 

"Grotesque monument, infame piedestal! 
Les vertus sont a pied, le vice est a cheval." 
A few days later was added the sarcasm: 

''II est ici comme a Versailles, 
II est sans caur et sans entrailles." 
A third termed the statue a "statua statuct" . 

The Place was at that period .surrounded by deep ditches 
(filled up in 1852), and the new buildings on the N. side were 
in course of construction, when, May HOth, 1770, during an ex- 
hibition of fireworks in honour of the nuptials of the Dauphin 
(afterwards Louis XVI.) with Marie Antoinette, such a panic was 
occasioned by the accidental discharge of some rockets that up- 
wards of 1200 persons lost their lives in the confusion which 
ensued or by being precipitated into the ditches, and 2000 more 
were severely injured. 

On August 11th, 1792, the day after the storming of the 
Rastille , the statue of the king was removed by order of the 
Convention and melted down , the metal being chiefly employed 
for the coinage of pieces of two sous. A daubed clay image of 
the "Goddess of Liberty" was then placed on the pedestal , and 
derisively termed "La Liberie de boue" . The Place itself received 
the name of Place de la Hecolution. 

On January 21st, 1793, the guillotine (p. 94) here commenced 
its bloody work with the execution of Louis XVI. On July 17th 
Charlotte Corday was beheaded; on October 2nd Brissot, chief of 



80 6. PLACE DE LA CONCORDE. 

the Gironde, along with twenty-one of his adherents; on October 
Kith the ill-fated queen Marie Antoinette; on November 14th, 
Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, better known as Egalite (father 
of king Louis Philippe); on May 12th, 1794, the princess Elisa- 
beth Marie He'lene , sister of Louis XVI. On March 24th, at 
the instance of Danton and Robespier-ie, He'bert, the most deter- 
mined opponent of all social rule, together with his partisans, 
here terminated his career on the scaffold; the next victims were 
the adherents of Marat and the Orleanists; then on April 8th 
Danton himself and his party, amongst whom was Camille Des- 
moulins ; subsequently the atheists Chaumette and Anacharsis 
Cloots on April 16th, and the wives of Camille Desmoulins, 
Hebert and others. On July 28th, 1794, Robespierre and his 
associates, his brother, Dumas, St. Just and other members of the 
comite du salut public here met a retributive end , and on the 
following day 70 members of the Commune whom Robespierre 
had employed as his tools; on July 30th twelve other members 
of the same body. 

Lasource , one of the Girondists, called out to his judges: 
"Je meurs dans un moment oil It peuple a perdu sa raison; vous, 
vous mourrez le jour oil il la retrouvera." Of St. Just , Camille 
Desmoulins had said: "II s'estime tant, yu'il porte avec respect sa 
tile sur ses epaules comme un saint-sacrement." St. Just replied: 
"Et moi , je lui ferai porter la sienne comme un St. Denis". 
(St. Denis, as is well known, is usually represented as a martyr, 
bearing his head in his hands.) St. Just kept his word; a few 
months later he himself fell a victim. 

From January 21st, 1793, to May 3rd, 1795 more than 
2800 persons here perished by the guillotine. When it was after- 
wards proposed to erect a large fountain on the spot where the 
scaffold of Louis XVI. hid stood, the plan was strenuously and 
successfully opposed by Chateaubriand, who aptly observed that 
all the water in the world would not suffice to remove the blood- 
stains which sullied the Place. 

In 1799 the square received the name of Place de la Con- 
corde, in 1814 it was called Place de Louis XV., in 1826 Place 
de Louis XVI., as it was intended here to erect an expiatory 
monument to the memory of that monarch. About 18-10 the 
name of Place de la Concorde was resumed, and it was resolved 
to adorn the square with some monument which should not bear 
any allusion whatever to political events. An opportunity of 
carrying out this resolution was soon afforded by the *Obelisk 
Of Luxor, a gift of Mehemed Ali, Pascha of Egypt, to Louis 
Philippe. 

In front of the great temple of ancient Thebes, the Luxor 
of the present day, stood two beautiful ancient Egyptian obelisks. 
As a token of gratitude for services rendered, the Pascha offered 



6. PLACE DE LA CONCORDE. 81 

one of these to the French government. In the summer of 1831 
a vessel was accordingly despatched to Egypt for the purpose of 
conveying home the smaller and more beautiful of these two 
relics. The task, however, proved of such an arduous nature 
(comp. p. 72) that the vessel did not return with its costly freight 
till August i!S33. The erection of the obelisk in its present 
position wa- not finally effected till liSI S' >. The expenses entailed 
by the whole undertaking amounted to two millions of francs, 
and, as the obelisk has a weight of 500,000 lbs., the sarcasm- 
loving Parisians observe that the stone of which it consists has 
cost 4 fr. per pound. 

This obelisk, one of the most beautiful in the world, is 
72 ft. in height, the pedestal on which it stands 12 ft. and the 
steps by which it is approached 15 ft., so that the entire height 
is about 100 ft. The obelisk itself is a monolith, a block of 
solid, reddish granite or syenite, and is inscribed with three 
perpendicular rows of well-defined hieroglyphics on each side. 
The inscriptions are laudatory of king Rameses HI of Egypt, 
better known in Europe as Sesostris the Great, wh.o reigned about 
1500 years before the Christian era. The obelisk is, therefore, 
upwards of 3300 years old. 

On the N. side of the pedestal is represented the apparatus 
employed in the removal and embarkation of the monument, on 
the S. side that employed in its erection in Paris. 

The inscription on the E. side is as follows: Ludovkus 
Philippus /., Francorum Ret., ut antiquissimum arti< Atgyptiacae 
opus, idemque recentis gloriae ad. Nilum armis partne insigne monu- 
mentum Franciae ab ipsa Aegypto donatum po4eritati proroguret, 
obeliscum die 25. Aug A. 1832 Thebis Heratompylis avectum na- 
vique ad id ronstructa intra menses 13 in Gallium perductum eri- 
geridum ruravit. Die 25. Octobris Anni 1836. Anno reg. septimo. 

(Louis Philippe I., King of the French, in order to hand down to pos- 
terity one of the most ancient Egyptian works of art, and at the same 
time a magnificent monument, presented by Egypt herself, of the glory 
obtained by the arms of France on the banks of the Nile, caused this obelisk 
to be removed from Thebes with its hundred gates, August 25th, 1832, 
and within 13 months to he conveyed to France in a ship constructed 
for the purpose, and to be erected. October 26th, 1836. In the 7th year 
of his reign.) 

The inscription on the W. side is as follows : En presence 
du Roi Louis Philippe I er , cet obilisque, transporte de Louqsor en 
France, a ete dresse sur ce piedestal par M. Le Bas, ingenieur, 
aux applaudissements d'un peuple immense, le 25 uctobre, J 836. 

The two magnificent "-'Fountains (Fontaines de la Place de 
la Concorde) constitute another striking ornament of the square. 
Each of them consists of a round basin, 50 ft. in diameter, above 
which rise two other basins, 20 ft. and 12 ft in diameter respec- 
tively. The lower basin is surrounded by Tritons and Nereids, 
holding dolphins which spout water into the second basin. 

Baedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 6 



82 6. PLACE DE LA CONCORDE. 

The fountain to the S. is dedicated to the seas. The figures 
which support the second basin represent the Pacific Ocean and 
the Mediterranean; the genii are emblematical of the four kinds 
of fishery (the common, the pearl, the coral and the shell). The 
fountain to the N. is dedicated to the rivers. The principal 
figures here represent the Rhine and the Rhone, the genii are 
personifications of Corn, "Wine, Fruit and Flowers. The figures 
and the upper basins are of bronzed iron, the lower basins of 
granite. The fountains are abundantly supplied with water from 
a large reservoir near the Barriere de Monceau. 

The eight marble figures on pedestals of the same material 
which are placed round the Place, represent the most considerable 
towns of France: Lille and Strasbourg by Pradier, Bordeaux and 
Nantes by Calhouet, Rouen and Brest by Cortot, and Marseilles 
and Lyons by Petitot. Along the balustrades which enclose the 
square are placed twenty lofty rostral columns which serve 
as candelabra; the carriage causeways are bordered with forty 
ornamental lamp-posts. 

The Place in its present condition was not completed till 
1854, when much was done to beautify and perfect it. It now 
presents an imposing "tout ensemble" which is probably without 
a parallel in the world. 

On April 10th, 1814, a solemn service was here performed 
in presence of the emperors Francis and Alexander and king 
Frederick William 111. in memory of Louis XVI., after which a 
Te Deum was sung as a thanksgiving for their victory. Prussian 
and Russian troops were on that occasion bivouacked in the 
Champs Elysees, and one year later English soldiers. 

7. Champs Elysees. 

Pftlais de V Industrie. I'a'ais de VEIyse'e. Maison de Francois I. H6tel 1'onipe'ien. 
Pont de VAlnta. I'ont d'Jfaia. 

The W. continuation of the Place de la Concorde is formed 
by the Champs Elysees, originally laid out by Marie de Medicis 
as a pleasure ground and planted with elms and lime-trees. It 
is about half-a-mile in length and intersected by regular walks 
and avenues. The principal road which traverses it and leads 
from the Place de la Concorde to the Arc de l'Etoile is one of 
the most fashionable promenades in Paris and is usually crowded 
with vehicles of all descriptions, especially between 3 and 6 p. m. 

The Champs Elysees are a favourite resort of the lower as well 
as of the upper classes, and abound with attractions calculated 
to suit the taste of the former, such as cafeVchantants, dancing 
dogs, jugglers, marionettes, show-booths, cake-stalls etc. These 
sources of entertainment become most popular towards evening, 
especially by gas-light, and arc in great request till nearly mid- 



7. CHAMPS ELYSEES. 83 

night. They afford the stranger ample opportunity of witnessing 
one of the characteristic phases of Parisian life. 

At the entrance to the Champs Elyse'es are placed two figures 
of Horse-tamers, executed by Coustou and removed in 1795 from 
the palace at Marly to their present position, where they form 
a suitable counterpart to the winged steeds at the egress of the 
Jardin des Tuileries fp. 77). A Horse-railway, which commences 
at the S.E. extremity of the Champs Elyse'es, conveys passengers 
to Boulogne (sur Seine) and Versailles. 

The wood itself is little more than V 4 M. in length and ex- 
tends as far as the Rond Point (Place or Etoile des Champs Elysees), 
a circular space with a fountain in the centre, half-way between 
the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de l'Etoile. The principal 
avenue, however, slightly ascending, extends to the latter. To 
the 1. diverges the broad Avenue Montaigne, where on the r. is 
situated the Jardin Mabille fp. 31), and farther on, on the ]., 
the Hotel Pompeien fp. 84). 

Contiguous to the Champs Elyse'es on the N. side is the garden 
of the Palais de l'Elysee, formerly Elysee Bourbon, erected in 
1718 and considerably enlarged under Napoleon III. (front in 
the Rue du Faubourg St Honore - 55 — 57). During the reign of 
Louis XV. this mansion was the residence of Madame de Pom- 
padour; in 1815, during the "hundred days", it was occupied by 
Napoleon I., afterwards by the Duke of Wellington and the em- 
peror Alexander; it subsequently became the seat of the Duchess 
de Berry, and finally that of the President of the republic pre- 
vious to his election as emperor and removal to the Tuileries. 

On the S. side the Champs Elyse'es have been compelled to 
yield a considerable space to the Palais de 1'Industrie, the most 
considerable of the modern edifices of Paris, although by no means 
the most pleasing. It was erected by a company in 1852— r 5 
and subsequently purchased by the government. In 1^55 it 
was employed for the first Great Exhibition at Paris , and is 
now used for the exhibition of manufactures, agricultural pro- 
ducts etc. The building, which has a total length of 378 yds. 
and a width of 144 yds., is constructed in the form of a rectangle. 
The projecting front, to the N. , which contains the principal 
entrance, is surmounted by a han some group representing France 
with outstretched hands, awarding laurel-wreaths to Art and Manu- 
facture. Over the entrance archway is a high relief representing 
Agriculture, Industry and Art in the act of rendering homage 
to a bust of the emperor. Above the tiers of pillars on each 
side are the imperial arms with four genii as bearers, under which 
are inscribed the names of the emperor and empress. The frieze 
which separates the basement story from the first floor records 
the names of men who have acquired distinction in the pursuit 
of art, science, commerce, agriculture etc. The building has rc- 

"0 



84 7. CHAMPS ELYSEES. 

cently been purchased by the government and is destined for 
annual exhibitions. An entire restoration of the interior during 
the present summer (1807) is contemplated. 

In the rear of the Palais de l'lndustrie (towards the Seine) 
the "Concerts Musard" take place in summer in the open air 
(admission 1 fr.) 

To the W. of the Palais is situated a round building in which 
panoramas are exhibited (deserving of inspection). On the op- 
posite side of the road is situated the Cirque de V Imperatrice 
(p. 30). 

The S. side of the Champs Elysees is contiguous to the Seine 
(Quai de la conference), the bank of which is skirted by the Conrs 
In Beine, one of the avenues planted by Marie de Medicis, along 
which the above-mentioned railway runs. One of the most taste- 
fully built private residences in the renaissance style is the Mai- 
son de Francois I., which here forms the corner of the Cours 
la Reine and the Rue Bayard. The sculptures in front, the re- 
liefs of the frieze representing vintage festivals, and the portraits 
in the medallions were all executed by Jean Goujon, the eminent 
Huguenot sculptor and one of the victims of St. Bartholomew's 
night. They were removed in 1S2B from Moret, near Fontaine- 
bleau, from an edifice erected in 1528 by Francis I. for the re- 
ception of his sister, and employed in the construction of the 
present building. Adjacent is the handsome residence of Madame 
Alboni, the celebrated singer of the Italian opera. 

The Quartier de Francois /., the construction of which was 
untertaken by a company in 1823, is now nearly completed. 
The circular Place de Francois I. is adorned with a fountain. 

The Avenue Montaigne, which extends from the Seine, from 
the W. extremity of the Cours la Reine, to the Rond Point, was 
formerly termed the Allee des Veuves. Before the time of the 
first revolution it was on account of its privacy the usual drive 
taken by recently bereaved widows , whom the etiquette of that 
period forbade to appear in public. 

About the middle of the Avenue, on the 1. (No 27) is si- 
tuated the Hdtel Pompeien, erected by the architect M. Nor- 
mand for Prince Napoleon in the style of the "Villa of Diomedes" 
at Pompeii. In 1866 it was sold to a company for 1,200,000 fr., 
by whom it is employed for giving concerts and also exhibited 
to visitors (adm. 1 fr.). The interior deserves inspection, al- 
though it does not convey an adequate idea of the ancient ar- 
chitecture, which in the case of villas differed considerably from 
that of ordinary dwellinc-houses. A collection of curiosities 
actually excavated at Pompeii is in contemplation. — Opposite 
to it is the residence of Prince Soltikoff, erected in the me- 
diaeval style. 



8. ARC DE L'ETOILE. 85 

In the vicinity are two much frequented Qymnastic Esta- 
blishments, that of M. *Triat, Avenue de Montaigne 36, and 
M. Roux, Eue Bayard 3. 

The Champ de Mars (p. 159) is reached hence, either by 
the Pont de I' Alma and the Avenue Rapp (the corner-building on 
the r. is an imperial stable, see p. 74), or by following the 
Quai de Billy (on the r. an extensive edifice for the "Subsistances 
Militaires") to the Pont d'Jena, opposite the principal entrance 
of the Exhibition of 1867. 

The Pont de l'Alma was erected in 1856 to commemorate the 
Crimean campaign, at a cost of J, 200,000 fr. (48,OU0 L.). At 
the extremities are four statues, representing a Zouave, a soldier 
of the line, an artillery-man and a chasseur. 

The Pont d'Jena, constructed in 1806 — 1813, is opposite 
the Ecole Militaire, but concealed by the buildings of the Ex- 
hibition. It is adorned with huge eagles and four colossal groups : 
a Greek, a Roman, a Gaul and an Arabian, each holding an un- 
tamed horse. 

8. Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile. 

Russian Church. C'kapelle St. Ferdinand. 
The close of the Avenue, 1 M. in length, which extends from 
the Place de la Concorde to the Barriere de l'Etoile , is formed 
by the Triumphal Arch (Are de Triomphe de l'Etoile), the most 
magnificent structure of the kind in the world. It stands on a 
slight eminence, l'/j M. from the Palais Royal, and is visible 
from almost every part of the environs of Paris. 

Napoleon I. resolved in 1806 to erect four triumphal arches 
in commemoration of his victories. Of these two only were ever 
completed, that in the Place du Carrousel by the emperor him- 
self, and the Arc de l'Etoile (founded Aug. 16th, 1806) by Louis 
Philippe in 1836, the latter having cost altogether upwards of 
10 million francs (400,000 L.). It consists of a vast arch, 95 ft. 
in height and 45 ft. in breadth, intersected by a transversal arch 
of much smaller dimensions. The entire structure is 15'2 ft. in 
height, 137 ft. in width and 68 in depth. 

The following groups adorn the E. front: to the r. , Depar- 
ture of the troops to the frontier in 1792, by Rude, the finest 
of the four large groups ; above it, a relief representing the death 
of General Marceau (fell at Altenkirchen, Sept. 22nd, 1796; 
interred at Coblenlz), by Lemaire; — to the 1. Napoleon crowned 
by the goddess of Victory in 1810, by Cortot; above it, Mustapha 
Pasha taken prisoner by Murat at the battle of Aboukir, by Seurre. 

On the W. front, to the r. : Resistance of the French nation 
to the invading armies in 1814, by Etex: above it, Passage of 
the bridge of Arcole (death of Muiron, Bonaparte's adjutant), by 



86 8. ARC DE L'ETOILE. 

Feucheres; — to the 1., the Peace of 1815, also by Etex; above it, 
the Taking of Alexandria (Kle'ber, who has received a wound 
on the head , points out the enemy to his troops) , by Chapon- 
niire. For the two large groups by Etex, executed in 1833 — 30, 
the sum of 140,000 fr. was paid. 

The reliefs on the N. face represont a somewhat confused 
group, by Gechter, of the battle of Austerlitz, in which the myth 
invented by French historians of the Russian regiments sunk 
amidst the ice is not wanting; — on the S. face: the Battle of 
Jemappes, behind General Dumouriez the Duo de Chartres (Louis 
Philippe) is represented attacking Prussian batteries, by Marochetti. 

The succession of reliefs on the frieze represent on the E. side 
the departure, and on the W. side the return of the French ar- 
mies, by Brun, Jaquot, Seurre and Rude. The figures of Victory 
on each side of the upper portion of the arch are by Pradier. 
A series of 30 shields on the attic above the entablature are 
inscribed with the names of different victories. 

On the vaulting of the transversal arch are recorded the 
names of generals of the republic and of the empire ; the names 
of those who fell in battle are underlined. In the time of Louis 
Philippe there were 384 names; Napoleon III. has caused two 
more to be added , those of his father Louis Napoleon and his 
uncle Jerome. 

The figures of Victory in relief beneath these names have re- 
ference to successes gained in the east, north and south. The 
cock interchanges with the eagle in the coat of arms. 

The prospect which the Platform commands deservedly enjoys 
its high reputation. The ascent is by a spiral staircase of 281 steps 
in the S. pillar (fee 25 c). With regard to some suitable 
sculpture to be placed on the summit, in order to give an ap- 
propriate finish to the whole, no determination has as yet been 
arrived at. 

In the vicinity of the Arc de l'Etoile, towards the N. , Rue 
Beaujon 21 , is situated a remarkably handsome and peculiarly 
ornamented mansion, which in 1852 was purchased by the de- 
throned Duke Charles of Brunswick from Lola Montez. Most of 
the new buildings in this neighbourhood are distinguished by 
their handsome and tasteful appearance. 

In the Rue de la Croix, in this quarter of the city, is si- 
tuated the Russian Church (access on Sundays, Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, 3 — 5 p. m.), recognisable at a considerable distance 
by the glittering gilded star by which it is surmounted. The 
entire edifice is richly decorated; the interior is tastefully ad- 
orned with pictures. The Iconostas, or screen between the nave 
and choir, is covered with pictures of Russian saints. 



8. ARC DE L'ETOILE. 87 

The continuation of the Avenue des Champs Elysees beyond 
the Arc de l'Etoile is termed the Avenue de Neuilly and leads to 
Neuilly, for wliich - an omnibus starts every 10 niin. from the 
Louvre, via the Barriere de l'Etoile. From the latter to the 
bridge over the Seine at Neuilly in '2(1 min., fare 30 c. The pa- 
lace, once the favourite residence of Louis Philippe, was totally 
destroyed , Feb. 25th, 1848 ; the site with the park have now 
passed into private hands. 

The Bois de Boulogne (p. 89) adjoins the S. side of the Ave- 
nue de Neuilly. On the N. side of the Avenue, nearly opposite 
the Porte Maillot, formerly the principal entrance of the Bois de 
Boulogne, the (hemin de la Kevolte , a broad street with' few 
houses diverges from the main road. In this street, about 100 yds. 
from the Avenue de Neuilly, is situated the entrance to the 
*Chapel of St. Ferdinand on the right, a cruciform mauso- 
leum in the Lombard style, 50 ft. in length and '20 ft. in height, 
marking the spot were the ill-fated and lamented Ferdinand, Duke 
of Orleans, breathed his last, .July 13th, 184'2, in consequence of 
injuries received by falling from his carriage. 

The house in which the duke expired was purchased by Louis 
Philippe, who caused the chapel to be erected on the site as a 
memorial of the melancholy event. On the high-altar is a Descent 
from the Cross in marble, by Trhjuetti. To the 1. is the altar of 
St. Ferdinand, opposite to which is placed a group in the form 
of a sarcophagus, representing the Duke on his death-bed, also 
by Triquetti, from drawings by Ary Scheffer. The figure of a 
*praying angel at the head of the dying prince was executed by 
his sister Marie d'Orleans, wife of Duke Alexander of Wirtem- 
berg, who died .Ian. '2nd, 1839. The windows are filled with 
stained glass from drawings by Ingres (these designs are preserved 
in the Luxembourg, see p. 132), and represent Faith, Hope, 
Charity and fourteen saints whose names correspond with those 
of the royal family; St. Ferdinand and St. Helena are portraits 
of the Duke himself and his consort Helen of Mecklenburg 
(d. 1858). 

Behind the high-altar several steps lead into the Sacristy, 
which is the exact spot where the Duke expired A picture by 
Jacquand, painted in 1844, represents this affecting scene. Around 
the couch of the dying prince are the king, the queen, the Prin- 
cess Clementine, the Dukes of Aumale and Montpensier, Marshals 
Soult and Ge"rard and the cure' of Neuilly. The other persons 
present are the generals Athalin, Gourgaud and Rumigny, Duke 
Pasquier, M. Martin (du Nord) and M. Guizot. Dr. Paquet sup- 
ports the head of the sufferer. Dr. Destouches, the other phy- 
sician , bears a striking resemblance to M. Thiers. — The 
chapel is accessible to visitors from 10 to 5 o'clock (fee 50 c. 
to 1 fr.). 



88 9. PARC DE MONCEAUX. 

The station to the r. , in the vicinity of the Chemin de la 
Revolte, is on the branch railway from Auteuil by Passy , Porte- 
Dauphine and Porte-Maillot (mentioned above) to the railway 
station for Rouen or Versailles in the Rue St. Lazare. Train to 
Paris every 20 min. 

9. Pare de Monceaux. 

The *Parc de Monceaux, which by the Boulevard de Mon- 
ceaux is about i / i M. distant from the Arc de l'Etoile, and by 
the Boulevard Malesherbes about 1 M. distant from the Madeleine, 
is one of the most delightful promenades of Paris, and affords a 
pleasant retreat to those who desire to escape from the heat 
and bustle of the town. 

The park, which formerly appertained to the domain of Mon- 
ceaux or Mouxxeaux , once a portion of the lordship of Cluny, 
was purchased by Philip of Orleans (Eyalite), father of Louis 
Philippe, in 1778, and under the directions of Carmontel newly 
laid out. The style in which this was effected was intended to 
be something perfectly novel, differing from both French and 
English etablished notions so as to inspire the visitor at each 
step with mingled feelings of surprise and delight. This intention 
was carried out with considerable success, and the park became 
one of the most fashionable resorts of the ''haute volee" ; balls, 
plays and festivities of the most brilliant description were here 
celebrated , on which occasions the utmost magnificence was dis- 
played. In gorgeous attire and personal charms few could vie 
with the Duchess of Chartres, Louise Marie de Bourbon-Penthievre 
mother of Louis Philippe. 

During the revolution the park became national property. 
Napoleon I. presented it to his chancellor Cambaceres, who how- 
ever soon restored it to his imperial master, on account of the 
great expense in which it involved him. At the Restoration it 
again became the property of the house of Orleans. After having 
in 1848 been employed for the "national ateliers", it eventually 
fell into the possession of the town, and has under the direction 
of Alphand been converted into a charming public promenade, 
accessible to carriages, riders and foot-passengers. 

The park is connected with the town by the broad boulevards 
above mentioned and has four entrances which at night are closed 
by gates. The grounds themselves combine the beauty and taste 
of the modern flower-gardens of Paris with the striking and 
peculiar effects produced by the former arrangement of the park, 
the principal features of which have been carefully preserved : 
such as the rock-work and grotto, the grove with the tombstone, 
the piece of ornamental water partially surrounded by columns 
of the Corinthian order etc. 



89 



10. Bois de Boulogne. 

Fortifications. — Jardin oV Acclimatation. 

The new and stately Avenue de V Imperatrice (150 yards in 
breadth, 3 / 4 M. in length, from the Arc de l'fitoile to the Porte 
Dauphine) leads from the triumphal arch in a S.W. direction to 
the **Bois de Boulogne , now a delightful park , once a forest 
abounding with game, the resort of duellists and suicides and 
the haunt of bandits. When the Prussians and Russians were 
here encamped in 1814 and 1815, a great portion of the wood 
disappeared. Louis XVIII. caused new trees to be planted, and 
Charles X. ordered that game should once more be preserved in 
the forest; the July revolution, however, put a stop to these 
proceedings. 

Under Louis Philippe , although the Bois de Boulogne was 
one of the crown-domains , little was done in the way of improving 
it. In 1852 it was handed over to the municipality, on condition 
that a sum of two million francs should be expended on it 
within a period of four years, and that it should be maintained 
for the future at the expense of the city. The improvements 
are now completed, and such a revolution in the entire aspect of 
the place has been effected that persons who have not visited it 
since 1853 would find it difficult of recognition. The long and 
beautiful avenue leading from the Porte Maillot (p. 87) to Long- 
champs, formerly the most frequented, is now comparatively de- 
serted. Until a few years ago the grand "Promenades de Long- 
champs" , which took place during several days previous to Easter, 
especially on Good Friday, presented a scene of unrivalled gaiety 
and animation. On these occasions in favourable weather, an 
uninterrupted succession of carriages might be seen , extending 
from the Place de la Concorde to the Abbey of Longchamps, a 
distance of upwards of 3 M. 

A' number of the smaller paths which formerly traversed the 
wood have now disappeared to make room for two artificial lakes, 
the Lac inferieur , about 3 / 4 M. in length and 100 yds. in breadth, 
and the Lac superieur, about V4 M. in length. In the vicinity of 
these sheets of water,and on the islands, every species of attraction may 
be found calculated to refresh and entertain the denizen of the city. 

On one of the *islands (ferry there and back 20 c. ; boat on 
the lake for 1—7 pers 3 fr. , 8—14 pers. 5 fr. per half hour) is 
situated a large and tastefully constructed Chalet in the Swiss 
style, employed as a cafe, where dejeuners, diners and soupers 
may be procured (charges not exorbitant). As cafe's are one of 
tlie chief characteristics of every Parisian resort, the hungry and 
thirsty wayfarer will find numerous opportunities of refreshment 
in all parts of the wood {Ravel, Avenue de 1 'Imperatrice, one of 
the best, see p. 10). 



90 10. BOIS DE BOULOGNE. 

Until recently the Pre Catelan, where the Concerts Musard 
now take place, was perhaps the nucleus of attraction for visitors 
to the Bois de Boulogne. It is now, however, deserted for the 
* Chalet des lies already mentioned, a resort of a similar description, 
(admission 1 fr.) , where music, an open air theatre, games of 
all descriptions, a reading-room etc. allure vast numbers of pleasure 
seekers. On summer evenings by gaslight the chalet presents a 
scene of the gayest description. As the number of ferryboats is 
limited, visitors should secure a ticket for the return transit im- 
mediately on crossing ; if this precaution be neglected^ a longer 
detention on the island than anticipated will be the probable result. 

The outlet of the lakes at the Carrefour du bout du lac (at 
the E. end of the lac inferieurj forms two brooks, contrived with 
such art as to appear natural, one of which leads to the Pavilion 
Armenonrille , whilst the other, the "Rivi'tre de Neuilly" with its 
shady paths leads to the "Mare de Longchamps" and the "Cascade''. 
From the highest point of the latter the remnants of the Abbey 
of Longchamps are visible, adjacent to which, to the r., is situated 
the Hippodrome de Longchamps with its four tastefully constructed 
tribunes or stands. This fine race-course has been granted by 
the city to the Societe d' Encouragement pour I' Amelioration des 
Chevaux, or French Jockey Club, by which the autumn races, 
formerly held on the Champ de Mars, are now managed. 

Ranelagh and Madrid, two well known places of popular resort, 
are also within the precincts of the Bois de Boulogne. La Muette, 
St. James, Passy , Auteuil etc., all in the environs of the Bois 
de Boulogne, abound with villas and summer residences of every 
variety. 

The " Tour des lacs'' is now the most fashionable afternoon 
drive in the Bois de Boulogne , in winter as well as in summer. 
On Sundays it is crowded with foot-passengers of the middling 
and lower classes. 

The Chemin de fer d' Auteuil and the Chemin de fer Americain 
(p. 23) both convey passengers to the Bois de Boulogne, as 
well as innumerable omnibuses which pass partly through the 
Barriere de l'Etoile and partly through the Barriere de Passy. 
The stranger may either avail himself of one of these conveyances, 
and having reached his destination visit the park on foot , or may 
prefer to engage a fiacre or voiture de remise by the hour which 
he may quit and re-enter at pleasure. A drive of two hours 
suffices for a hurried glimpse at the principal points of attraction ; 
if however, the weather be propitious, a whole day may be spent 
very pleasantly in thoroughly exploring the Bois de Boulogne, in 
which case the annexed plan will be found a useful companion. 

Contiguous to the Avenue de l'lmperatrice , to the 1., is the 
Hippodrome, a circus in which equestrian performances may be 
witnessed twice or three times a week in summer. Adm. 1 — 3 fr. 



10. BOIS DE BOULOGNE. 91 

The Fortifications of the city skirt the Bois de Boulogne on 
the E. side. In consequence of a decree of 1840, Paris was 
fortified and encircled with ramparts, a work which was completed 
within three years at an expense of 140 million francs (5,600,000 L.J. 
The entire length of the enceinte is upwards of 21 M., and con- 
sists of 94 different bastions. The ramparts, which average 30 ft. 
in height, are environed by a ditch, 18 ft. in depth, and a glacis. 
The approaches to the town are commanded by 17 Forts detaches, 
the most important of which is Mont Valerien (p. 108J. 

That portion of the Bois de Boulogne which skirts the Boule- 
vard de Maillot, and lies between the Porte des Sablons and the 
Porte de Madrid, is termed the Jardin d'Acclimatation (omnibus C, 
Louvre-Oourbevoie will convey the visitor, who should alight at 
the bridge near the entrancej. Here various experiments are 
made with a view to acclimatize foreign plants, animals and 
birds. Seeds, eggs and the young of different animals may be 
purchased at moderate prices at the manager's office , to the r. 
at the entrance near the Porte des Sablons. The garden is acces- 
sible the whole day to carriages, equestrians and foot-passengers 
(admission 3 fr. , 1 fr. and 50 c.j. The principal entrance is on 
the E. side, near the Porte des Sablons ; a second is at Neuilly, 
near the Porte de Madrid. The grounds are beautifully laid out and 
furnished with tastefully constructed cages , hothouses and pavilions 
for the four-footed inmates. The stream which traverses the garden, 
with its picturesque miniature islands and rustic bridges , serves 
for the culture of aquatic plants. 

To the r. of the chief entrance , facing the S. , are the recep- 
tacles for animals from warmer climates ; then in the main avenue , 
to the r. , the visitor will perceive the Silkworm Nursery, 
where various species are reared , and fed on suitable plants which 
are grown in the vicinity for the purpose. Farther on is the 
A vi ary, divided into 21 different compartments, and the Poultry- 
Enclosure with its 31 compartments. A large building at the 
extremity of the garden contains the Stables, a restaurant, and 
a room for the exhibitions of articles having reference to the ob- 
ject of the garden. Returning from the stables to the principal 
entrance by the main avenue , the visitor should now inspect the 
*Aquarium, consisting of 10 glass reservoirs filled with sea- 
water and 4 with fresh, which is constantly renewed by means 
of pumps. An admirable opportunity is here afforded for observ- 
ing the habits of the finny tribe. The same building contains 
a receptacle for the artificial breeding of fish. To the S., by 
the chief entrance, is situated the beautiful Hothouse, where 
there is a reading-room and a restaurant. Adjacent are several 
smaller hothouses containing an extensive collection of plants. — 
It may interest the reader to know that two of the principal ma- 
nagers of the Jardin d'Acclimatation are Englishmen. 



92 

11. Hotel de Ville. 

Rue de Rivoli. 

The *H6tel de Ville or town-hall of Paris is only accessible 
by special permission from the Prefect of the Seine, to whom a 
written request j furnished with a stamp of 10 c, should be 
transmitted by post. The applicant will then probably receive 
the permission within two or three days ; if not, he should apply 
for it at the office of the prefect. 

Admission may, however, frequently by obtained by simply 
applying to the attendant at the usual hours (Thursdays 12 to 
4 o'clock), or by joining another party furnished with a formal 
permission. 

The construction of this magnificent edifice was commenced 
in 1533, but was suspended until the reign of Henry IV., when 
it was completed by the Italian architect Dommico di Cortona in 
1628. The style is that of the Renaissance: the columns are 
chiefly of the Corinthian order. 

As the original structure afforded too limited accommodation 
for the principal civic dignitary of Paris ("Prefet de la Seine"; 
previously to 1789, " Pre'vot des Marchands") and his staff of 
officials, it received such extensive additions in 1837 — 41, that 
dimensions are now four times greater than before. Notwith- 
standing its vast size , it was again deemed necessary in 1857 
to make further provision for the offices of the Prefecture by 
erecting two buildings opposite to the principal facade, on the 
other side of the palace. 

The edifice, which is in the form of a rectangle, 300 ft. long. 
'.?50 ft. broad, and furnished with three courts, stands in an open 
situation. The niches contain statues of celebrated Parisians of all 
ages, down to Bailly, mayor of Paris on the outbreak of the 
first revolution, and Lafayette, commandant of the National Guard 
in 1830. Over the principal entrance is placed an equestrian 
figure of Henry IV. in relief. 

The court which is first entered is adorned with a bronze 
statue of Louis XIV., attired as a Roman and wearing a wig, by 
Coyzevox. Marble tablets on the sides of the court bear inscrip- 
tions in commemoration of the achievements of the great monarch. 



t The request may be couched in the following terms: 

Monsieur le Pie"t'et! 
Etranger, et desirant vivement voir les salles reservees de THotel de 
Ville, je prends la liberte de vous prier de vouloir bien me faire adresser 
un billet d'admission pour moi et ma laniille. 
J^ai Thonneur d'etre 

avec un prot'ond respect 

Monsieur le PreTet, 

Votre tres-humble serviteur. 
(Name and address written very distinctly.) 
Address: "A Monsieur le Pre't'et du Departement de la Seine." 



11. HOTEL DE VILLE. 93 

The reception and ball-rooms on the first floor have been 
fitted up in a style so gorgeous as entirely to eclipse the splen- 
dour of the most sumptuous imperial palaces, and well merit a 
visit. The ceilings of several of the apartments have been painted 
by the eminent artists Ingres, Delacroix, Lehmann, etc. The splen- 
dour-loving metropolis has in fact done its utmost to enable its 
chief dignitary, the Pre'fet de la Seine, to perform his functions 
with becoming magnificence. 

During the winter the prefect usually gives a ball once a 
fortnight, an invitation to one of which is not very difficult of 
attainment, especially if the stranger be acquainted with the am- 
bassador of his country. The kitchens of the souterrain are so 
extensive that a repast for 1000 persons can without difficulty 
be prepared, at was the case on July 14th, 1856, when the em- 
peror and empress were entertained on the occasion of the bap- 
tism of the imperial prince. 

The private apartments of the prefect are situated in the 
entresol, towards the river. The different offices in the Hotel 
de Ville are occupied by upwards of 500 officials. The prefect 
is the superior officer of the twenty maires of Paris, each of whom 
presides over one of the twenty arrondissements, and of the two 
sousprefets of St. Denis and Sceaux, which together with the city 
itself constitute the Department of the Seine. 

The Hotel de Ville has played a conspicuous part in the 
different revolutions, having been the usual rallying place for the 
democratic party. On July 14th, 1789, the conquerors of the 
Bastille were conducted in triumph into the great hall. Three 
days later Louis XVI. was conveyed to the same apartment from 
Versailles, accompanied by dense masses of the populace, whose 
excitement was somewhat allayed when the king presented him- 
self at the window with a tri-coloured cockade with which he was 
furnished by the maire Bailly. Here the Commune, the tool em- 
ployed by Robespierre against the Convention, was holding one 
of its meetings, July 27th, 1794 (9th Thermidor), when Barras 
with five batallions effected his entrance by force in the name of 
the Convention, and Robespierre, to escape apprehension, attempted 
to destroy himself, but only succeeded in shattering his jaw. Here 
too was celebrated the union of the July kingdom with the bour- 
geoisie , when Louis Philippe presented himself at one of the 
windows about the beginning of August, 1830, and in view of 
the populace was embraced by Lafayette. From the steps of the 
Hotel de Ville, Feb. 24th, 1848, Louis Blanc proclaimed the 
establishment of the republic. 

Although the present emperor has not been directly concerned 
in the embellishment of the Hotel de Ville, he has materially 
contributed to the improvement of its external appearance by 
causing the entire removal of the numerous and squalid lanes 



94 11. RUE DE RIVOLI. 

and alleys by which it was formerly surrounded, and which have 
been so well depicted by the masterly pen of Eugene Sue. The 
demolition of these unwholesome purlieus has made way for the 
continuation of the broad and handsome Rue de Rivoli, the con- 
struction of which between the Place du Palais Royal and the 
Place de l'Hotel de Ville alone necessitated the removal of up- 
wards of 300 houses. Another improvement of the present regime 
was the erection in 1854 .of the extensive Caserne Napoleon, 
capable of accommodating 2500 men, situated in the rear of the 
Hotel de Ville and connected with it by means of subterranean 
passages. Adjacent to it, on the quay, is situated a second com- 
modious barrack for cavalry and artillery, erected in 1857. These 
significant facts appear to preclude the possibility of a repetition 
of the scenes of which the Hotel de Ville has so frequently been 
the witness. 

In the Place de l'Hotel de Ville, formerly termed Place de 
(irtve (i. e. of the hank of the river), many a dark traffedy has 
also been enacted. During a long series of years the stake and 
the scaffold here exercised their dismal sway. In 1572, after the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew, Catharine do Medicis here doomed 
the Huguenot chiefs Briquemont and Cavagnes to perish ignomin- 
iously by the gallows; in 1574 she ordered the Comte Montgomery, 
captain of the Scottish guard, to be tortured and executed for 
having at a tournament accidentally caused the death of her hus- 
band Henri IT. From that period until July, 1789, the Place de 
Greve witnessed the execution of numerous victims of a despotic 
government, as well as criminals. Here, too, after the capture 
of the Bastille by the populace, Foulon, general controller of the 
finances and his son-in-law Bertier were hanged on lamp-posts, 
the first victims of the revolution. 

The Ouillotine, an instrument for the decapitation of criminals 
recommended by the physician Guillotin to the Convention, was 
first employed in the Place de Greve, whence it was soon re- 
moved to the Place de la Concorde fp. 80). From 1795 till 
after the July revolution the Place again became the usual place 
of execution ; during that period, however, these forbidding scenes 
were rarely enacted. 

In the Boulevard de Sevastopol, in the vicinity, is situated 
the Tour St. Jacques, mentioned at p. 43, and the Place du Chdtelet 
with the two theatres. 

12. Palais de Justice. 

Sttinte Chapelle. Conciergerie. Prefecture de Police. Place Davphine. 
Pont Neuf. Moroue. 

The W. half of the island in the Seine termed La Cite, at the 
W. extremity of which the Pont Neuf is situated, is occupied by 
an almost unbroken mass of buildings, consisting of the Palais 



12. PALAIS DE JUSTICE. 95 

de Justice in the centre, the Conciergerie on the Quai de 
l'Horloge to the N., and the Prefecture de Police on the 
Quai des Orfevres to the S. The island was in ancient times 
the residence of the French monarchs, until their royal mansion 
was ceded by Henri II. (d. 1559) to the parliament, at that 
period the supreme tribunal of the kingdom. 

The original edifice suffered so much by fire in 1618, and 
again in 1776, that nothing of it now remains except the towers: 
La Tour de l'Horloge, La Tour du Orand Cesar, La Tour de Mont- 
gomery, all on the N. side, and beyond them the pinnacled Tour 
d' Argent. The first of these towers, situated at the N.E. corner 
of the Palais, contiguous to the Pont au Change with the large 
clock adorned with two figures representing Justice and Piety, 
was carefully restored and decorated in 1852. 

The entire Palais de Justice has undergone extensive alter- 
ations since 1839, the numerous dark passages and nooks which 
disfigured the interior having been removed. 

The different courts of justice, the Cour de Cassation, the 
four d'Appel, the Assises, the Tribunal de Premiere Instance aud the 
Tribunal de Police Municipale hold their sessions here from 1 1 till 
3 o'clock and may be visited by those who desire to witness the 
proceedings of a French tribunal. The services of a guide 
( 1 fr.) will prove of essential service. In the Chambre Correc- 
tionelle very amusing scenes sometimes occur, and the pleading is 
occasionally admirable ; the stranger, however, who is well 
acquainted with the French language should procure access to 
one of the courts in which a civil suit is being tried and where 
lie will hear some of the most eminent advocates plead. The 
eloquence of the French Barreau is held in high repute. 

Several of the courts (Chambres) are entered from a lofty hall, 
recently restored, supported by pillars, 216 ft. long and 84 ft. 
broad, termed the Salle des Pas Perdus. Judges and advocates 
in their black robes, as well as clients, are usually seen pacing 
up and down in this hall. Around it sit the public writers, 
whose office is to render assistance with their pens to inexpe- 
rienced litigants. This busy scene is the sole point of interest 
in the Palais de Justice for those who do not desire to visit the 
courts themselves. 

The monument on the r. side of the hall was erected by 
Louis XVIII. to the memory of the minister Malesherbes, who was 
beheaded in 1794. the defender of Louis XVI. before the revo- 
lutionary tribunal, as the relief beneath, by Cortot, indicates; the 
statue is by Iiosio, on the sides are figures emblematic of France 
and Fidelity, with the inscription: Strenue semper fidelis regi suo, 
in solio veritatem, praesidium in carcere attulit. (Ever strenuously 
faithful to his king, he served him with truth on the throne and 
assistance in prison). 



96 12. PALAIS DE JUSTICE. 

In the S. court of the Palais de Justice rises the *Sainte 
Chapelle, the ancient palace -chapel erected in 1245—48 by 
Pierre de Montereau for the reception of the sacred relics (frag- 
ments of the crown of thorns , the true cross and the garment 
of the Saviour, and the head of the spear with which his side 
was pierced), which are said to have been purchased by St. Louis 
from Jean de Brienne, king of Jerusalem, and his son-in-law 
Baldwin, emperor of Byzantium, for the sum of 2 million francs. 
The chapel is a perfect gem of its kind, and the most beautiful 
Gothic edifice in Paris. The height, including the modern spire 
which replaces one burned down in 1630, is about 140 ft., length 
120 ft., breadth 40 ft. The interior consists of two chapels, the 
upper and the lower, the former having been destined for the 
accommodation of the court, the latter for the attendants. The 
upper chapel consists of a nave and semi-circular apse, 65 ft. in 
height, the former with four windows on each side, the latter 
with seven altogether. The stained glass, which represents sub- 
jects from the Old and New Testament and scenes from the history 
of St. Louis, is coeval with the foundation, with the exception of 
a few portions by which missing fragments have been judiciously 
replaced. The upper chapel with its clusters of columns and 
rich decorations has recently been restored in a most gorgeous 
manner, the lower is still in a dilapidated condition. The original 
structure was erected at an expense of 800,000 fr., the restoration 
has already cost considerably upwards of one million francs. From 
1793 until the recent restoration it served as a receptacle for 
the documents of the lawyers of the Palais de Justice. In the 
lower chapel the poet Boileau (A. 1711) is interred. The Sainte 
Chapelle is, strictly speaking , only accessible to those who are 
furnished with a written permission from the Ministre de la liaison 
de VEmpereur; admission may, however, generally be obtained 
for a few francs by applying to the porter. 

The Conciergerie , the gloomy walls and ancient towers of 
which overlook the Seine on the N. side, is the oldest of this 
mass of buildings and serves as a prison for those who are about 
to undergo an examination. Most of the political prisoners men- 
tioned at p. 80 were here confined before they were conducted 
to the guillotine. The chamber once occupied by Marie Antoinette, 
who had been conveyed hither from the Temple, is now converted 
into the sacristy of the chapel. Three pictures by Simon, Pajou 
and Drolling represent some of the closing scenes of her life. 
A black marble tablet on the wall bears the following inscription, 
which is said to have been composed by Louis XVIII. himself: 
" D. O. M. Hoc in loco Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna Austriaca 
Ludovici XVI vidua, conjuge trucidato, liberis ereptis, in carcerem 
ccnjecta, per dies 76' aerumnis luctu et sgualore adfecta, sed propria 
virtute innixa ut in solio, ita et in vinculis majorem forluna se 



12. PALAIS DE JUSTICE. 97 

praebuit. A scelestissimis denique hominibus capite damnata, morte 
jam imminente, aeternum pietatis, fortitudinis, omniumque virtutum 
tnonumentum hie scripsit , die 16. Octobris l~9.'i. Restituto tandem 
regno, career in sacrarium conversus dicatus est, A. D. 1816, Ludo- 
vici XVIII regnantis anno XXII., Comite de Canes a securitate 
publico Regis ministro, praefecto aedilibusque curantibus. Quisquis 
hie ades, adora, admirare, precare." 

(In the name of the Almighty. In this place Marie Antoinette Josepha 
Johanna of Austria, widow of Louis XVI., after her husband had been 
slain and her children torn away from her, was cast into prison and tor- 
tured by misery, grief and humiliation during 76 days; but, supported by 
her own virtue as when on the throne, so even in prison she proved 
herself superior to fortune. Finally condemned to death by the most 
wicked men, her death being now at hand , she here wrote an everlasting 
monument of piety , fortitude and all virtues, Oct. 16th, 1723. When the 
kingdom was at last re-established, this prison was converted into a sa- 
cristy, A. D. 1816, in the 22nd jear of the reign of Louis XVIII. under the 
superintendence of Count de Cazes, minister of police, the prefect and the 
sheriffs. Whoever thou be that art here present, revere, admire, pray). 

The building occupied by the Prefecture de Police, situated 
on the S. side, on the Quai des Orfevres, was erected in 1(311 
as an official residence for the president of the parliament. From 
this point as a centre emanate all the threads which constitute 
the partly visible and partly invisible network of police authority 
which extends over the entire city. The prefect of the police 
has an annual sum of 13 million francs at his command, for the 
maintenance of 300 officials, 7000 commissaries , inspectors and 
sergents de ville, 3000 men of the Garde municipale, and 800 sa- 
peurs-pompiers or fire-men. By this efficient staff the public 
security, as well as the public health are admirably provided for. 
Paris, the once notorious Lutetia (muddy city), is now one of 
the cleanest towns in the world, and, notwithstanding the 60,000 
malefactors which it is computed to harbour, affords greater 
security to its inhabitants than the quietest provincial town. 

On the W. side of the Palais is situated the triangular Place 
Dauphine, constructed under Henry IV., with brick houses coeval 
with those of the Place Royale (p. 35), and formerly the resi- 
dence of the parliamentary advocates and officials. In the centre 
of the Place stands Desaix's Monument, a fountain surmounted by a 
bust of the general, who is crowned with laurel by a figure em- 
blematic of France : t'.vo figures of Victory record the names of 
the battles fought by the hero. The inscriptions are as follows: 

"Alia dire au premier consul que je tneurs avec le regret de 
n'avoir pas assez fait pour la posterite" — Landau, Kehl, Weissen- 
bourg. Malte, Chebreis, Embabe, les Pyramides, Sediman , Saman- 
hout, Kane, Thebes , Marengo furent les temoins de ses talents et 
de son courage. Les ennemis I'appelaient le Juste; ses soldats, 
eomine ceux de Bayard, sans peur et sans reproche; il vecut, il 
mourut pour sa patrie. L. Ch. Ant. Desaix, ne ft Ayot . departe- 

Beedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 7 



98 12. PONT NEUF. 

ment du Puy-de-Dome, le 11 aout 1758; mort a Marengo le 25 prai- 
rial an V11I de la republique < 14 juin 1800). Ce monument lui 
fut eleve par des amis de sa gloire et de sa vertu, sous le con- 
sulat de Bonaparte, Van X de la republique.'' 

The W. issue opens on the *Pont Neuf, a bridge across both 
arms of the Seine, 350 yds. in length, on which is situated the 
equestrian Statue of Henry IV. , erected to replace one which had 
stood here from 1635 to 1792, when it was melted down and con- 
verted into pieces of ordnance. By way of retaliation Louis XVIII. 
condemned the statue of Napoleon from the Vendome column 
and that of Desaix from the Place des Victoires to a similar fate. 
The inscription in front is to the following effect: 

"Henrici Magni, paterno in populum animo notissimi principis, 
sacram effigiem, civiles inter tumultus, Oallia indignante, dejectam, 
post optatum Ludovici Will reditum ex omnibus ordinibus cives 
acre collato restituerunt. Xec non et elogium cum effigie simul 
abolitum lapidi rursus inscribi curaverunt. I). D. die 25 mensis 
Aug. 1818." 

(Alter the longed lor return of Louis XVIII. the citizens of all ranks, 
having made contributions,, restored the sacred image of Henry the Great, 
a prince distinguished for his paternal feelings towards his people, which 
to the indignation of France had been thrown down during the Civil war. 
They moreover caused the inscription which had been destroyed with the 
statue to be again inscribed on the monument. Aug. 25th, 1818.) 

The following is the original inscription to which allusion is 
made in the above: 

"Enrico TV., Galliarum imperatori Navar. R. Ludovicus XIII. 
fllius ejus, opus inchoatum et intermissum, pro dignitate pietatis el 
imperii plenius et amplius absolvit. Emin. 1). C. Bichelius com- 
mune votum populi promovit. Super illustr. viri de Bouillon, 
Boutillier , aerarii , faciendum curaverunt 1635." 

(.To Henry IV., king of France and Navarre, Louis XIII. his son, as 
a worthy token of his filial love and his reign, completed this monument 
in a better and superior style, after it had been commenced and inters 
rupted. His Eminence Cardinal Richelieu gratified the univeral wish of 
the people. The counsellors of the treasury de Bouillon and Boutillier 
superintended the work. 1635.) 

At the sides are two reliefs in bronze: Henry IV. causing 
bread to be distributed among the citizens of Paris who had 
sought protection of him during the siege, and his halt at Notre 
Dame, where he causes peace to be proclaimed to the inhabi- 
tants by the Archbishop of Paris. 

In front of the statue a large telescope is usually posted, 
through which the stranger may inspect the planets , if he feel 
disposed, for 10 c. An adjoining staircase descends to a good 
swimming-bath in the Seine (p. 19). 

On the opposite side, Quai de Conti 5, is a gilded inscription 
to this effect : "Souvenir historique. L'empereur Napoleon Bona- 



•13. BIBLIOTHEQUE IMPERIALE. 99 

parte , officier d'artillerie sortant , en 1781 , de I'ecole de Brienne, 
demeurait au cinquilme etage de cetle maison." 

In the 16th cent. Tabarin, a celebrated satirical poet of the 
day, was in the habit of reciting his verses on this bridge, in 
consequence of which circumstance popular rhymes are to this 
day termed "pont-neufs". 

At the extremity of the island, opposite to the Pont Neuf 
and in the rear of Notre Dame, is situated La Morgue, recently 
rebuilt, where corpses of unknown persons who have met their 
death in the river or otherwise are exposed to view during three 
days. The bodies are placed on marble slabs , kept cool by a 
stream of water; their clothing is suspended above them. If not 
recognized within the prescribed limit, they are removed and 
buried at the public expense. On an average 240 male and 
50 female corpses are thus annually exposed. This painful spec- 
tacle daily attracts numerous visitors , especially of the lower 
classes. 

Notre-Dame, also situated in the Cite island, see p. 104. 

13. Bibliotheque Imperials. 

Place Louvois, Fontaine Moliere. 

The imperial library has of late years been accessible 
exclusively to those who desire to study in the reading-rooms. 
The collection of antiques (p. 100) alone is at present open to 
the public. The old building is in process of being demolished 
and re-erected , a magnificent new reading-room will be added 
and the interior considerably enlarged. 

The entrance is in the Rue Richelieu 58, contiguous to the 
small Place Louvois, in which the Grand-Opera formerly stood. 
After the assassination of the Due de Berry by Louvel, which 
occurred here Feb 13th, 1820, as the audience was quitting the 
opera, the building was demolished and the construction of a 
chapelle expiatoire commenced on the site. This was still un- 
finished when the events of 1830 occurred, after which a Fountain 
from designs by Visconti was erected on the spot; the four sup- 
porting figures represent the four principal rivers of France, the 
Seine, the Loire, the Saone and the Garonne. In 1859 the Place 
was furnished with trees and converted into a square. 

The public Library, once Bibliotheque du Roi or Roy ale, in 
1792 and 1848 Bibliotheque Nationale, and during the reign of 
Napoleon I. and again under the present re'gime Bibliotheque 7m- 
periale , is probably the most extensive in the world. The vast 
building which contains it occupies a considerable portion of four 
streets, in front the Rue Richelieu, in the rear the Rue Vivienne, 
N. the Rue Colbert and S. the Rue Neuve des Petits Champs. 

7* 



100 13. BIBLIOTHEQUE IMPERIALE. 

Part of the building, which is a gloomy and unsuitable recep- 
tacle for so noble a collection, was once the palace of Cardinal 
Mazarin (d. 1661), the all-powerful minister of Louis XIII. and 
Louis XIV. 

A staircase to the r. in the court ascends to the library. 

The number of books (5,000,000) and MSS. (200,000) is so 
immense that the book-cases containing them would, if placed in 
a continous line, extend to. a distance of upwards of 20 M. The 
books themselves are almost invariably copies of the rarest and 
choicest editions, and are carefully bound. The Geographical 
Collection contains 300,000 maps, plans etc., the topography of 
Paris alone occupies 56 large folios. The Collection of Engra- 
vings, to the r. on the ground-floor, consists of 8000 vols, and 
upwards of 1,300,000 plates. The present edifice has been 
found totally inadequate for so vast a collection and is now 
undergoing extensive alterations. 

According to the organization of Aug. 23rd, 1858, the library 
contains four different departments: 1. Departement des Imprimes, 
Cartes et Collections Geographiques; 2. Departement des Manu- 
scrits; 3. Departement des Medailles et Antiques; 4. Departement 
des Estampes. During the last few years upwards of 50,000 fr. 
have been annually expended in the formation of catalogues alone. 
The first five volumes of the general catalogue, completed in 
1855, hardly contain one half of the works on the history of 
France. Persons desirous of consulting a book are required 
to write down the title of the work, as well as their name 
and address ; every facility will then be afforded them by the 
librarians. 

The Cabinet des Medailles et Antiques is open to the public 
on Tuesdays and Fridays from 10 to 3 o'clock (entrance in the 
Rue Richelieu, the door beyond the fire-engine station when 
approached from the Boulevards, the first when approached from 
the Palais Royal; visitors ring). It contains a valuable collection 
of Coins, Medals (150,000) and Antiques, interesting Greek, 
Roman and Egyptian curiosities, Babylonian cylindrical blocks of 
marble inscribed with cuneiform characters , probably employed 
as amulets, a vast number of seals, cameos, ornaments, vases, 
richly decorated weapons etc. The arrangement of the collection 
is still incomplete. In the walls of the entrance-hall and stair- 
case Roman inscriptions are immured. To the 1. is the principal 
saloon, near the middle of which is a glass cabinet containing the 
Apotheosis of Augustus, the gem of the entire collection and the 
largest cameo in the world, the sardonyx being nearly 1 ft. in 
diameter; among the fifteen different figures are Augustus, .lEneas, 
Julius Caesar, Drusus, Tiberius, Livia, Agrippina etc. It was 
formerly preserved in the treasury of the Sainte Chapelle (p. 96), 
and was erroneously believed to represent a triumphal procession 



13. BIBLIOTHEQUE IMPERIALE. 101 

of Joseph in Egypt. A smaller cameo represents Germanicus 
borne off by an eagle (Apotheosis of Germanicus). For full 
particulars the visitor should consult the Catalogue general et 
raisonne des pierres gravies (not, however, of the medals) de In 
Bibliotheque Imperiale, which may be purchased in the room for 
3 fr. 50 c. 

In a glass cabinet are preserved some interesting relics from 
the tomb of king Childeric (d. 481) in the church of St. Brice 
at Tournai in Belgium, which was discovered and opened in 1655. 
A number of small silver images are also preserved here, together 
with 70 other relics , discovered at Berthouville , in the depart- 
ment of the Eure, dating from the period of the first Roman em- 
perors and believed to have appertained to the treasury of the 
temple of Mercury at Canetum. 

The agate cup of the Ptolemies, formerly in the treasury of 
St. Denis, with carved representations of the mysteries of Ceres 
and Bacchus. Vases of embossed silver. A Roman golden dish, 
on the margin the family of the Antonines. A golden sacrificial 
cup, discovered in 1744 near Rennes in Bretagne, representing 
the drinking contest of Bacchus and Hercules , on the margin 
16 golden medallions of emperors and empresses. A vase of the 
15th cent, with an inlaid cross. A small bust of Achilles. 

A silver disc, 26 inches in diameter, erroneously termed the 
"Bouclier de Scipion" ; the reliefs represent the abduction of Bri- 
seis by the messengers of Agamemnon. This relic was discovered 
in the Rhone near Avignon in 1658. The so-called "Bouclier 
d'Annibal" is undoubtedly a modern imitation 

The "Monument Babylonien" , an oval meteorite engraved with 
cuneiform and other characters, was found near Bagdad. 

Opposite to the principal saloon is the Salle du Due de iMynes, 
exclusively devoted to objects presented to the library by the 
duke , a most zealous promoter of antiquarian research. It con- 
tains a number of interesting ancient coins. 

At the upper end of the Rue Richelieu which extends between 
the Boulevard des Italiens and the Rue de Rivoli, a distance of 
about 3 / 4 M., at the corner of the street, is situated the Fontaine 
Moliere , erected to the memory of the celebrated dramatist Mo- 
liere, who died in 1073 in the house opposite (No. 34). The 
monument., which was placed here in 1844 at an expense of 
168,000 fr., is in the Renaissance style, from designs by Visconti. 
Moliere is represented in a sitting posture, in an attitude of me- 
ditation ; below are two figures emblematic of the humorous 
and serious character of his plays, furnished with scrolls on which 
the names of all MoliSre's works are inscribed in chronologi- 
cal order. Inscription: A Moliere ne ft Paris 15 Janvier 1622 et 
mort ft Paris 17 Fevrier 1673. Souscription Rationale. 



102 



14. Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. 



This establishment is situated in the Rue St. Martin, No. 292, 
in the vicinity of the Porte St. Martin, facing the new Square des 
Arts et Metiers. Admission on Sundays and Thursdays, 10 — 4 o'clock, 
gratis; on Mondays, Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturdays 1 fr. 

The collections of the *Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, 
the Polytechnic of Paris, are probably the most extensive of their 
kind in Europe. The edifice which contains them once belonged 
to the wealthy Benedictine Abbey of St. Martin des Champs, se- 
cularized in 1789. A portal erected in 1848 — 50 bears an in- 
scription, on the side next to the court, which records that the 
abbey was founded in 1060, that the establishment of the conser- 
vatoire was decreed by the Convention in 1794, and that the col- 
lections were commenced in this edifice in 1798. 

The lectures, which are public, embrace geometry, mechanics, 
chemistry, physical science, the arts of spinning, weaving, dyeing 
and printing, natural history as connected with commerce, the 
laws relating to commerce etc. 

The vestibule of the basement story is adorned with a relief 
by Ruxtheil, representing Daedalus and Icarus , and with busts of 
Laplace, Vaucanson etc. Then a small gallery to the 1. contai- 
ning every variety of grain, seeds etc , and numerous casts of 
vegetable products. Farther down is the Salle d'Echo, a species 
of whispering gallery, which contains a fine model of the "Da- 
nube" packet-boat. In the rooms to the 1. collections of weights 
and measures of different countries, artificial jewels, different 
species of marble etc.; the short flight of steps leads to a collec- 
tion of clocks, telescopes, also views of mines etc. 

The Salle des Filatures, a gallery contiguous to the Salle d'Echo 
on the r., contains weavers' looms and other machines, with speci- 
mens of manufactures. An historical interest attaches to this gallery 
from the fact that the "Montagnards", an extreme republican faction 
of the National Assembly, assembled here under the protection of 
artillery-men of the National Guard on June 13th, 1849, after the 
suppression by General Changarnier of the demonstration against 
the expedition to Rome. The object which the meeting had in 
view was to excite the populace to a new insurrection. Their de- 
liberations were, however, soon interrupted by the entrance of a 
detachment of soldiers, when they immediately took to flight. Ledru- 
Rollin and others escaped by the windows into the garden. 

The third room, as well as the spacious hall adjoining, contains 
agricultural implements, anatomical sections of the horse, a col- 
lection of seeds and other articles connected with farming. 

The visitor retracing his steps in the third room, next enters 
(to the r.) the former Chapel, now occupied by numerous large 



14. CONSERVATOIRE DES ARTS ET METIERS. 103 

machines of various descriptions, which are set in motion by steam 
power on Sundays and Thursdays. 

The first floor, beginning to the 1., contains models of steam- 
engines, workshops, water-wheels, wind-mills ; printing and litho- 
graphic presses ; optical and musical instruments ; mirrors, a ca- 
mera obseura ; Chinese manufactures and instruments; specimens 
of turning; staircases and bridges; an Indian temple; railway and 
adjuncts; cranes; machinery used in iron-founderies; locksmith's 
work; minerals; chemicals; glass, pottery, porcelain and fayence; 
scientific instruments ; a powerful electric machine ; a large mirror 
broken in a singular manner by an earthquake at Guadeloupe ; 
electric telegraphs; air-pumps; sugar-refining apparatus, porcelain 
manufactory , pottery , brick-works ; paper-manufactory ; astrono- 
mical instruments ; mills ; pumps ; gas-manufacturing apparatus. 
In the window-niches are placed a variety of printing-presses, 
among which are those employed in 1790 in printing the "assignats" 
or paper currency of the Revolution , entitling the holder to a 
share of the secularized ecclesiastical (subsequently royal) estates, 
but after Robespierre's fall utterly valueless. 

What was once the *Refectory of the ancient abbey, a beauti- 
ful Gothic structure erected about the middle of the 13th cent, 
by Montereau , the architect of the Sainte Chapelle (p. 96) , has 
recently been judiciously fitted up as a Library (20,000 vols.). 
The vaulted ceiling is supported by seven lofty and graceful 
columns, the capitals and bases of which are gilded. The library 
is accessible for students only, from 10 to 3 o'clock daily , except 
Monday, when it may be inspected by the public. 

The neighbouring church of St. Nicolas des Champs possesses 
a Gothic portal, but the interior contains nothing worthy of note. 
St. Merry, at the S. end of the street, see p. 107. 

15. Churches on the right bank of the Seine. 

Notre Dame, St. Germain V Auxerrois , St. Merry, St. Enstache , St. Roch, 
Madeleine, IVotre Dame de Lorette , St. Vincent lie Paul, St. Jean Baptiste, 

St. Eugene. 

With a few exceptions the ecclesiastical buildings of Paris 
are by no means worthy of the metropolis of a great kingdom, 
over which a long succession of "most Christian" monarchs have 
reigned. They are far inferior to the churches in many other 
French and Belgian cities. 

Out of the 41 parish-churches of Paris, therefore, it will not 
be necessary to enumerate more than the following : 1- Notre 
Dame , 2. St. Germain des Pres , 3. St. Oermain I'Auxerrois, 
4. St. Merry , all four in the Gothic style ; 5. St. Etienne du Mont 
and 6. St. Eustache, in the style of the Renaissance; 7. St. Sul- 
pice and 8. St. Roch in the modern Romanesque style of the time 



104 15. NOTRE DAME. 

of Louis XV.; 9. Madeleine, in the Grecian style, as was custo- 
mary during the empire ; 10. Notre Dame de Lorette and 11. St. Vin- 
cent de Paid, in the latest Composite style; 12. Ste. Clotilde, 
13. St. Jean Baptiste and 1.4. St. Eugene, modern Gothic. 
Nos. 2,5, 7 and 12 are situated on the 1. bank of the Seine 
(p. 162). These churches are open the whole day ; even when 
the principal entrance is closed, access may be obtained by a 
side-door. 

*Notre Dame de Paris, situated in the Cite island [p. 94), 
was commenced in the 12th and completed in the 14th cent. The 
dimensions of this fine Gothic structure are as follows: length 
390 ft, width at the transept 144 ft., height of vaulting 102 ft, 
width of W. front 128 ft. , height of towers 204 ft. , height of 
new spire 280 ft. The interior consists of a nave and choir with 
four aisles and lateral chapels. The pillars of the nave support 
pointed arches, resting upon decorated capitals. The three magni- 
ficent rose-windows contain the sole remnant of the ancient stained 
glass of the cathedral, coeval with the foundation. — The exterior 
as well as interior of this celebrated cathedral of the archbishops 
are somewhat disappointing. The situation is unfavourable , and 
the sacred edifice itself ha< been sadly marred at different periods 
by "embellishments", as well as by the storms of the Revolution, 
during which period it was converted into a "Temple of Reason''. 
The disturbances of Feb. 15th, 1831, occasioned the total ruin 
of the Archiepiscopal Palace on the S. side of the church , in 
consequence of which that building has been entirely removed. 

The mo>t beautiful portion of the cathedral is the richly de- 
corated ^restored subsequent to 1848) W. Facade, with its three 
portals, each of which forms a succession of retiring arches, dating 
from the commencement of the 13th cent. The fine rose-window 
measures 36 ft. in diameter. The sculptures of the central por- 
tal represent the Last Judgment. The N. portal, by which the 
cathedral is usually entered, is dedicated to the Virgin, the S. por- 
tal to St. Anne , and each is decorated with appropriate sculpture. 
Above the doors are the statues of 28 French kings, from Childe- 
bert I. to Philip II. (Oalerie des Rois), which originally dated 
from the 13th cent., were destroyed with the other sculptures in 
1793, and have been lately restored. The interior is now per- 
fectly simple. It was much disfigured by a gaudy blue ceiling 
with golden stars on the occasion of the baptism of the Im- 
perial Prince. This, however, has since been removed. The 
chapels are now in process of being redecorated, but in somewhat 
questionable taste. 

The Nave , which contains nothing particularly worthy of note 
is separated by a screen from the Choir, which is at present- 
undergoing a complete restoration 



15. NOTRE DAME. 105 

Cards of admission (50 c.) to the choir and sacristy are pro- 
cured from the verger at the entrance in the r. aisle (if he is 
absent, visitors ring). The recently constructed Sacristy or Treasury, 
contains magnificent pontifical robes, most of them of modern date, 
presented by Napoleon I., Louis XVIII. and Louis Philippe; mon- 
strances and other ecclesiastical utensils , croziers , mitres , crosses 
etc. , many of them gorgeously decorated with precious stones. The 
lofty windows are filled with stained glass portraits of archbi- 
shops of Paris and scenes from their lives ; among others the death 
of Archbishop Affre (p. 35). The bullet which caused his death, 
and a cast of his features are shown. Here too are preserved 
the portrait and robes of his successor Archbishop Sibour, who- 
was stabbed Jan. 3rd, 1857, in St. Etienne du Mont in the pre- 
sence of a vast concourse of worshippers by a priest named Verger. 

Contiguous to the sacristy is situated the picturesque Cow 
du chapitre , a "joujou gothique", in the centre of which stands 
a small fountain in the form of a shrine, surmounted by eight 
seated figures of bishops. 

In the 3d Chapel a monument of Archbishop Affre by Debay, 
with his last words: "Puisse mon sang etre le dernier verse". 

The N. Chapels of the Choir contain two fine monuments; 
one to the memory of the archbishop, Cardinal de Belloy (A. 1806), 
a *group in marble, representing the aged prelate in his 99th 
year giving alms to a poor woman and child, executed by De- 
seine ; the other to the memory of the archbishop Juigne(&. 1811). 

The exterior of the wall which encloses the choir in decorated 
with 23 remarkable reliefs in stone, dating from fhe middle of 
the 14th century, representing scenes from the life of the Saviour, 
the figures painted. 

The ascent to the *Tower is on the N. W. side. A flight of 
63 steps conducts the visitor to the office of the custodian (20 c). 
whence 305 steps more will bring him to the platform of the 
tower ; about half-way to the summit the great bell is usually 
shown (for which a trifling gratuity is expected). With the ex- 
ception of the Tour St. Jacques, this is probably the finest point 
of view in Paris , as it commands a prospect of the course of 
the Seine with its numerous bridges. The environs of the church 
have moreover been rendered more attractive by the magnificent 
improvements of the present reign. 

The long building on the bank of the river , on the S.W. side 
of the cathedral, is the Hotel Dieu, the most ancient hospital in 
Paris and probably the oldest in Europe, having been founded 
by Clovis II. in 660. 

*St. Germain l'Auxerrois, situated opposite to the colonnade 
of the Louvre, on the E. side, once the church frequented by the 
royal family, belongs in its present form to the close of the 



106 15. ST, GERMAIN L'AUXERROIS. 

15th cent., when the purity of the Gothic style began to be 
lost in richness of decoration. The interior consists of nave and 
double row of aisles , surrounded by chapels. The remarkable 
lowness of the roof gives it a depressed character. 

From the tower of this church once resounded the pre- 
concerted signal for the massacre of St. Bartholomew. During 
the whole of that night of horror the bell unremittingly tolled 
its funeral peal. 

On Feb. lith, 1821, the anniversary of the murder of the 
Due de Berry, a solemn mass was being here performed to his 
memory by the partizans of the Bourbons , when the populace 
forced their way into the sacred edifice, ejected the priests and 
compelled the authorities to keep the church closed for a season. 
It was subsequently employed as an office for the mayor of the 
4th arrondissement, but was restored to its sacred uses in 1838. 
The entire decoration of the interior is, therefore, o? very re- 
cent origin. 

The W. front of the church consists of a Porch , from which 
the church is entered by five portals. The interior of the porch 
is adorned with frescoes on a gold ground , by Mottez. The cen- 
tral fresco represents Christ on the Cross, surrounded by saints 
(among them the Maid of Orleans) ; those on each side of the 
latter represent the Sermon on the Mount and the Mount of 
Olives; those over the lateral portals, Jesus in the Temple and 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

Of the frescoes in the interior of the church, that which re- 
presents the Descent from the Cross, by Guichard (1845), in the 
S. transept, especially merits inspection. The pictures , however, 
are seen in an unfavourable light, owing to the sombre stained 
glass windows, which represent angels and saints, and are works 
of no great merit. 

The *Basin for sacred water in the S. transept, a group in 
marble designed by Madame de Lamartine and executed by Jouf- 
froy , merits particular attention. It is surmounted by a beauti- 
fully sculptured group of three angels around a cross. 

A chapel of the choir contains monuments in marble of the 
chancellor Etienne cTAligre (d. 1635) and his son (d. 1674). 
The contiguous chapel contains a figure in marble of an angel 
praying. 

The angel of the Last Judgment on the pediment in front is 
by Marochetti. 

With a view to give uniformity to the aspect of the Louvre 
colonnade, the new Mairie of the first arrondissement has been 
erected in the same style as the church of St. Germain l'Auxer- 
rois , on the opposite side of the Place. The tower between the 
two has been erected simply to fill up the vacant space , a stop- 
gap which is said to have cost 2 million francs ! 



15. ST. EUSTACHE. 107 

St. Merry (at the S. extremity of the Rue St. Martin, near 
the Rue de Rivoli) , founded in 1520 and completed in 1612, 
possesses a remarkably fine portal in the florid Gothic style. The 
modern frescoes in the interior, by Lehmann , A.Duval, ChassS- 
r%au (d. 1856) and LepauUe are well worthy of notice. The ad- 
joining convent was obstinately defended by insurgents against 
the troops of Louis Philippe, June 5th and 6th, 1832. 

*St. Eustache, at the S. extremity of the Rue Montmartre, 
with a nave and double row of aisles , is a strange mixture of 
degenerate Gothic and modern style. Its erection occupied al- 
together upwards of a century, 1532 — 1637; the W. portal, with 
its columns of the Ionic and Doric orders, was commenced in 
1752 and has only recently been completed. The proportions of 
the interior are graceful and lofty, and produce a good general 
effect. The chapels (with the arm- of their founders over the 
arches) are richly and tastefully gilded, and adorned with large 
*Frescoes. 

Right side. 1st. Chapel of the city of Paris. 

2nd. Counts of Castille. 

3rd. Family of Montescot; ancient frescoes recently revived 
by Basset. 

4th. Chantereau-Lestang; frescoes by Ouurlier. 

5th. Gentien; frescoes by Magime. 

6th. Puysieux and Armenonville ; frescoes by La Riviere. 

7th. Rouille" and Le Couteulx : frescoes by Vauchelet. 

8th. Machault; frescoes by Lazerges. 

9th. Duval and Lesecq ; ancient frescoes revived by Cornut. 
10th. Dedicated to Sculpture and Painting; frescoes by Pils. 
11th. Richelieu; frescoes by Damery and Biennourry. 
12th. Duke of Orleans; frescoes by Signol. 

Left side. 1st. Chapel. Penthievre; frescoes by Olaite. 

2nd. Nicolay ; frescoes by Marquis. 

3rd. Bullion; frescoes by Riesener. 

4th. Fiesco and Strozzi; frescoes of the 16th cent., revived 
by Basset. 

5th. Lepretre, dedicated to St. Eustache, whose relics are pre- 
served in this chapel. The frescoes, by Le Henaff, represent 
scenes from the life of the saint, who, under the name of Pla- 
cidus, was a Roman general under the emperor Titus. 

6th. Menardeau. 

7th. Roillart; *frescoes by Felix Barrios, representing scenes 
from the life of St. Louis. 

8th. Brice; *frescoes by Pichon. 

9th. Bourlon; frescoes by Serrus. 

10th. Valois; ancient frescoes, revived by Basset. 

11th. Epernon; *frescoes by Delorme. 



108 15. ST. ROCH. 

12th. Colbert; frescoes by Bezard. This chapel contains the 
remains of Colbert ( d. 1683), the able minister of Louis XIV. ; 
the monument consists of a sarcophagus of black marble, with a 
figure in -white marble of Colbert in a kneeling posture. 

The frescoes of the Chapel of the Virgin are by Couture. The 
sculptures in marble which adorn the High-altar are of admirable 
workmanship. The organ, which has twice been destroyed, and 
has lately been reconsructed by Cavalie, is also an object of in- 
terest. St. Eustache is one of the most frequented churches in 
Paris, especially on festivals, on account of the superior music. 

The large space on the S.E. side of the church is occupied 
by the *Halles Centrales (p. 18), the most extensive market in 
Paris, especially for provisions of every variety. 

St. Boch, Rue St. Honore' 296, near the N. side of the garden 
of the Tuileries, erected in 1653 — 1740 in the degraded taste 
of that epoch, possesses a portal in the Corinthian and Doric styles. 
On the broad flight of steps by which the church is approached, 
on the 13th of Vendemiaire, in the 4th year (Oct. 3rd, 1795), 
Bonaparte placed the cannons which he fired upon the Royalists 
who were advancing against the Convention, and thus checked 
the progress of the counter-revolution. The church was restored 
in 1865". 

The interior possesses little worthy of note. The 5th chapel 
to the 1. contains a monument to the memory of the Abbe de 
l'Epe'e, the celebrated teacher of the deaf and dumb. It con- 
sists of a sarcophagus with a bust , to which two children are 
gratefully raising their eyes , and bears the inscription : Viro 
admodum mirabili, sacerdoti de I'Epee, qui fecit exemplo Salva- 
toris mutos loqui, cives Galliae hoc monumentum dedicarunt: Na- 
tus an. 171'j, mortuus an. 1789. (To the extraordinary man the 
Abbe de l'Epe'e, who after the example of the Saviour caused 
dumb to speak, the citizens of France have dedicated this monu- 
ment.) Reneath is the alphabet of signs used by the dumb. 
Adjacent to the monument is a black marble tablet with the in- 
scription : A I' Abbe de I'Epee, les sourds-muets suedois reconnais- 
sants (comp. p. 161). 

The stucco reliefs in 14 compartments, with which the cha- 
pels of the choir are adorned, represent the Passion. The third 
of these chapels contains a picture by A. Scheffer, representing 
St. Francis, of Sales conducting a weary wanderer through the snow. 

The chapel of the Virgin behind the high altar contains stained 
glass representations of (to the 1.) St. Denis the Areopagite and 
(to the r.) Denis Affre , the archbishop who was killed at the 
barricades; and two oil paintings: (to the 1.) Jesus casting the 
money changers out of the temple, by Thomas (1822), and (to 
the v.) the Raising of the daughter of Jairus. by Delorme ( 1817). 



15. LA MADELEINE. 109 

The S. chapels of the nave contain several monuments of emi- 
nent persons: those of Cardinal Dubois (d 1723"), minister of the 
Regent Orleans and the participant of his shameless orgies fp. 45), 
executed by Coustou: the Due de Crequi (d. 1687), Marshal of 
France, general in the German campaigns of Louis XIV., by 
Coyzevox and Coustou; the artist Mignard (d. 1695); the land- 
scape-gardener Le Notre (d. 1700). 

St. Roch is probably the most richly endowed of the churches 
of Paris; the ecclesiastical festivals are celebrated here in the 
most sumptuous style; music admirable. 

*La Madeleine (accessible to visitors after 1 o'clock), or 
church dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, situated at the W. 
extremity of the boulevards, in the vicinity of the Place de 
la Concorde , experienced during its construction all the vicis- 
situdes of the history of modern France. The foundations were 
laid in 1764; the revolution found the edifice uncompleted, 
and the works were suspended. Napoleon, whilst on his route 
to Tilsit, Dec. 2nd, 1806, issued a decree, commanding the 
building to be converted into a temple of Glory, and to 
be furnished with the inscription: L'empereur Napoleon avu 
soldats de la grande armee. The 5th article of the decree 
was to the following effect: "Tous les ans, aux anniversaires 
des batailles d'Austerlitz et d'lena, le monument sera illuming, 
et il sera donne" un concert precede' d'un discours sur les vertus 
necessaires au soldat, et d'un e"loge de ceux qui perirent sur le 
champ de bataille dans ces journe'es memorables. Dans les dis- 
cours et odes il est expressement defendu de faire mention de 
l'empereur." 

The destination of the edifice was altered by Louis XVIII., 
who proposed to convert the "Temple of Glory" into an expia- 
tory church to the memory of Louis XVI., Louis XVII., Marie 
Antoinette and Madame Elisabeth. 

The construction of the church was again interrupted by the 
July revolution, and was not finally completed till 1842. The 
entire sum expended amounted to 13 million francs (520,000 1.). 
This magnificent structure stands in an open space, upon a base- 
ment about 20 ft. in height. Its form is that of a Grecian temple, 
328 ft. in length, 138 ft. in breadth, surrounded by Corinthian 
columns 50 ft. in height, of which 14 support the pediment of 
the S. front, 15 are ranged along each side, and 8 form the N. 
portico. 

The niches in the walls contain statues of Saints especially 
revered in France, commencing to the r. with the Angel Gabriel and 
terminating on the 1. with the Angel Michael, all by modern sculptors . 

The inscription on the S. front is : D. O. M. sub invoc. S. M. 
Magdalenae. (To the Almighty God, through the invocation of 
St. Mary Magdalene. I 



110 15. LA MADELEINE. 

The tympanum contains a high relief of vast dimensions, by 
Lernaire, representing the Last Judgment. The entire length is 
126 ft, height in the centre of the pediment 24 ft., figure of 
the Saviour in the centre 18 ft. in height. 

The church is approached by a flight of 28 steps, occupying 
the entire breadth of the edifice. The bronze *Doors, 33 ft. 
in height and lfi 1 /? in breadth, are adorned with illustrations of 
the ten commandments, designed by Triquetti. 

The interior, the walls and floor of which are of marble, is one 
spacious nave or hall, illuminated by cupolas, and sumptuously 
gilded and decorated with paintings. The Chapelle des Manages, 
to the r. of the entrance, contains a group in marble by Pradier, 
representing the nuptials of the Virgin; the Chapelle des Fonts, 
or baptismal chapel, to the 1., is adorned with a group, by Rude, 
representing Christ and John the Baptist in the Jordan. The 
light is unfortunately insufficient to display these fine groups to 
the best advantage. 

Eaoh wall is divided by four piers, forming six chapels, which 
are decorated with statues of their different patron saints , and 
pictures representing scenes from the life of Mary Magdalene. 

Right side. 1st Chapel, Ste. Amelie, by Bra, Mary Mag- 
dalene's conversion, by Schnetz; 2nd Chapel, the Saviour, by 
Duret, Magdalene at the foot of the cross, by Bouchot; 3rd Chapel, 
Ste. Clotilde, by Barye, Magdalene in the wilderness praying with 
angels, by Abel de Pujol (d. 1861). 

Left side. 1st Chapel, St. "Vincent de Paul, by Baggi, the 
Supper of Bethany and Magdalene washing the feet of Christ, 
by Couder; 2nd Chapel, the Virgin, by Seurre, Angel announcing 
the Resurrection to Magdalene, by Coignet; 3rd Chapel, St. Augustin, 
by Etex, Death of Magdalene, by Signol. 

The *High Altar consists of an admirable group in marble by 
Marochetti, representing Mary Magdalene borne into Paradise by 
two angels. Beyond it, the semicircular ceiling of the choir is 
adorned with a fine fresco by Ziegler, representing the gradual 
propagation of Christianity; beneath the figure of Christ, to the 
right is St. Louis kneeling beside the Magdalene , Godfrey de 
Bouillon with the oriflamme, Richard Cceur de Lion, the Doge 
Dandolo and others ; also a scene from the Grecian war of libe- 
ration ; to the left, Charlemagne, Pope Alexander III. blessing 
Frederick Barbarossa, the Maid of Orleans, Raphael, Michael Angelo, 
Dante etc. In the centre , Henry IV. entering the Church of 
Rome, Louis XIII. , Richelieu ; Napoleon I. receiving the crown 
from Pope Pius VII. 

When the principal door and gate are closed, access may 

be obtained by the entrances on the E. or W. side of the church. 

*Notre Dame de Lorette , at the N. extremity of the Rue 

Laffitte, in the vicinity of the Boulevard des Italiens, was erected 



15. ST. VINCENT DE PAUL. llf 

in 1823 — 37 in the style of an early Christian Basilica, and de- 
dicated to "Beatae Mariae virgini Lauretanae" , as the inscription 
informs us. The interior with its gaudy decorations rather re- 
sembles a ball or concert-room than an ecclesiastical edifice. 

Some of the frescoes which cover the walls are by eminent 
artists. At the extremities of each of the two aisles are chapels; 
that to the r is the Baptistery, frescoes by Blondel; at the op- 
posite end, Chapel of the Eucharist, frescoes by Perin in the other 
side, Burial Chapel, frescoes by Blondel; at the opposite end, 
Chapel of Nuptials, frescoes by Perin. The choir is decorated 
with two large paintings, to the r. the Presentation in the Temple, 
by Heim, to the 1. Jesus teaching in the Temple, by Drolling. 
Beneath the windows, and above the columns and entablature, 
the walls are adorned with frescoes representing scenes from the 
life of the Virgin. The service is here conducted with great 
pomp: singing and music very fine. 

*St. Vincent de Paul, in the Place Lafayette, in the vicinity 
of the Station du Nord , erected in 1824 — 44, is also in the 
Basilica style, but a more successful specimen than Notre Dame 
de Lorette. Length 243, breadth 108 ft. 

The church is approached by a broad flight of steps, resem- 
bling a spacious amphitheatre. On each side of the Ionic portico 
rise lofty square towers. The pediment of the portico contains 
a relief by Lemaire, representing St. Vincent de Paul, the guar- 
dian of foundlings ; before him are Sisters of Charity in a kneeling 
posture, to the r. and 1. Religion and Charity. The iron gates 
of the principal entrance are ornamented with representations of 
the twelve Apostles. 

This church consists of a nave with a double row of aisles, 
of which the two external are divided into chapels: the remaining 
two are under the same roof with the nave and separated from 
it by Ionic columns of artificial porphyry. Over the aisles are 
galleries, supported by columns of the Corinthian order. The 
nave and choir are illuminated from above , the aisles by side- 
windows filled with stained glass by Marechal, representing different 
saints. The interior is gilded and painted throughout in the 
most gorgeous style. 

The chapels, as well as the choir, are separated from the 
rest of the church by richly gilded railings. The stalls of the 
choir and the rest of the woodwork of the interior are elaborately 
carved. The frieze is adorned with a series of figures of saints, 
apostles , prophets , martyrs and popes , painted by Flandrin 
(d. 1864), the semi-cupola of the choir with a group representing 
the Saviour surrounded by saints, painted by Picot. 

St. Vincent de Paul is situated near the N. extremity of Paris, 
in one of the most elevated situations in the city. From this 
point to the Barriere d'Enfer, at the opposite extremity of the 



112 15. PROTESTANT CHURCHES. 

town , is a distance of 4V2 M. The nearest lines of omnibus 
communication are those which run W. through the Rue du Fau- 
bourg Poissonniere, and E. through the Rue du Faubourg St Denis. 
Visitors to the church of St. Vincent de Paul will probably find 
the omnibuses to the Station du Nord the most convenient of the 
public fonveyances. 

The open space in front of the church and adjoining the 
Hopital Lariboissilre, erected in 1847 and deriving its appellation 
from the munificent bequest of a countess of that name, was the 
scene of an obstinate conflict between the troops of the guard and 
the insurgents in June, 1848. Contiguous to the hospital is 
situated the magnificent new Station du Nord. 

*St. Jean Baptiste, situated without the former Barriere de 
Believille , on the most elevated ground in the city, a beautiful 
specimen of a modern Gothic church, was erected by the architect 
Lassus (d. 1857) and consecrated in 1858. The central bas-relief 
above the entrance is illustrative of the life and death of John 
the Baptist. The lofty spires are 180 ft. in height, the church 
itself 205 ft. long, 74 ft. broad and 58 ft. high. The interior, 
which is cruciform and consists of a nave and two aisles, is some- 
what bare and destitute of decoration: it is, however, proposed 
to adorn it with frescoes. 

St. Eugene , erected during the present regime , in the style 
of the 15th cent., from designs by Boileau, is situated in the 
Faubourg Poissonniere, on the site of the former Garde Meuble. 
The walls alone ar<5 constructed of stone, the decorations of iron. 
The interior is gaudily painted and the windows filled with 
stained glass of no artistic merit. 

Protestant Churches (Temples Protestants). Calvinist: 
TJOratoire , Rue St. Honore" 147, opposite to the N. entrance of 
the Louvre. — Ste. Marie (formerly Eglise de la Visitation des 
Filler Ste. Marie"), Rue St. Antoine 216, near the Place de la 
Bastille. — Pentemont , Rue de Grenelle St. Germain 106 , near 
the Ministere de Flnterieur, on the 1. bank of the Seine. 

The first two of these churches were conceded to Protestant 
congregations in 1802, the last during *he reign of Louis Philippe. 

The Eglhe Evangelique, Rue de la Victoire, corner of the Rue 
St. Georges, is a French reformed church independent of the state. 
Service in all the above at 11. 15 a. m. 

Lutheran (Confession d' 'Augsbourg ) : Temple des Carmes 
Billettes, Rue des Billettes 16, to the N. of the Hotel de Ville. 
Service at 12 in French, at 2 in German. — Temple de la Re- 
demption, Rue ChauchatS, in the vicinity of the Grand Ope'ra, 
fitted up as a place of worship in 1853. Service at 11. 

Church of England. For trustworthy information visitors are 
recommended to consult the Stranger's Diary of the Saturday 



16. PERE LACHAISE. 113 

number of Galignani's Messenger. It is, however, improbable 
that any alteration will be made in the hours of service subjoined. 

Chapel of the Embassy, Rue d'Aguesseau 5, Faubourg St. Ho- 
nors'; services at 11. 30, 3. 30 and 7. 30. — Marbceuf Chapel, 
Avenue Marboeuf 10, Champs Elysees; services at 11 and 3.30. 
— English Chapel, Rue de la Madeleine 17; services at 8. 30, 
11. 30, 3. 30 and 7. 30. 

Protestant American Chapel , Rue de Berry 21 ; services at 
11. 15 and 3. 30. — American Episcopal Church, Rue de la 
Paix 7, services at 11. 30 and 3. 30. 

Church of Scotland: Chapel of the Oratoire, Rue de Rivoli 160; 
services at 11 and 3. 

Wesleyan Chapels: Rue Roque"pine 4, contiguous to No. 41 
Boulevard Malesherbes, near the Madeleine. Service on Sundays 
at 11. 30 a. m. and 7. 30 p. m., on Wednesdays at 7. 30 p. m. 

16. Pfere Lachaise. 

Paris possesses only three cemeteries: to the S. Mont Par- 
nasse (p. 166), to the N. Montmartre (p. 123). and to the 
E. Pere Lachaise. These would afford a space totally inadequate 
for the 70 — 80 interments (two-thirds of the number are those 
of children under 7 years of age) which are the daily average, 
were not the remains of the poorer classes (two-thirds of the total 
number) committed to the Fosses communes, or large pits con- 
taining 40 — 50 coffins. Permission to preserve a grave undis- 
turbed for 5 years only (concession temporaire) must be purchased 
of the municipality for the sum of 50 fr. A private burial-place 
(concession a perpetuite) may be secured for 500 fr. , for a child 
under 7 years of age for half that sum; these spaces are, how- 
ever, extremely limited (20 sq. ft.). One fourth of the purchase 
money must be paid immediately, the remainder within 10 years, 
on the expiration of which , in default of payment , all claim to 
the burial-place is forfeited. 

All burials within the precincts of the Department of the 
Seine are undertaken by the Entreprise des Pompes FunZbres, a 
company which enjoys the sole monopoly of conducting funerals, 
the charges being regulated by tariff, and varying from 18 fr. 
75 c. to 7148 fr. The fee of the officiating clergyman is not 
included in these charges. Two chaplains, who each receive a 
stipend of 1500 fr. , are attached to each cemetery, their office 
being the gratuitous performance of the burial-service for the poor. 

The most celebrated and extensive of these cemeteries is 
**P6re Lachaise , so called from having formerly belonged to 
Lachaise, the Jesuit confessor of Louis XIV., who possessed a 
country residence on the site of the present chapel. His habi- 
tation formed the nucleus of the power of his order in France at 

Bffideker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 8 



114 16. PERE LACHAISE. 

that period. In 1804 the ground, upwards of 40 (at the present 
day 200) acres in extent, was laid out as a cemetery. On 
March 30th, 1814, it was the scene of a sharply contested action 
between Russian and French troops, in which the former were 
victorious. 

This cemetery serves as a burial-place for the inhabitants of 
the N.E. portion of Paris, that is, for all the quarters of the city 
on the r. bank of the Seine to the E. of the Porte St. Denis. The 
remains, however, of persons of distinction from other parts of 
the city generally repose in Pere Lachaise. 

The cemetery is situated on an eminence, at the N.E. extre- 
mity of Paris, without the former Barriere d'Aulnay, 3 / 4 M. from 
the Place de la Bastille, via the Rue de la Roquette, which di- 
verges to the 1. from the Place du Prince Eugene in the Boule- 
vard of that name (monument here situated, see p. 37; S.W., 
towards the r., a glimpse is obtained of the July Column in the 
Place de la Bastille). 

As this spot is approached, indications of its proximity are 
observed in the numerous workshops of stone and marble-cutters 
(marbriers) , containing ready-made "tributes" of every variety 
and device, whilst at each step women vending flowers and "im- 
mortelles" for the decoration of the tombs are encountered. 

Near the E. extremity of the street are situated two strong, 
castellated edifices : to the r. the Prison de la Roquette, in which 
condemned convicts are confined previous to their execution or 
conveyance to the galleys ; to the 1. the Prison des jeunes detenus. 
Between these two prisons is the public place of execution. 

The gate of the cemetery bears the inscription: Scio quod 
redemptor meus vivit et in novissimo die de terra resurrecturus sum. — 
Spes Riorum immortalitate plena est. — Qui credit in me, etiam 
si mortuus fuerit, vivel. During the summer the cemetery is ac- 
cessible from 6 a m. till 7 p. m., in spring, autumn and winter 
from sunrise to sunset. Half-an-hour previous to the closing of 
the gates a bell is rung, and the custodians call out: "Onferme 
les portes", allowing ample time for visitors to reach the gate in 
good time. — It may here be observed that it is the universal 
custom for persons encountering a funeral procession to remove 
their hats. — Guides fconducteurs) will be found at the small 
building to the r. on entering, but their services may well 
be dispensed with, unless the visitor's time be very limited 
(fee 2—3 fr.). 

Even a superficial inspection of the most interesting monu- 
ments in the cemetery will occupy about 3 hours. At every step 
the visitor encounters names of European celebrity. The number 
of monuments, from the most magnificent mausoleum and obelisk 
down to the unpretending marble cross, amounts to upwards of 
16,000. It has been computed that, since the cemetery was first 




JiOi-Jhi::t.-.L~Ei3irjer:_pi : .T>tmvStaMt. 



16. PERE LACHAISE. 115 

opened, a sum exceeding 120 million francs has been expended 
in the erection of these tributes to the departed. 

The walks are well shaded with plantations, and the elevated 
situation commands an admirable survey of the interminable la- 
byrinth of the city. The annexed plan will prove a valuable 
companion. The finest monuments are indicated by asterisks; 
r. and 1. signify to the right and left of the path; the route 
which the stranger is recommended to pursue is marked out in 
the plan by mean of arrows. 

The first monument of importance, perhaps the most interest- 
ing in the entire cemetery, situated a short distance to the r. 
of the main path, is that of **Abelard (d. 1142) and Heloise 
(d. 1164), whose romantic history is so well known. It consists 
of a rectangular chapel in the Gothic style of the 13th cent., 
formed out of the ruins of the celebrated abbey of Paraclete, of 
which Abe'lard was the founder and Heloise the first abbess. 
The chapel contains the sarcophagus, which Abe'lard himself caused 
to be constructed before his death. He is represented in a re- 
cumbent posture ; by his side is the statue of Heloise. The in- 
scriptions relate to the ill-fated pair, and record the origin of 
the monument and its removal from the Muse"e des Petits Au- 
gustins (p. 150), where it was placed for a time, to its present 
position. The tomb is frequently decorated with wreaths of fresh 
flowers, the offerings of those who regard this as the shrine of 
disappointed love. 

Returning to the main path, the visitor will perceive 

*1. Robertson (d. 1837), a professor of "physics,, phantasma- 
goria and aerostatics" as the reliefs indicate. 

Turning to the r. into the side path and then ascending to 
the 1. : r. Marshal Maison (d. 1840). 

r. "Sepulture de la famille de Plaisance", with a portrait in 
relief of the Duke of Piacenza (d. 1824); he held the office of 
3rd consul during the consulate, and subsequently under the em- 
pire became governor of Holland and Genoa; he was also the 
translator of Tasso and Homer, as the genii indicate. 

Opposite is situated a lofty monument: ("Aux victimes de Juin 
la ville de Paris reconnaissante. Liberie, Ordre public"), record- 
ing the names of those who fell in June, 1848. 

1. Marshal Lauriston (d. 1828), who in 1810 escorted the 
young empress Marie Louise to Paris. 

In the side-path to the S.E.: 1. Marshal Victor, who was taken 
prisoner by the Germans in 1807 and afterwards exchanged 
for Blucher. 

r. General Domon; on the monument are enumerated the 
battles at which he was present. — Behind it : " Victimes des trois 
journies de Fevrier 1848." 

8* 



116 16. pere lachaise. 

r. Count Labedoy'ere , colonel of the regiment at Grenoble 
which was the first to go over to Napoleon on his return from 
Elba (March 1st, 1815), subsequently condemned to death 
(Aug. 19th) at the same time as Ney. The ill-fated man was 
on the point of sailing for America, when he incautiously re- 
turned to Paris to take leave of his young wife and child and 
was there arrested. The sculptures refer to this affecting inci- 
dent. — To the N. is situated the Rond Point, in the centre of 
which rises the handsome monument of 

*Casimir Perier (d. 1832), consisting of a fine statue in bronze 
on a lofty pedestal. He was originally a banker and an active 
promoter of the July kingdom, subsequently prime minister of 
Louis Philippe. 

On the W. side of the Rond Point : 1. Count Malet (d. 1843), 
a cavalry officer, who subsequently became a priest and founder 
of the order of Ste. Marie de Lorette, or Dames du Sacre Craur. 

1. Monge (d. 1820), the eminent mathematician and founder 
of the polytechnic school; in 1793, as a member of the Conven- 
tion, he voted for the execution of Louis XVI. ; in 1807 he was 
created Comte de Peluse. 

*1. Famille Raspail; this distinguished chemist and zealous 
republican, member of the Montagnard party, received 40,000 
votes as a candidate for the Presidency in December, 1848. He 
was afterwards arrested and condemned by the court at Bourges 
to six years imprisonment, for having been one of the instigators of 
the conspiracy of May to dissolve the National Assembly. During his 
confinement his wife died, as the monument (by Etex) indicates. 

In the principal path: 1. Champollion (d. 1836), the eminent 
archaeologist. 

r. Clarke (d. 1818), marshal of France and minister of war. 

1. Kellermann (d. 1820), marshal of France, Due de Valmy. 

1. Laffitte (d. 1840), the well known banker, promoter of the 
July kingdom, minister of Louis Philippe and subsequently the 
political opponent of the same cabinet. 

1. Famille Dosne-Thiers, the burial-place of the family of the 
minister of that name. 

1. A. Duchesnois (d. 1835) , the tragic actress , represented 
in relief. 

r. Maret, due de Bassano (d. 1839), a temple with Doric co- 
lumns, without inscription. — Adjacent is the burial ground of 
the ancestors of Talleyrand, the diplomatist. 

1. Count Sieyls (d. 1836), abbe - , member of the Convention 
in 1793, subsequently consul with Bonaparte. 

*1. Oouvion Saint Cyr (d. 1830), marshal, commander of the 
Bavarian division in the Russian campaign, afterwards minister 
of war. 



16. PERE LACHAISE. 117 

1. Macdonald (d. 1840), .marshal, commander of German troops 
in the Russian campaign. 

*1., on the higher ground, General Gobert, a large equestrian 
group in marble by David, a Spaniard endeavours in vain to 
prevent the invasion of the French by seizing the reins of the 
general's horse, an allegorical allusion to the Spanish war; on 
the pedestal reliefs relating to the wars in Egypt, Italy and Mar- 
tinique, and the battle of Famars (1793), at which the general 
was present. This magnificent monument was erected in 1847 
under the direction of the Academy, to which a considerable 
sum was bequeathed by the general's son for that purpose and 
for the promotion of national art. 

r. Count Lavalette (A. 1830), condemned to death on the re- 
turn of the Bourbons in 1815; he, however, effected his escape 
from prison with the assistance of his wife, whose dress he as- 
sumed, whilst she remained behind. 

Opposite, r. : Caron de Beaumarchais (d. 1799), author of the 
libretti of the "Barber of Seville", "Marriage of Figaro" etc. 

On the high ground, 1.: Larrey (d. 1842), physician general 
to the French army, styled by Napoleon I. "the most virtuous 
man he knew". 

Lower down, 1. : Dupuytren (d. 1835), the eminent surgeon. 

In the side-path, 1.: General Belliard (d. 1832), Belgian mi- 
nister of war; 1. Due de Bovigo (d. 1833), a warm adherent of 
Napoleon I., in 1831 governor of Algiers. — Farther on : Pierre 
Pajol (d. 1844). who headed the July insurrection in 1830. 

A little farther on, near the "Sepulture Schickler," is a fine 
point of *view towards the E. , affording a survey of Vincennes. 

In the principal path : r. Couleaux, captain of engineers, who 
fell at the siege of the citadel of Antwerp in 1832; r. Eugene 
Scribe (d. 1861) the well known dramatist. 

1. Vicomte de Martignac (A. 1835), celebrated for his noble 
defence of his political- opponent Prince Polignac in the chamber 
of peers after the revolution of July. 

* Adjacent to the latter, in the side- path: 1. Marshal Suchet 
(d. 1826), a lofty monument in marble. 

*r. Duehesse de Baguse (d. 1857), a chapel with sarcophagus. 
*r. Comte Pacthod (d. 1830), an obelisk with coat of arms and 
military emblems. 

r., near the wall: Volney (d. 1830), the philosopher. 

Returning towards the W. : 1. Parmentier (d. 1813), the well 
known chemist and introducer of the potato culture into France; 
r. Admiral Sir Sidney Smith (d. 1840), the victorious opponent of 
Napoleon at St. Jean d'Acre. 

1. General Gourgaud (d. 1850), the companion of Napoleon 
in St. Helena and editor of his writings. 



118 16. PERE lachaise. 

r., nearer the wall: Don Manuel Oodoy (d. 1851), better known 
as "the Prince of Peace". 

*r. Aguado (d. 1842), the great financier; a lofty sarcophagus 
with two admirable statues emblematic of Benevolence and the 
Fine Arts. 

1. General Bogniat (d. 1840), an eminent military writer. 

r. Famille Ledru-Bollin. 

In the square, of which the S.E. angle is formed by tire mo- 
nument of General Rogniat, are situated two well-executed mo- 
numents of an entirely different character from the above, those 
of Marc Schoelcher (d. 1832) (at the S¥. angle), "marchand de 
porcelaine" , and (on the other side of the square) his wife 
(d. 1839), parents of a well-known republican and deputy of the 
Assembled Nationale of lb48. 

At the extremity of the main path : r. Vice-Admiral Lalande 
(d. 1849) ; 1. Jacotot (d. 1840), founder of an almost forgotten system 
of education, a sarcophagus with quotations from his writings.*^ 

Then on the path to the 1. the tombs of several poets'and savants: 

1. Col. Bory de St. Vincent (d. 1846), an eminent antiquarian 
(member of the expedition to the Morea in 1829); 1. Nodier 
(d. 1844); r. Emile Souvestre (d. 1854); r. Bazin (d. 1850); r. 
Balzac (d. 1850); 1. *Casimir Delavigne (d. 1843), an obelisk 
with the Muse of Poetry. 

Opposite, in the angles of the three sections : 

Sepulture de la famille du Due de Morny (d. 1864), a cum- 
brous monument with the arms of the family. 

Due de Biario Sforza. 

Jean Baptiste Delpech, an eminent engineer. 

Again to the 1, and the main path is reached: 

r. Helene Andrianoff, a Russian dancer, with recumbent figure. 

1. Eugene Delacroix, the artist (d. 1865). 
The termination of the main path is formed by a handsome 
mausoleum, erected by the Duchesse de Duras to her parents 
and children. 

*The most conspicuous monument in this part of the cemetery 
is that of F. de Beaujour (d. 1836), a lofty pyramid, erected by 
himself before his death. — Hence descending a few steps to 
the 1., the visitor will arrive at a point affording a remarkably 
fine view of Paris; the most prominent objects are the lofty dome 
of the Pantheon , the massive Notre Dame , the cupola of the 
Hotel des Invalides and the Arc de l'Etoile. 

[On the E. slope of the cemetery is situated the Mussulman 
Burial-ground, where the queen of Oude (d. 1857) and her son 
(d. 1858) are interred. To the 1. the church-spire of Belleville 
is visible ; to the r. that of Charonne.] 



16. PERE LACHAISE. 119 

Returning to the monument of Gen. Gourgaud, and diverging 
to the right: 1. * Marshal Perignon (d. 1818), and his son-in-law 
•General Valence (d. 1822). 

*r., at some distance from the path, Madame de Qenlis (A. 1831), 
the celebrated authoress, and instructress of Louis Philippe. 

1. Marquis Laplace (d. 1827), the celebrated astronomer. — 
Adjacent, Manuel Garcia (d. 1832), father of the singers Malibran 
and Viardot. — Behind these is 

*1. General Aboville (d 1817), a handsome mausoleum flanked 
by two 24 pounders. 

1. Lafontaine (d. 1685) and Molilre (d. 1673), two sarcophagi 
brought here in 1817. 

*1. Boode, a Dutch merchant; a singular mausoleum in the 
Egyptian style. — Behind it, 

*David d' Angers (d. 1856), the celebrated sculptor. 

*1. Cambacerls (d. 1826), in 1793 member of the Convention, 
afterwards second consul, in 1808 Duke of Parma, in 1815 mi- 
nister of Justice. 

*1. Admiral Decrls (d. 1821), formerly minister of the marine; 
the reliefs represent naval actions with the English. — Near the 
centre of the same compartment is the grave of Madame Cottin 
(d. 1807), the novelist. — Opposite the monument of the admiral, 
on the other side of the path, that of the Spanish 
General Vallesteros (d. 1832), "mort dans l'exil". 

*r. Marshal Lefebvre (d. 1820), a monument in marble, with 
medallion-bust. 

*r. Marshal Massena (d. 1817), an obelisk with bust in a 
medallion. — 1. Marshal Serrurier (d. 1819). — r. Davoust 
(d. 1822), "Prince d'Eckmuhl". — 1. Gobert and Larrey, already 
mentioned. 

At the angle formed by the bifurcation of the path is a small 
space of ground laid out as a garden, the last resting place of 
the unfortunate Marshall Ney; no monument or inscription marks 
the grave of "le brave des braves". 

r. Manuel (d. 1827), the orator; a lofty, rounded obelisk with 
his medallion and that of Be'ranger ; the remains of Beranger 
(A. 1857), the most illustrious lyric poet of France, repose within 
the same enclosure , having been interred by his wish in the 
tomb of his friend Manuel. 

*r. General Foy (A. 1825), a man of the highest abilities and 
most unblemished virtue ; his unpretending funeral was attended 
by upwards of 50,000 persons. — About 20 paces farther back 
is the simple gravestone of 

Paul Barras (d. 1829), President of the Directory in 1797—99 ; 
beyond it, the vault of Marshal Mortier, killed in 1835 by Fieschi's 
infernal machine. — In the vicinity, General Haxo (A. 1838), 



120 16. PERE LACHAISE. 

commander at the siege of Antwerp, founder of the fortifications- 
of modern Paris. 

1., at some distance from the path, Caulaincourt , due deVi- 
cence (d. 1827), diplomatist and minister; in the vicinity, Chappe 
(d. 1829), inventor of the optic telegraph. 

1. Pozzo di Borgo (d. 1842), born in Corsica, a celebrated 
Russian diplomatist and opponent of Napoleon I. — Opposite, 

*r. Admiral Bruat (d. 1855), commander of the fleet before 
Sebastopol, died on his way home; a fine monument in marble, 
reliefs emblematic of his naval career. 

1. Oeoffroy St. Hilaire (d. 1844) and his son (d. 1862), the 
eminent zoologists. 

**1. Countess Demidoff (d. 1818), the most sumptuous monument 
in the cemetery, consisting of 10 Doric columns of marble sup- 
porting an entablature, beneath which is a sarcophagus, resting 
on a basement of massive masonry. 

r. Famille Racine, descendants of the celebrated dramatist. 

r. Due de Oaete (d. 1841), ministre des finances de l'Empire, 
a sarcophagus on a lofty basement. 

r. Etienne, dramatic author, editor of the Constitutionnel, pro- 
moter of the July revolution, subsequently Pair de France. 

Somewhat higher in the side - path : Princesse de Salm - Dyck, 
(d. 1845), the poetess, sometimes termed "It Boileau des femmes"; 
a lofty sarcophagus of black porphyry. 

In the principal path: r. Pradier (d. 1852), the eminent 
sculptor; a sarcophagus, with bust, erected by his pupils. 

Proceeding towards the W. and crossing the principal paths, 
the visitor will next reach the compartment occupied almost ex- 
clusively by the graves of artists and scientific men. Of these 
the following deserve especial mention: 

Talma (d. 1826), the celebrated actor; Brongniart (d. 1847), 
the mineralogist; *Bellini (d. 1835), Gretry (d. 1813), and Boiel- 
dieu (A. 1834) the composers of celebrated operas; Bernardin de 
St. Pierre (d. 1814), author of Paul and Virginia; *Cherubini 
(d. 1842), the eminent composer, during 20 years director of the 
Conservatoire; *Chopin (d. 1849). 

*Denon (d. 1825), on the opposite side of the path, who ac- 
companied Bonaparte to Egypt, subsequently general director of 
museums. — In the compartment higher up , opposite to the 
Rond Point, the visitor may read the names of several other 
well known composers and artists. 

The Chapel, which occupies the site of the former residence 
of Pere Lachaise, is situated to the N. of the Rond Point. Fine 
view from the open grass -plat 20 paces beyond it. In the con- 
tiguous compartment; Count Deshze (d. 1828), in 1793 one of 
the defenders of Louis XVI. before the Convention ; *Cartellier 
(d. 1831), the sculptor. 



16. PERE LACHA1SE. 



121 



Near the first flight of steps in descending the broad path: 
r. David (d. 1825), the celebrated painter, in 1793 President of 
the Convention, when Louis XVI. was condemned to death by 
this assembly. Farther down: r. Marshal Grouchy (d. 1847), a 
veteran of Hohenlinden, Waterloo etc. Opposite : Count Raderer 
(A. 1835), an active promoter of the July revolution. 

The visitor now re-approaches the entrance-gate and termi- 
nates his walk at the newest section of the cemetery, r. Beclard, 
Ministre de France au Marocco, with mourning female figure. 
Adjacent, r. Alfred de Musset (A. 1856), the poet, with a weep- 
ing willow: 

"Mes chers amis quand je mourrai 

Planter un smile au cimetihre; 

J'aime son feuillage eplore, 

La paleur m'en est douce et chere. 

Et son ombre sera legere, 

A la terre oil je dormirai." 
r. Visconti (d. 1818), the philologist, and his son, the eminent 
architect. Opposite to them, in the adjacent compartment : Arago 
(d. 1853), the celebrated astronomer and staunch republican. 

The Jewish Bn rial-Ground (closed on Saturdays) also 
contains several handsome monuments , the names on which are 
most frequently German and Portuguese. Mademoiselle Rachel 
(d. 1858), the celebrated actress, is interred here. 

The list here subjoined will render material assistance to the 
visitor in enabling him without loss of time to find the monument 
he may desire to inspect. The numbers refer to those of the 
compartments in the plan, those within brackets to the pages in 
which the names have been already mentioned. 



*Abe"lard and Heloise 5 (115). 
•Aboville, General 25 (119). 
*Aguado, financier 23 (118). 

Andrianoff, dancer 21 (US). 

Arago, astronomer 2 (121). 

Balzac, novelist 20 (118). 

Barras , President of the Directory 
29 (119). 

Bassano, Duke of 18 (116). 

Beaujour, Felix de 20 (118). 

Beaumarchais 29 (117). 

Be'clard, minister 2 (121). 

Belliard , General , Belgian minister 
of war 32 (117). 
*BelUni, composer 8 (120). 

BeVanger, poet 29 (119). 

Bernardin de St. Pierre, author, 8 
(120). 

Boieldieu, composer 8 (120). 
•Boode , merchant of Amsterdam 28 
(119). 

Brongniart, mineralogist 8 (120). 
•Bruat, Admiral 26 (120). 



*Cambaceres, member of Convention 

and second consul 28 (119). 
*Cartellier, sculptor 13 (120). 

Caulaincourt, minister 17 (120). 

Champollion, archaeologist 15 (116). 

Chappe , inventor of telegraph 17 
(120). 
•Cherubini, composer 8 (120). 
*Chopin, musician 8 (120). 

Clarke, Marshal 18 (116). 

Cottin, Madame, authoress 28 (119). 

Couteaux , captain of engineers 32 
(117). 

David, Louis, artist, president of 
Convention 1 (120). 

Davoust, Marshal 29 (119). 
*Decres, Admiral 28 (119). 

Delacroix, artist 21 (118). 
*Delavigne, author 21 (118). 

Delpech 21 (118). 
•Demidoff, Countess 17 (120). 
*Denon, archaeologist 3 (120). 



122 



16. PERE LACHAISE. 



Deseze, defender of Louis XVI. 13 

(120). 
*Dias Santos, Duchesse de Duras 20 

(118). 
Domon, General 12 (115). 
Duchesnois, actress 19 (116). 
Dupuytren, surgeon 19 (117). 
Etienne, editor of the Constitutionnel 

26 (120). 

February victims 12 (115). 
*Foy, General 29 (119). 
Gaeta, Duke of, minister of finance 

27 (120). 

-*Genlis, Madame de, authoress 24 
(119). 

Geoffrov Saint Hilaire, naturalist 17 
(120)." 
*Gobert, General 19 (117). 

Godoy, Spanish, prince 34 (US). 

Gourgaud, General 23 (117). 
*Gouvion Saint Cyr, Marshal 19 (116). 

Gret.ry, composer 8 (120). 

Grouchy, Marshal 1 (121). 

Jewish Burial Ground (121). 

Haxo, Gen. of engineers 29 (119). 

June victims 11 (115). 

Kellermann, Marshal 19 (116). 

Labedoyere, Colonel 12 (116). 

Laffitte, banker 19 (116). 

Lafontaine, fabulist 25 (119). 

Laplace, astronomer 25 (119). 

Larrey, military physician 19 (117). 

Lauriston, Marshal 10 (115). 

Lavalette, Count 31 (117). 

Lebrun, third consul 6 (115). 

Ledru-Rollin, family of 33 (118). 
*Lefebvre, Marshal 29 (119). 

Macdonald, Marshal 19 (117). 

Maison, Marshal 6 (115). 

Malet, founder of the order of Ste. 
Marie de Lorette 15 (116). 

Manuel, orator 29 (119). 

Maret, Due de Bassano 18 (116). 

Martignac, minister 28 (117). 

Massena, Marshal 29 (119). 



Moliere, dramatic author 25 (119). 

Monge, mathematician, member of 
Convention 15 (116). 

Morny , family of the Due de 21 
(118). 

Mussulman Burial Ground (118). 

Mortier, Marshal 29 (119). 

Musset, Alfred de 2 (121). 

Ney, Marshal 30 (119). 

Oude, Queen of (118). 
*Pacthod, General 34 (117). 

Pajol, General 32 (117). 

Parmentier, chemist 28 (117). 
*Perier, minister 16 (116). 
*Perignon, Marshal 24 (119). 

Plaisance (Piacenza) , Duke of 6 
(115). 

Pozzo di Borgo, Russian diplomatist 
17 (120). 

Pradier, sculptor 24 (120). 

Rachel, actress, Jewish Cemetery 
(121). 

Racine, family 27 (120). 

Raguse, Duchesse de 32 (117). 

Raspail, chemist 15 (116). 
*Robertson, prof, of physics 4 (115). 

Roederer, minister 2 (121). 

Rogniat, General 22 (118). 

Rovigo, Due de 32 (117). 
*Schickler, banker 31 (117). 

Scribe, dramatist- 32 (117). 

Serrurier, Marshal 19 (119). 

Sidney Smith, Admiral Sir 34 (117). 

Sieyes, abbe, member of Convention 
19 (116). 
*Suchet, Marshal 28 (117). 

Talma, actor 7 (120). 

Thiers, family of 19 (116). 
•Valence, General 24 (119). 

Vallesteros, Spanish general 29(119). 

Vicenza, Due de, see Caulaincourt. 

Victor, Marshal 18 (115). 

Visconti, architect of the New Louvre 
2 (121). 

Volney, philosopher 32 (117). 



The private Cimetiere Picpus , Rue de Picpus 15, Faubourg 
St. Antoine (adm. 50 c), is the last resting-place of several 
illustrious victims of the revolution of 1793, and of members of 
the old French noblesse. 



17. Montmartre. 

Cemetery of Montmartre. 
The Rue Laffitte, which is terminated by Notre Dame de 
Lorette, and its continuation the Rue des Martyrs lead in a direct 
line from the Boulevard des Italiens to the suburb of Montmartre. 
Pursuing the same direction about 20 min. more , the stranger 
will reach the summit of Montmartre, 300 ft. above the Seine, 



17. MONTMARTRE. 123 

a hill well known for its extensive limestone and gypsum or 
plaster of Paris quarries, and commanding a view of the N. of 
Paris. According to tradition St. Denis and his companions suffered 
martyrdom here , whence the appellation of the hill , which is 
equivalent to Mom Martyrum. 

In 1147 Louis VI. here founded a Benedictine Abbey, secu- 
larized during the revolution. Portions of the buildings still 
exist. On the E. side is situated a "Mount of Olives" (Jardin 
des Oliviers), containing singular representations, to which pilgrim- 
ages, especially in September, are frequently undertaken. 

A small enclosed space by the windmill (access 10 c.) affords 
a fine *panorama of the huge sea of houses in the city, to the 
N. of the plain of St. Denis and the course of the Seine, and 
to the E. over Vincennes in the foreground to the valley of 
the Marne. The prospect from the recently erected Tour de 
Solferino, on the E. slope of the hill, is still more extensive. 

At the W. base of Montmartre, between the Barriere Blanche 
and the Barriere de Clichy , extending over disused gypsum 
quarries , is situated the *Cemetery of Montmartre , the oldest 
of the burial-grounds of modern Paris. Although far inferior to 
Pere Lachaise in the number of its monuments and illustrious 
names, it well merits a visit. 

To the r. in the first path, *three monuments to Polish 
refuges, "exules Poloni memoriae suorum". The visitor now re- 
turns hence and enters the main path. Here, to the r. , is the 
family-vault of Fr. Guil. Kalkbrenner (d. 1849), the well-known 
composer. 

Farther on, at the corner to the 1., the tomb of the Cavaignac 
family, of which the most eminent members were the author 
Oodefroy (d. 1845) and the general Eugene (d. 1857), president 
of the republic from June 28th to Oct. 20th, 1848. 

Beneath the cross in the rotunda repose the republicans who 
fell during the execution of the coup d'etat in Dec, 1852, a spot 
always decorated with numerous wreaths. 

Farther on in the principal path : Baron Meneval, "secretaire 
intime de l'empereur Napoleon". 

On a slight eminence at the extremity of this avenue is 
situated the Jewish Burial Ground (closed on Saturdays). 
On most of the tombstones the visitor perceives small heaps of 
stones or pebbles , placed there as a token of love or esteem in 
accordance with a prevalent Jewish custom. — In a conspicuous 
position to the 1. at the end of the walk, Halevy. the celebrated 
composer (d. 1862), with marble statue over life-size. 

Returning thence and diverging towards the W. (the second path 
to the r. after leaving the Jewish Burial Ground), the visitor will 
perceive to the r. the monument of Comte Daru (d, 1829), the 



124 18. "VINCENNES. 

constant companion and confidant of Napoleon, minister of war 
in 1813, and also known as an historian. 

r. Armand Marrast (d. 1852), the well known republican editor, 
in 1848 "membre du gouvernement provisoire , Maire de Paris, 
President de l'Assemblee Nationale". 

At the extremity of this path, before the steps are reached, 
the visitor diverges to the r. ; one of the first graves to the 1. 
is that of Ad. Nourrit (d. 1839), the celebrated singer. 

1. Duchesse d'Abrantes {A. 1838), wife of Marshal Junot. and 
an eminent authoress; bust of the duchess in a medallion by 
David d' Angers. 

1. Charles Zeuner (d. 1841), the composer. — The steps to 
the r. are now descended and those above, on the opposite side, 
ascended. 

On the eminence at the W. extremity of the Jewish cemetery 
is a monument which marks the spot where the heart of Marshal 
Lannes, Due de Montebello, who died of his wounds in 1809, is 
interred. 

1. A large block of marble indicates the resting-place of the 
artist Paul Delaroche (d. 1857). Opposite is a chapel, decorated 
in the Byzantine style, to the memory of Marie Potocka, Princesse 
Soltikoff (d. 1845) ; near it, the tomb of Prince Tufiakin, chamber- 
lain of the emperor of Russia (d. IH45). Beyond the embankment 
is the extensive new cemetery with numerous monuments, which 
however are of comparatively little interest. 

A lofty obelisk, the most conspicuous monument in the ceme- 
tery, marks the tomb of the Duckesse de Montmorency (d. 1829); 
adjacent to it, the grave of a Prince of Saxe Cobourg (d. 1832). 

18. Vincennes. 

Pare ile Vincennes. Canal Saint Maur. Charenton. 

Omnibus to Vincennes in 25 — 30 min. every hour from the Bastille 
(Boulevard Beaumarchais 10) and the Porte St. Martin. Eailway , Place 
de la Bastille , to the station of which a special omnibus runs from the 
Place de la Bourse. To obtain access to the chateau of Vincennes, per- 
mission must be procured from the commanding artillery officer, to whom 
a written request -J- should he addressed, furnished with a postage 
stamp of 10 c. 

For ordinary visitors , however , the chateau contains few objects of 
interest, with the exception of the view from the "donjon" and the mo- 
nument of the Due d'Enghien. 

The Barriere du Trone, to which the new Boulevard du Prince 
Eugene leads in a straight direction from the Boulevard du Temple, 
forms the E. extremity of Paris, distant about 6 M. from the 



•f A Monsieur le Commandant de rArtillerie du l er Arrondissement 
(Est) a Vincennes: "Monsieur, j^ai rhonneur de vous prier de vouloir 
bien m'autoriser a visiter le Chateau de Vincennes. Agreez, Monsieur, 
Tassurance de la parfaite consideration de votre tres-humble serviteur." 
S»me , address and profession should be written very distinctly. 



18. VINCENNES. 125 

Arc de l'Etoile, the W. extremity of the city. On a throne erected 
here, Aug. 26th, 1660, Louis XIV. received the homage of the 
city of Paris, on the conclusion of the peace of the Pyrenees, whence 
the present appellation of the barrier. 

The two lofty, fluted Doric Columns of the Barriere du Trone 
were commenced in 1788, but not completed till 1847. Each 
column is adorned with two reliefs by Desbceufs and Simart, 
those towards the city emblematic of Commerce and Industry, 
the others of Victory and Peace. The summits of the columns 
are occupied by statues in bronze of St. Louis, by Etex, and 
Philip Augustus, by Dumont. 

The chateau of Vincennes, founded in the 12th cent., was in 
course of time fitted up as a royal residence. In 1740, under 
Louis XV., it was converted into a manufactory of porcelain 
(removed. 10 years later to Sevres), and subsequently into a 
weapon manufactory. In 1832 — 44, under Louis Philippe, the 
chateau was strongly fortified and furnished with extensive de- 
pots for the especial use of artillery. Vincennes is also the 
seat of the Ecole de tir, where a number of officers from every 
regiment are instructed in the use of the newest fire-arms, and 
whence most of the recent improvements in this department have 
emanated. 

In former ages the chateau was long employed as a State- 
prison. Out of a long list of illustrious persons confined within 
its walls, may be mentioned: the king of Navarre (1574), 
Conde' (1617), Mirabeau (1777), the Due d'Enghien (1804), 
the ministers of Charles X. (1830) and the conspirators against 
the National Assembly, Raspail, Barbes, Blanqui, Courtais etc. 
(May 15th, 1848). 

A melancholy interest attaches to the fortress from its having 
been the scene of the execution of the unfortunate Due d'Enghien. 
He was arrested by order of Napoleon, March 14th, 1804, in 
German territory, whence he was conveyed to Vincennes and 
there condemned by a court-martial. The accusation was that 
he was privy to the plot formed by Pichegru, Cadoudal and 
others against the emperor. The sentence was executed March 20th, 
and the body of the ill-fated prince interred in the fosse where 
he was shot. In 1816 Louis XVIII. caused the duke's remains 
to be disinterred and removed to the chapel , were he erected 
a monument to his memory. 

The Chapel, with its tasteful Gothic front, was commenced in 
1248 and completed in 1552. It was employed during the revo- 
lution as a magazine, but was restored to its sacred use in 1842. 
The interior, which consists of a single nave, is remarkable for 
the elegance of its proportions and several fine stained glass 
windows, one of which contains a portrait of Diane de Poitiers, 
the favourite of Henry II. The monument of the Due d'Enghien, 



126 18. VINCENNES. 

in the old sacristy, by Deseine, consists of four figures in marble, 
the duke supported by Religion , France bewailing his loss and 
a figure emblematic of Vengeance. 

The Salle d'Armes or armoury is said to contain a store of 
weapons sufficient for the complete equipment of 120,000 men. 

The platform of the Donjon, a massive square tower with four 
smaller towers at its angles, commands a fine prospect. The 
walls of this structure are 17 ft. in thickness, and its five lofty 
stories , each consisting of one spacious apartment with four 
smaller rooms in the corner towers, were formerly employed for 
the reception of the state-prisoners. 

The Bois de Vincennes , an ancient forest and , as early as 
the time of St. Louis (d. 1270), a favourite chasse of the French 
monarchs, was in 1731 entirely replanted by order of Louis XV. 
In more modern times considerable encroachments on it have 
been made by railway and military works, and it has recently 
been laid out as a park in the same style as the Bois de Boulogne. 

The road from Paris to the wood passes by the chateau. At 
the extremity of the new line of forts the road to the r. leading 
to Joinville-le-Pont must bo taken , from which a short distance 
farther the road to Nogent diverges. Both of these roads lead 
to the artificial Lac des Minimes (IV4 M. from the castle) with its 
three islands, on the smallest of which, the He de la Porte-Jaime, 
connected with the mainland by a bridge , a restaurant will be 
found. From the meadow to the W. of the lake a view of the 
Exercising-ground with an Obelisk erected by Louis XV. and the 
Polygone is obtained. The Cascade which supplies the lake is 
formed by the Ruisseau de Nogent and the Ruisseau des Mi- 
nimes ; the latter , running towards the S. , traverses one of the 
most picturesque portions of the wood. In the vicinity of its 
source , near the Redoute de la Faisanderie , is situated the plain 
of the Camp of St. Maur. 

Towards the E. the road from Joinville to Nogent leads to the 
Rond de Beaute, so called on account of the beautiful view it 
affords of the valley of the Marne. Towards the S. the military 
road passes behind the redoubts "de la Faisanderie"_*nd "de 
Gravelle", and the imperial model Ferme Napoleon, where a glass 
of excellent milk may be procured. About 100 paces to the W. 
of the Redoute de Gravelle is situated the Lac de Gravelle. The 
Ront-Point de Gravelle commands a charming survey of the Marne 
and Seine. 

The Lac de Gravelle is connected with the Lac de St. Mande 
by the Ruisseau de St. Mande , following the course of which the 
stranger passes the Asile Imperial des Invalides Civils (to the 1.), 
opened in 1857 for the reception of invalid workmen. The hollow 
in which the Lac de St. Mand€ is situated is the most beautiful 
spot in the entire park. 



18. VINCENNES. ' 127 

Those whose time is limited will have an opportunity of 
seeing a portion of the park, if they avail themselves of one of 
1 the omnibuses which run every hour in an E. direction from Vin- 
cennes to Nogent-sur-Marne and Joinville-le-Pont (in 45 min.). 
Nogent-sur-Marne contains several handsome country residences; 
the first to the r. on leaving the railway-station belongs to 
Marshal Vaillant, formerly minister of war. A railway-bridge of 
nearly l / 2 M. in length here crosses the Marne, belonging to a 
branch of the Strasbourg line. 

At Joinville-le-Pont issues the Canal de St. Maur, a subter- 
ranean channel 650 yds. in length and furnished with a towing 
path , accessible to foot-passengers. By means of this canal, vessels 
navigating the Marne effect a saving of nearly 15 M. by avoiding 
the long curve which the river here describes. 

At the E. extremity a picturesque and verdant valley is entered. 
Its aspect is peaceful and sequestered, and affords no indication 
of the proximity of the vast city. The name of the village is 
Qravelle. 

The celebrated lunatic asylum of Charenton lies about IV2 M. 
to the W. of this point. It is a spacious edifice, situated on an 
eminence , and was newly fitted up in 1847. The number of 
patients is about 400, some of whom are received gratuitously 
by permission of the Minister of the Interior, others pay an annual 
sum varying from 33 L. to 57 L. according to the accommodation 
required. The relations and friends of patients obtain access 
on Sundays and Thursdays if provided with a special permission 
from the director. 

From 1606 to 1685 Charenton was the principal seat of the 
French Protestants , who here possessed one of their largest churches 
and other public institutions. They were , however , dispersed in 
consequence of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The church 
was pulled down, and the stones employed in the construction of 
a hospital in Paris. 

The omnibuses which run every hour from Charenton-le-Pont 
to the Bastille (in 40 min. ; fare 30 ct) start from the bridge over 
the Marne , about 3 / 4 M. from the asylum. 



LEFT BANK OF THE SEINE. 



19. Palais du Luxembourg. 

Garden. Ney's Monument. Observatory . 

In the quarters of the city on the 1. bank of the Seine, the 
Faubourg St. Marcel, Faubourg St. Jacques and St. Michel (Quar- 
tier Latin) and the Faubourg St. Germain, the principal objects of 
interest are the Jardin des Plantes (p. 141), the Pantheon (p. 138), 
and the Palais du Luxembourg with its Gallery of Modern 
Pictures. Of these the last named deservedly holds the first 
Tank. Like the collections of the Louvre , it is open daily, 
Mondays excepted, from 10 to 4 o'clock. The garden is acces- 
sible daily from sunrise to sunset. The palace is shown for a 
gratuity (1 fr. for ?ne pers. , 2 — 3 fr. for a party), except du- 
ring the session of the chambers. 

This palace, the most extensive in Paris after the Louvre, 
the Tuileries and the Palais Royal , was erected and sumptuously 
decorated in 1615 by Desbrosses, by order of Marie de Medicu. 
In the spring of 1621 Rubens here sketched the designs of his 
large pictures representing scenes from the queen's life , now in 
the Louvre, which, he afterwards executed at Antwerp with the 
aid of his pupils and exhibited in the halls of the Luxembourg 
in 1625. The long gallery still contains frescoes by Jordaens, 
Rubens' talented pupil. 

The palace derives its appellation from the Duke of Pinay- 
Luxembourg, whose mansion formerly occupied the same site; 
various other names have been proposed, but have never been 
universally adopted. 

Until the revolution the palace continued to be a princely 
residence , and immediately before that event was presented by 
Louis XVI. to his brother the Count of Provence (Louis XVIIL), 
who quitted it in June, 1791. 

The Convention, which had selected the Tuileries for the seat 
of its operations converted the Luxembourg into a prison (espe- 
cially for the reception of members of noble families) , in which 
Hubert, Camille Desmoulins, Danton /Robespierre, the artist Da- 
vid, Josephine Beauharnais and others were afterwards temporarily 
confined. In 1795 the edifice received the name of Palais du 
Directoire, subsequently that of Palais du Consulat. For a time 
the Directory and the Consulate held their sessions here ; the 



19. PALAIS DU LUXEMBOURG. 129 

latter, however, for a short period only, as Bonaparte removed to 
the Tuileries, Feb. 29th, 1800. 

During the empire the palace was occupied by the senate, 
and was termed Palais du Senat-Conservateur. After the resto- 
ration and under Louis Philippe the Chamber of Peers met here. 
In March and April , 1848, the " Commission du gouvernement pour 
les travMleurs" under Louis Blanc and Albert ("Ouvrier") held their 
Socialist meetings in the palace. Since 1852 it has again been 
styled Palais du Senat, that body now, as under Napoleon I., here 
holding its sessions. 

Visitors enter the court by the principal entrance, pass through 
the middle-door in the r. wing and ascend the magnificent stair- 
case. They are then usually required to wait in the entrance- 
hall, decorated with bronze statues of celebrated Greeks and Ro-' 
mans, until a party is formed. The *Salle du Trone, constructed 
and sumptuously decorated in 1856, replaces the former Salle du 
Senat and Salle des Conferences. The walls are decorated with a 
series of large pictures of scenes from the history of the Napo- 
leons: 1. Napoleon I. elected Emperor, by Signol ; 2. He signs 
the Concordat, by Hesse; 3 He inspects the flags captured at 
Austerlitz, by Philippoieaux ; 4. Napoleon with the Invalides, by 
Couder. In the cupola, Triumph of Universal Suffrage, by Alaux 
(7,500,000 votes for the present Emperor). Then, 5. Return of 
the Pope to Rome in 1849, by Benouville; 6. Napoleon III. in- 
specting the progress of the New Louvre, by Oosse; 7. Distri- 
bution of the eagles in the Champ de Mars in 1852, by Pils; 
8. The Senate proclaiming the Empire, by Couder. The Galeric 
des Busies, containing the busts of the senators of the first em- 
pire, surrounds the Salle du Senat. The latter was destroyed by 
fire in 1859, but was restored to its original form. The lowest 
seats are reserved for princes, cardinals and marshals; the sena- 
tors speak from their places. The visitor is hence conducted 
back to the Salle du Trone, and then to the Cabinet de I'Empe- 
reur which contains the following pictures: 1. Napoleon HI. ente- 
ring Paris from St. Cloud, by Couder; 2. His Nuptials, by 
Fleury; 3. Napoleon I. signs the Peace of Campoformio, by Bris- 
set; 4. the 18th Brumaiue, by Yinchon. A stair now descends to 
the Apartments of Queen Marie de Medicis. 

The decorations of the Sleeping Apartment of Marie de Me'- 
dicis were torn down and paitially destroyed during the revolu- 
tion; some of them, however, were afterwards discovered in a 
garret of the Louvre. Louis XVIII. caused this apartment to be 
restored in its former style in 1817. The decorations , which 
consist of arabesques on a gold ground , are executed with great 
taste. The paintings are of the school of Rubens. After the re- 
storation and under Louis Philippe this room was known as the 
Salle du Livre d'Or, and was employed as a receptacle for do- 

Bsedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 9 



130 19. PALAIS DU LUXEMBOURG. 

cuments recording the titles and coats of arms of the Peers of France. 
Members of these families during that period were accustomed to 
celebrate their nuptials in the richly decorated Chapel, restored 
in 1842. 

The Library of the Senate, a handsome gallery with 40,000 
vols., is not usually shown to the public (enquiry may he made 
of the attendant). The cupola is adorned with one of the finest 
works of the talented Delacroix (d. 18G3), representing Elysium 
as pourtrayed by Dante, and remarkable for its spirited style and 
rich colouring. 

The **Musee du Luxembourg, a collection of about 170 Pain- 
tings of Living Artists, some 30 sculptures , and a number of 
, drawings, engravings and lithographs, is situated in the E. wing 
of the palace. Many of the pictures here are not inferior 
in interest to those in the Louvre, where, however, they are 
not exhibited until 10 years after the death of the artists. 

The usual entrance is by a door (the first to the r.) within 
the railing of the garden at the N.E. end : on Sundays and festi- 
vals by the principal portal, opposite to the Rue de Toumon. 

The most esteemed pictures are here enumerated. The dates 
of the first exhibition of each picture are also given. The order 
of the pictures is frequently changed; catalogue 75 c. The 
visitor enters the Great Gallery and turns to the small apart- 
ment to the r. 

First Small Room: 
In the centre: 227. Jouffroy, A young girl confiding her first 
secret to the goddess of love, a group in marble: 1839. — Op- 
posite to the window: 155. Roqueplan, View of the Coast of 
Normandy, a sea-piece; 1831. 245. Berchere, Twilight in Nubia; 
1864. — To the 1. of the entrance: 11. Beaume, Leaving Church; 
1846. 83. Oiroux, View of the Valley of Graisivaudan near Gre- 
noble; 1834. 

On the ceiling of the adjoining Great Gallery, the Rising 
of Aurora by Callet (d. 1823), surrounded by twelve smaller pain- 
tings by Jordaens, the pupil of Rubens, allegorical representations 
of the signs of the zodiac. A number of modern sculptures 
placed here possess little artistic merit. 

On the wall by the door: 111. Jacquand, Last interview of 
Charles I. of England with his children; 1855. Over the door: 
135. Matout, Wife of Boghari slain by a lion; 1855. 
Right Side: 
129. Lehmann, Prometheus chained to the rock, and surrounded 

by compassionate ocean nymphs ; 1850. 
124. Lariviire, The plague in Rome under Pope Nicholas V. 

1831. 
152. R. Fleury, Jane Shore persecuted as a witch ; 1850. 



19. PALAIS DU LUXEMBOURG. 131 

182. Horace Vernet, Meeting of Raphael and Michel Angelo in 
the Vatican; 1833. "You are attended by a train like a 
general's", says Michel Angelo. "And you are alone like 
the hangman", readily responds Raphael. 
261. Meissonnier, Napoleon III. at Solferino; 1864. 
*9. Baudry, Fortune playing with a child; 1857. 
*59. Paul Delaroche, The princes in the Tower of London; 1831. 
43. Couture, The Romans of the Declining Empire; 1847. 
34. Chasseriau, Roman tepidarium, to which the Roman women 

resorted after the bath ; 1853. 
*54. Eugene Delacroix, Dante and Virgil, conducted by Phlegyas, 
crossing the Styx; among the guilty shades that endeavour 
to enter the boat Dante recognises Florentines; 1822. 
55. Delacroix, Greeks massacred by Turks in the island of Scio 

(Chios); 1824. 
57. Delacroix, Algerian Women ; 1834. 

*42. Court, Death of Caesar; Mark Antony exhibiting the corpse 
to the people ; in the foreground Brutus and Cassius ; 
1827. 

* Lower End: 

29. Brion, Pilgrims of St. Ottilia in Alsace ; 1863. 
Before inspecting the opposite side of the principal hall, the 
visitor may now enter the 

Third Room. In the centre: 

Millet, Ariadne forsaken, a marble statue; 1857. 
r. Duret, Improvisatore and fisher-boy dancing the Tarantella, 
in bronze. 
r.l70.Sc/inete (director of the French academy at Rome), Inun- 
dation; 1831. 
289. Guillaumet, Evening Prayer in the Sahara; 1863. 
6. Antigna, Conflagration ; 1850. 
15. Belly, Pilgrims on their journey to Mecca; 1862. 
*19. Rosa Bonheur, Oxen ploughing; 1849. 
21. Bouquereau, The body of St. Cecilia conveyed to the Ca- 
tacombs; 1855. 
27. Breton, Gleaners; 1859. 

145. Odier, A wounded dragoon before Moscow, life-size; 1833. 
*142 AftiMer, The names of the last victims of the Reign of 
Terror before the fall of Robespierre (July 27th, 1794) are 
read in the prison of the Luxembourg; the figures are all 
portraits , among others those of the Princesse de Chimay 
and Montalembert. 1850. 
Returning to the Principal Hall. 

9* 



132 19. PALAIS I)U LUXEMBOURG. 

L eft Side: 
50. Debay, Lucretia presented to the people in the market- 
place; 1831. 

102. Ingres (d. 1807), Peter receiving the keys of Heaven; 1820. 
105. Ingres, Homer's Deification; 1827. 

*104. Ingres, Cherubini and the Muse of Harmony ; 1842. 

103. Ingres, Roger liberates Angelica (from Ariosto); 1819. 
171. SchneU, Vow to the Madonna; 1831. 

16. Benouville, St. Francis d'Assisi conveyed in a dying state to 

the monastery of S. Maria degli Angeli; 1853. 
94. Heim, Charles X. distributing prizes after the exhibition of 
1824; 1827. 
*151. Robert Fleury, Conference at Poissy (p. 220), assembled in 
1561 by Catherine de Me"dicis and Charles IX., with a view 
to adjust the differences between the Rom. Catholics and 
Protestants ; Theodore Beza, the well known reformer, acts 
as spokesman for the latter. 1840. 
93. Heim, Massacre of the Jews in the court of the Temple at 

Jerusalem; 1824. 
54. Delacroix, Jewish Wedding at Morocco; 1841. 
*180. Horace Vernet, Marshal Moncey with the National Guard 
defending the Barriere de Clichy at Paris against the Rus- 
sians (March 30th, 1814). The locality may still be recog- 
nised; "Pere Lathuille" is a restaurant to this day. 1820. 
64. Deveria, Birth of Henry IV.; 1827. 
Opposite to the entrance of the principal gallery, a glass-door 
leads to a covered terrace, hung with drawings (portraits etc.). 
The Rotunda contains Sculptures: 

In the centre: Perraud, The infancy of Bacchus, a group in 
marble; 1863. In the recesses of the windows : r. 222. Quillaume, 
Anacreon; 1852. 1. 214. Canelier, The mother of the Gracchi; 
1861. — 229. Maillet, Agrippina and Caligula; 1853. Also several 
busts. 

In the Opposite Room: 

Ingres, Designs for the stained glass windows of the chapel 
at Dreux and St. Ferdinand's Chapel (p. 87). St. Ferdinand is 
a portrait of the Duke of Orleans (d. 1842) , St. Helena of the 
duchess (d. 1858). 

In the centre: 221. Oatteaux, Minerva after the decision of 
Paris, a statue in bronze. 

In the Room to the right: 
In the centre: 219. Oaston Guitton, Leander; 1857. By the 
windows: 231. Michael Pascal, Monks reading; 1847. 
Opposite : Troyon, Landscape with cattle. 
188. Zo, Blind man at Toledo 1863. 



19. PALAIS DU LUXEMBOURG. 133 

256. Ldnoue, The Tiber at Acqua Acetosa, near Home ; 1864. 
258. Leroux, Young mother of Brittany; 1864. 

In the Room to the left: 
Sculptures: 233. Moreau, The spinner; 1861. 215. Dumont, 
Bust of a lady; 1844. 208. Ahelin, Psyche; 1863. 276. Leharivel- 
Durocher, Reality and Appearance; 1861. 277. Montagny , St. 
Louis of Gonzaga 

On the entrance -wall: 121. Landelle, Presentiment of the 
Virgin; 1859. 

77. Fromentin, Falcon-hunt in Algeria; 1863. 
177. Tassaert, Misfortune; 1850. 

Principal wall: 10. Beaume, Laying the foundation-stone of 
the monument to Louis XVI. in the Place de la Concorde ; 1827. 
24. Brascassat, Landscape with cattle ; 1845. 
133. Lenepveu, The martyrs in the catacombs; 1855. 
130. Leleux, Wedding in Brittany; 1863. 
81. Giraud, Spanish dancers; 1853. 

In the Following Room: 
In the centre : 234. Nanteuil , Eurydice , a statue in marble ; 
1824. — On the walls: 
248. Chaplin, Soap-bubbles; 1864. 
174. Signol, Christ and the Adulteress; 1840. 
125. Laugee, The artist Lesueur among the Carthusians; 1855. 
137. Merle, Beggar-woman; 1861. 
157. Rousseau, An unbidden guest; 1850. 
40. Caubertin, Good Friday at Palermo; 1861. 

In the Following Room: 
In the centre : 225. Jaley, Prayer ; 226. Same artist, Modesty ; 
statues in marble. On the walls: 
198. David (Maxime), Three miniatures on ivory: Abdel-Kader 

praying, as regent, and before the battle ; 1853. 
263. Penguilly-L' Haridon, Gamblers; 1847. 
292. Meissonnier, Napoleon III. with his staff. 
260. Marchal, Market in Alsace; 1864. 
286. Duverger, Workman and his children ; 1865. 

The Garden on the S. side of the palace, open daily till 
dusk, upwards of 1000 yds. in length and 600 yds. in breadth, 
is admirably laid out and contains tastefully kept flower-beds 
and delightful walks. The S. portion is, however, now intersected 
by two new streets , which are rapidly approaching completion 
and unfortunately diminish the area as well as the attractions 
of the garden. It is adorned by a number of statues and 
sculptures, principally modern, among which may be mentioned 
the 20 statues of celebrated women arranged along the terrace. 
These are as follows, commencing on the E. side: 1. Bathilde, 



134 19. PALAIS DU LUXEMBOURG. 

consort of Clovis II.; 2. Bertha, consort of Pepin (by Oudine - ); 
3. Queen Hudrogote; 4. Ste. Genevieve; 5. Mary Stuart; 6. Jeanne 
d'Albret, mother of Henry IV.; 7. Clemence Isaure, foundress of 
the "Jeux Floraux" at Toulouse (by Pre"ault) ; 8. Mile, de Mont- 
pensier (d. 1693), grand -daughter of Henry IV. and heroine of 
the Fronde, who herself fired the cannons of the Bastille on the 
troops of Louis XIV. (by Demesmay) ; 9. Louise de Savoye, mother 
of Francis I.; 10. Joan of Arc (by Rude). 

On the W. side: 11. Laure de Noves (d. 1348), the celebrated 
Laura of Petrarch; 12. Marie de Medicis, second consort of 
Henry IV.; 13. Margaret of Valois, first consort of Henry IV.; 
14. Valentine de Milan, wife of the Duke of Orleans, second son 
of Charles V. ; 15. Anne de Beaujeu, daughter of Louis XI., re- 
gent of France during the minority of Charles VIII. ; 16. Bianca 
of Castille, consort of Louis VIII. ; 17. Anne of Austria, consort 
of Louis XIII. ; 18. Anne of Bretagne, consort of Charles VIII. and 
of Louis XII. ; 19. Margaret of Provence; 20. Clotilde. consort of 
Clovis I. 

The grass-plot to the N.E. is adorned with a group of Adam 
and his Family , by Oarauld , a statue of Archidamas about to 
throw the disc , by Lemaire , Diana of Versailles , the Borghese 
Gladiator etc. 

At the sides of the large basin, on pedestals of Italian marble, 
David with the sword, and a Nymph, an Italian work of the 
16th cent. 

At the S. end of the garden is situated the Botanic Garden 
of the Eoole de Medecine, towards the E., and the Pepinilre or 
nursery-garden towards the W.: the latter is adorned with a statue 
of Velleda, the celebrated Germanic prophetess (A. D. 70), by 
Maindron. 

The S. issue of the garden is in the Allie de VObservatoire, 
in which, to the 1., is situated Ney's Statue, cast in bronze from 
a design by Rude , and standing on the precise spot where 
(Dec. 7th, 1815) the unfortunate marshal was shot in accordance 
with the sentence pronounced on the previous day by the Chamber 
of Peers in the Luxembourg. The figure is in a commanding 
attitude, but the features are open to criticism. 

At the extremity of the Allege rise the extensive buildings 
of the Observatoire , founded in 1672, the interior of which is 
accessible on the first Sunday of each month at 3 p. m. , and 
then only by special permission of the director M. Le Verrier. 
Through the centre of this establishment runs the meridian 
of Paris. 



135 
20. Musee des Thermes et de l'Hotel de Cluny. 

Sorbonne. 

This collection of Roman and Mediaeval Antiquities , entrance 
Rue des Mathurins 14, is open to the public on Sundays and 
holidays from 11 to 4, and daily (except Monday from 11 to 4) 
to strangers provided with a passport (or visiting-card), on Mon- 
days, Tuesdays and Saturdays for students only. The catalogue, 
which may be purchased at the door for 2 fr., is indispensable 
for those who desire to make themselves acquainted with all the 
objects of interest in this splendid collection. 

The Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus, who resided in Gaul 
from 292 to 306, is believed to have been the founder of the 
palace, of which the baths (Thermes) still existing formed a 
portion. It is an historical fact that Julian was here proclaimed 
emperor by his soldiers in 360; the early Franconian monarchs 
also resided here. 

At the close of the 15th cent, the abbots of the wealthy Be- 
nedictine Abbey of Cluny in Southern Burgundy, who possessed 
property of considerable extent in Paris, but no suitable resi- 
dence, caused a small mansion, the Hdtel de Cluny of the present 
day, to be erected on the site of the ancient Roman palace. 
This edifice still retains its mediseval exterior, and is a fine spe- 
cimen of the style of the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. 
The abbots , who seldom resided in Paris , placed their mansion 
at the disposal of the monarchs of France , and we accordingly 
find that it was occupied in 1515, soon after its completion, by 
Mary, sister of Henry VIII. of England and widow of Louis XII. 
Her apartment is still termed la Chambre de la Beine blanche, 
it having been the custom of the queens of France to wear white 
mourning. On Jan. 1st, 1537, the nuptials of James V. of Scot- 
land with Madeleine, daughter of Francis I., were here celebrated. 

The revolution converted this ecclesiastical estate into natio- 
nal property , and in 1833 the Hotel de Cluny fell into the hands 
of M. Du Sommerard, an enthusiastic collector of mediaeval cu- 
riosities ; at his death the edifice with its collections was pur- 
chased by government and united with the Roman Baths which 
had hitherto appertained to the municipality of Paris. 

The Collection of Mediaeval Curiosities, belonging principally 
to the 14th — 16th cent., and exceeding 3000 in number, is of 
such an extent as to defy enumeration. It consists of reliefs, 
carving, ecclesiastical decorations and vestments, furniture, ta- 
pestry, weapons, carved ivory, musical instruments, missals, stained 
glass , pictures etc. The large hall contains some interesting rem- 
nants of episcopal robes and a crozier of the 12th cent. , dis- 
covered at Bayonne in 1S53. The three lower rooms contain 
objects of less interest than the upper. 



136 20. MUSLE DES TIIERMES. 

2nd Room : 532. Bench of a refectory of the 15th cent. ; 537. 
Another of the 16th cent.; 612. Press of the 15th cent.; 104. 
Statuette of Diana of Poitiers as Diana; r., by the window keys 
of various periods. 

3rd Room: 558. Press from a sacristy, 15th cent.; 588. Press, 
17th cent.; 590. Another. Then a room containing a number of 
sumptuous carriages and sledges; on the walls ecclesiastical vest- 
ments, of which the most interesting is No. 2422. Remnants of 
episcopal robes and crozier of the 12th cent. , found at Bayonne 
in 1853; then ancient weapons, carved ivory, missals, musical 
instruments, stained glass, ancient pictures, specimens of early 
printing etc. 

The stair leads first to a corridor with weapons, with some of 
which interesting reminiscences are connected, as the labels 
indicate. 

To the r. are two rooms containing articles in fayence from 
Italy, Spain, Germany etc. 

In the room opposite: 541. State-bed of the time of Francis I. ; 
then miniatures etc. 

Next a room containing the bust of M. Du Sommerard. Also 
No. 1744. Chess-board of rock-crystal, formerly the property of 
the crown, "que le vieil de la Montagne (Old Man of the Moun- 
tain), prince des BeMuens, envoya a St. Louis," as the chronicle 
records; chimney-pieces; goblets. No. 1399. Portrait of Francis I. 
No. 1009. A miniature enamelled altar , bearing the name and 
titles of Henry II. and Catharine de Medicis. dating from the 
16th cent. No. 1743. Two lion's heads of rock- crystal, found 
together with the figure No. 384 in a tomb near the Rhine, 
dating from the 3rd or 4th cent. No. 399. Casket for relics in carved 
ivory, with figures of 42 saints, of the 12th cent. Nos. 404, 419. Si- 
milar objects of the 14th cent. No. 610. Cupboard, sumptuously 
decorated with mosaics and precious stones, executed at Florence 
in the 17th cent. 

In the following room: Nos. 1000- 1008 Figures of gods and other 
personages, in enamelled copper, destined to adorn the chateau 
Madrid erected for Francis I. in the Bois de Boulogne; the ena- 
melled plates are said to be the largest in existence (3 ft. broad, 
5 high). No. 324. Sixty diminutive wooden figures, representing 
the kings of France from Clovis to Louis XIII. (d. 1643), carved 
during the reign of the latter monarch. 

The room before the last contains a number of very interesting 
objects in gold: 1. No. *1329. Episcopal crozier, richly gilded and 
decorated with precious stones, pearls and light miniature shrines, 
of which that in the centre contains a fragment of the "True Cross"' 
3123. Golden Rose of Bale, presented by Clement V. to the 
Archbischop of Bale; *3122. Altarpiece, 3 ft. in height and 5 ft. 
in width, of embossed gold, presented by the emperor Henry II. 



20. MUSKE DES TT1ERMES. 137 

(d. 1024) to the cathedral of Bale, and purchased, together with 
the Rose, of the canton of Bale-campagne in 1830. 

*Nos. 3113 — 21. Nine Crowns of Gothic Kings of Spain, found 
near Toledo , one of which hears the name of king Recesvinthus 
(649 — 672), decorated with pearls, sapphires and other jewels. 
These highly interesting relics are preserved in the glass case in 
the centre. 

3138. Vessel with Charles V. , surrounded by the dignitaries 
of his court, musicians and sailors, in gilded bronze, the emperor 
of pure gold; the whole is moveable, mechanism of the 16th cent. ; 
3668. and 3669. Russian figures of saints, brought as trophies 
from Bomarsund in 1854; 3674. Jaw-bone of Moliere. 

The last room contains specimens of French fayence. 

From the 1st Room the visitor proceeds to the 1. to the 
Chambre de la Reine Blanche, containing a variety of musical 
instruments, then to the sumptuous *Palace Chapel, which during 
the revolution served as an assembly -hall, subsequently as a 
dissecting-room, and finally as a printing-office. 

The egress leads through the back-court to the lofty , vaulted 
hall which constitutes the only perfect remnant of the Roman 
Baths (Thermes). The columns are in different places adorned 
with the figure of the prow of a vessel , which formed a promi- 
nent portion of the arms of the ancient Lutetia Parisiorum, and 
is still conspicuous in the arms of modern Paris. The fact that 
this one hall , which was the Frigidarium , or apartment for cold 
baths, is 60 ft. in length, 36 ft. in breadth, and 55 ft. in height, 
may serve to convey some idea of the vast extent of the ancient 
Roman palace. These baths and the curiosities they contain, the 
sole relics of the Roman period in Paris, are of little interest to 
the non-professional visitor; 1. 2692. Statue of Julian, who was 
here proclaimed Emperor. 

The Garden contains a number of interesting mediaeval 
architectural fragments, many of them rescued from edifices de- 
molished in the course of the metropolitan improvements. 

No. 3732. Cross from the Church of St. Vladimir at Sebastopol, 
presented by Marshal Pelissier (Duke of Malakoff). 

Ascending the street towards the S. the stranger will soon 
arrive at the Sorbonne, or buildings of the university of Paris, 
erected about the middle of the 17th cent. The thiee faculties 
of theology (Rom. Cath.) , science and literature have their seat 
here. The lectures are open to the public. 

The Sorbonne, originally a theological college only, was founded 
in 12fi0 by Robert de Sorbon, the confessor of Louis IX., and 
during the middle ages enjoyed the highest reputation. It not 
unfrequently even opposed the authority of the Pope, as, for 
example, when it rejected the "Unigenitus" bull. Subsequently 
it became the opponent of the Jesuits, as well as of the school 



138 21. PANTHEON. 

of philosophy of the 18th cent. , -whose sarcasms were usually 
levelled at the Sorbonne. 

The medical and legal faculties possess buildings of their 
own , the ficole de Medecine in the street of the same name , 
near the Hotel de Cluny , and the £cole de Droit , Place du 
Panthe'on 8. 

21. Pantheon. 

Library of Ste. Genevieve. 
The Church of Sainte Oeneviive, or *Pantheon , as it is more 
usually termed, which occupies the most elevated situation in 
Paris , stands on the site of an ancient church erected in honour 
of Ste. Genevieve, who was interred here in 512. The present 
edifice was designed by Soufflot, and the foundation-stone laid 
by Louis XV. in 1764. 

The new structure was also dedicated to Ste. Genevieve, the 
protectress of the city of Paris. The Convention, however, in 
1791 determined that it should be converted into a species of 
temple, and gave it the name of "Pantheon", dedicated: "Aux 
grands hommes la palrie reconnaissante" , as the inscription on 
the frieze still records. The inscription was erased in 1822, 
but was renewed in 1830 after the July revolution , and still 
retains its place notwithstanding the decree of Dec. 6th, 1851, 
by which the edifice has been restored to its sacred use under 
its original appellation of "Eglise Ste. Genevieve". For upwards 
of 60 years the "Pantheon" has been a source of discord bet- 
ween church and state, and has experienced vicissitudes from 
which for the present at least it appears to enjoy a respite. 

Although cruciform in shape, this magnificent structure hardly 
possesses an ecclesiastical character. The form is nearly that of 
a Greek cross, 350 ft. in length and 260 ft. in breadth, sur- 
mounted by a majestic dome (2<i4 ft. in height), terminating in 
a lantern and surrounded by a gallery and balustrade. The por- 
tico, which is approached by a flight of 11 steps, occupying 
the entire breadth of the edifice, is supported by a triple row 
of handsome Corinthian columns, 60 ft. in height. 

The Pediment above the portico, 127 ft. in length and 22 ft. 
in height, contains a fine *group in high relief by David d' An- 
gers. The principal figure, 15 ft. in height, represents France 
in the act of distributing garlands to her sons; to the 1., under 
the protection of Liberty, several illustrious civilians are repre- 
sented : Malesherbes (p. 95), Mirabeau (p. 170), Monge (p. 116) 
and Fe'ne'lon ; then Manuel , Carnot , the celebrated general of 
engineers and leader of the wars of the first revolution, Ber- 
thollet, the chemist, and Laplace, the mathematician. A second 
row consists of the artist David, Cuvier, Lafayette, Voltaire, 



21. PANTHEON. 139 

Rousseau and the physician Bichat. To the r. , beside a figure 
emblematic of History , are soldiers of the republic and of the 
empire : among them Bonaparte as leader of the Italian army ; 
behind him an old grenadier leaning on his musket, sternly em- 
blematic of Service. 

In front of the entrance are two groups in sandstone by 
Maindron, representing Ste. Genevieve inducing Attila, the chief- 
tain of the Huns , to abstain from devastating Paris , and the 
baptism of the Franconian king Clovis by St. Remigius. 

The interior consists of a spacious rotunda, flanked by a 
gallery supported by Corinthian columns. The names of those 
who fell in the revolution of 1830 were formerly engraved on 
the pillars in gilded letters, but are now concealed by the new 
wainscoting. The nave and transepts are adorned with copies of 
eight of the frescoes in the Vatican by Raphael and Michel Angelo. 

The staircase (328 steps) leading to the Dome is to the left, 
by the side-altar. Admission 20 c. ; parties limited to a certain 
number. The visitor will here have an opportunity of inspecting 
the painting of the dome by Oros, executed in 1^24, for which the 
artist received a remuneration of 100,000 fr. This fine composition, 
which covers a superficies of 32;~i6 sq ft. , represents Ste. Gene- 
vieve receiving homage from Clovis, the first Christian monarch 
of France, Charlemagne, St. Louis and Louis XVIII. In the 
heavenly regions above are represented Louis XVI. , Marie An- 
toinette, Louis XVII. and Madame Elisabeth, the "martyrs of 
the revolution". 

A farther ascent of 94 steps leads to the gallery, which com- 
mands a magnificent and extensive view, but less picturesque 
than the prospect from the Tour St. Jacques or that commanded 
by Notre Dame , as from this point the course of the Seine and the 
bridges are not visible. 

The entrance to the Vaults (Caveaux) is behind the high altar. 
Admission 2 fr. for one or more persons; a solitary visitor there- 
fore usually waits till a party is made up and pays his share 
of the fee ; parties are most frequently formed between 3 and 
4 p. m. Mirabeau was the first whose remains were deposited here, 
April 5th, 1791. Near him was placed Marat, the most furious 
of the Jacobins, who fell July 13th, 1793, by the hand of Char- 
lotte Corday. Subsequently, however, both the bodies were re- 
moved by order of the Convention ; Mirabeau was reinterred in 
the cemetery of Pere Lachaise, whilst the remains of Marat were 
ignominiously cast into the sewers of the Rue Montmartre, near 
the Passage du Saumon of the present day. 

About the same period "monuments" were here erected to 
Voltaire and Rousseau; the former, "aux manes de Voltaire", 
bears the inscription: "Po'ete, historien, philosophe, il agrandit 
V esprit humain et lui apprit, qu'il devait etre libre. fl difendit 



140 21. PANTHEON. 

Culas, Sirven, de la Barre et Montbailly; combattit les athees et 
let fanatiques; il inspira la tolerance; il reclama les droits de 
Vhomme contre la servitude de la feodalite." The sarcophagus of 
Rousseau bears the inscription: "Id repose Vhomme de la nature 
et de la verite" ; issuing from it is represented a hand with a 
burning torch , a somewhat inappropriate emblem of the "light" 
which the great philosopher diffused around him. Both these 
tombs are, however, empty, the remains of the two philosophers 
having been secretly removed after the Restoration and interred 
in some unknown spot. 

Napoleon I. also caused several of the most eminent men of 
his time to be interred here; among others may be mentioned 
Lagrange, the mathematician, Bougainville, the circumnavigator, 
Marshal Lannes and a number of senators. 

In the centre of these vaults a remarkably loud echo may 
be awakened by the faintest sound. — A model of the edifice 
in plaster of Paris is also shown. 

The Pantheon was one of the headquarters of the insurgents 
in June, 1848, and was obstinately defended during two days 
against the attacks of the troops and the National Guard. The barri- 
cades in the vicinity were, however, soon demolished by the 
cannonade, and the insurgents compelled to yield. 

Opposite to the portico is situated the Mairie du f> e Arron- 
dissement, erected in 1849, and on the other side the Ecole de 
Droit, the seat of the legal faculty of the university (p. 138), the 
latter erected by Soufflot, the architect of the Pantheon. The 
lectures are public. Vacation in September and October. 

On the N. side is situated the spacious edifice , erected by 
Labrouste and completed in 1850, which contains the Library 
of Ste. Genevieve. On the walls are inscribed a long series of 
names of eminent literary men of all nations. In the medallions 
the monogram S. G. (Ste. Genevieve) frequently recurs. 

The vestibule is adorned with busts of St. Bernard, Montaigne, 
Pascal, Moliere, Lafontaine, Bossuet , Massillon, Voltaire, Button, 
Laplace, Cuvier, Mirabeau , Rousseau, Montesquieu, Fene'lon, 
Racine, Corneille, Poussin, Descartes, L'Hopital. 

The inscription over the staircase is as follows : Billiotheque 
Sainte Oeneviive fondee par les Genovefains en 1624 , devenue 
propriete nationale en 1790, transferee de I'andenne abbaye dans 
cet edi,ice en ]8, r >0. The wall of the staircase is adorned with a 
copy (by Bla:e) of the School of Athens in the Vatican by Ra- 
phael , and medallions in fresco emblematic of Poetry, Theology, 
Philosophy and Justice. The upper *Library Hall , the finest 
saloon of this description in Paris, in which iron is admirably 
adapted to architectural purposes, is upwards of 300 ft. in length, 
60 ft. in breadth and 4(1 ft. in height. The double arched roof 
is supported by a series of graceful iron columns resting on stone 



22. JARDIN DES PLANTES. 141 

basements, between which and along the walls the bookcases are 
arranged. Long rows of tables, capable of accommodating 420 per- 
sons, are placed here for the convenience of readers. The library 
is open to the public from 10 till 3 o'clock, for students from 
6 to 10 p. m. 

The collection of books, which are judiciously arranged in 
the upper, as well as in the lower apartments, was originated 
by Cardinal La Rochefoucauld in 1624, and now consists of up- 
wards of 200,000 printed books and 7000 MSS. Among the former 
are a considerable number of "incunabula", or specimens of the 
earliest period of printing, when the art was still in its infancy 
("in cunabulis"), and a valuable series of periodicals from the 
17th cent, to the period of the empire. — Vacation from Sept. 
1st to Oct. 15th. 

St. Etienne du Mont, the handsome, late-Gothic church in the 
vicinity, with a portico in the Renaissance style, see p. 163. 

22. Jardin des Plantes. 

The horticultural portion is open daily from daybreak to dusk, 
the zoological (Menagerie) from 11 to 5 (Sundays till 6) o'clock 
between March 1st and Oct. 31st, from 11 to 4 during the re- 
mainder of the year (sometimes, however, closed in winter and 
in unfavourable weather). 

Admission (1 — 4 o'clock) to the interior of the rooms in 
which the animaux fe'roces, the snakes and apes are kept , may 
be obtained on application to the Administration, Rue Cuvier 57, 
or to one of the professors. Permission must be obtained in the 
same manner to see the animals fed (2—3 o'clock, according to 
the season). 

The Museum of Natural History (comprising zoological, bo- 
tanical, geological, mineralogical and anatomical collections) is 
open to the public on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 2 to 5, on 
Sundays from 1 to 5, in winter till 4 o'clock; strangers are ad- 
mitted on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays from 11 to 2 by 
ticket, obtained at the Administration. 

The Hothouses (Sevres) are accessible on Mondays , Wednes- 
days and Thursdays from 10 to 2 and from 3 to 6 o'clock to 
those provided with a card of admission, to be obtained from 
the professor of botany f. 

The visitor is recommended to enter the Jardin des Plantes 
by the N.W. gate in order to obtain a general view of the garden 



+ The letter of application should be furnished with a stamp of 10 c. 
and addressed to "Monsieur Decaisne , Professeur au Jardin des Plantes". 
The following may serve as a formula: 

"Monsieur, j'ai Thonneur de vous prier de vouloir bien m'autoriser a 
visiter (avec ma famille) les serres du Jardin des Plantes. Agre'ez, Monsieur, 
l'asgurance de la parfaite consideration de votre tres - humble serviteur". 



142 22. JARDIN DES PL ANTES. 

from the Gloriette (p. 143), whence he should proceed to inspect 
the various collections , reserving his walk through the garden 
for the hour when these are closed (see above). One day will 
probably suffice for a superficial inspection of the gardens but 
anything approaching to an acquaintance with the objects of 
interest in the museum can only be acquired by repeated visits. 

In the vicinity of the botanical gallery is a Cafe , in front 
of which stands the oldest acacia in Europe, having been planted 
by Robin , gardener of Louis XIII. , the first introducer of the 
tree (Robinia Pseudacacia). 

The **Jardin des Plantes, situated on the S.E. side of Paris, 
extends from E. to W., from the Pont d'Austerlitz (which after 
the entrance of the Allies into Paris received the name of Pont 
du Roi and is inscribed with the names of the officers who fell 
at Austerlitz) to the Rue Geoffroy St. Hilaire, a distance of nearly 
700 yds. ; its greatest breadth , near the E. extremity , is about 
400 yds. Almost everything connected with natural science which 
Paris contains appears to be here concentrated: living plants and 
animals, rare collections, laboratories, library etc. The lectures, to 
which the public have gratuitous access, are delivered in the Amphi- 
theatre, a saloon capable of containing 1200persons. At the entrances 
to the garden and at the doors of the amphitheatre lists of the lectures 
are usually posted up; they comprise zoology, physiology, anatomy, 
chemistry, physical science, mineralogy, geology and botany, and 
are given by a staff of about 15 professors. Scientific men of 
European celebrity have received their education here; among 
others may be mentioned the eminent botanists de Jussieu (Ber- 
nard d. 1776, Laurent d. 18313, Adrien d. 1853), the minera- 
logists Daubenton (d. 1799) and Hauy (d. 1822), and the zoo- 
logists Buffon (d. 1788), Lace'pede (d. 1826), Cuvier (d. 1832) 
and Geoffroy St. Hilaire (d. 1844). 

The project of laying out the Jardin des Plantes was first 
formed in 1626, and steps for putting it into execution were 
taken by Guy de Labrosse about 1635. In 1732 the celebrated 
Buffon became director of the gardens, and was the originator 
of all the collections of the present day. He died here in July 
1788, whilst in the zenith of his reputation. 

His successor was Bernardin de St. Pierre , under whose aus- 
pices (1794) the animals preserved in the menageries of Versailles 
and Raincy were transferred to the "Jardin du Roi" , as this 
garden was at that time termed. 

Under Napoleon 1. , who strongly favoured the progress of 
natural science, the collections were considerably enlarged. 

In 1805 Humboldt presented a collection of 4500 tropical 
plants, brought by him from America, 3000 of which belonged 
to species hitherto unknown. To his intercession the garden was 
indebted for its preservation from injury on the entrance into 



22. JARDIN DES PLANTES. 143 

Paris of the allied troops in 1814. It is now more correctly 
termed the "Museum d'Histoire Naturelle" , although its original 
appellation is still more commonly employed. 

Opposite to the N.W. entrance , at the corner of the Rue 
St. Victor and the Rue Cuvier , stands the Fontaine Cuvier, 
erected during the reign of Louis Philippe. The figure in a 
sitting posture , with the inscription "rervm cognoscere causas", 
as well as the figures of animals , indicate the object which the 
natural sciences have in view. 

Entering the gardens by this gate, the visitor ascends by the 
tortuous paths of the Labyrinth to the "Glorielte" , a pavilion 
erected on the summit of a slight eminence which was once a 
heap of rubbish thrown here by the inhabitants of the Quartier 
St. Victor. On one of the pillars, under the sun-dial, is the 
inscription: "Horas non numero nisi serenas". (I count none but 
the bright hours.) The view from this point comprises a large 
portion of the city and its environs in the direction of Mont- 
martre, Vincennes and Sceaux. 

On the E. slope of the eminence is a magnificent cedar of 
Lebanon, the first seen in France, presented in 1734 by Dr. 
Collinson, an English physician, and planted here the following 
year by the elder de Jussieu. It now measures upwards of 11 ft. 
in circumference, and is still in a thriving condition. At the foot 
of the slope is a monument to the memory of Daubenton (d. 1799), 
a scientific man of high reputation, and superintendent of the 
collections of the Jardin des Plantes. 

In the vicinity is situated the Administration, or manager's 
office, where, on exhibiting a passport (or visiting-card), strangers 
are provided with cards of admission (p. 141). 

The Zoological Museum (Qalerie de Zoologie), adjoining 
the labyrinth to the S. , is nearly 400 ft. in length, with the 
entrance in the centre. The Ground-Floor contains (in the cor- 
ridor to the 1.) an extensive collection of zoophytes' etc. ; also 
stuffed animals, such as elephants, rhinoceroses and hippopotami. 
On the staircase to the first floor, a collection of fishes. 

First Floor. 1st Room: fishes, tortoises; 2nd: snakes, lizards, 
crocodiles; 3rd: crabs, lobsters etc.; 4th: apes; 5th: shells, sponges, 
zoophytes, coral, ammonites, belemnites, numerous species of 
oysters ; 6th : birds' eggs and nests , in the centre of the room 
a fine statue in marble by Dupaty, "alma parens rerwn". 

The visitor proceeds hence to the Second Floor; on the stair- 
case a collection of fish ; 1st Room : bears, foxes, weasels, kan- 
garoos ; 2nd : lions, tigers, cats, bears, rats, mice, hares, rabbits, 
snails, insects' nests; 3rd: birds, butterflies; 4th: the large mam- 
miferous animals, giraffes, camels, buffaloes, reindeer, stags. 



144 22. JAItDIN DES PL ANTES. 

The building which contains the Library, and the Geological, 
Mineralogical and Botanical Collections, is 550 ft. in length and 
consists of a basement story only. 

The -vestibule of the Geological Department contains 
a large fresco recently executed, representing scenes from the 
Arctic regions. The E. and W sides of the hall are also adorned 
with paintings: W., the limestone cliffs of the Fletschberg and 
the fall of the Staubbach near Lauterbrunnen, alluvial land formed 
by the Aare between Meiringen and Brienz ; E. , the Rosenlaui 
Glacier in the Bernese Oberland, the eruption of Mount Vesuvius 
in 1822, the volcanic islands of Stromboli, basaltic lava near the 
waterfall of Quereil in the Department of Puy de Dome. In the 
centre of the hall a statue of Cuvier in marble , by David d' An- 
gers. This collection is admirably arranged and affords every 
facility to visitors who desire to examine it minutely , some of 
the specimens being arranged geologically , others chemically, 
others according to their uses in domestic economy. To give a 
detailed description of these would, however, be beyond the scope 
of the present volume. 

At the entrance to the Botanical Department stands a 
statue of Adrien de Jussieu , by Heral. Non-professional visitors 
will find this collection similar and in some respects inferior to 
that at Kew: specimens of wood, bark, roots, models of fruit, 
fossil plants etc. The following objects of interest deserve special 
mention: models in wax of fungi, executed by Pinson, presented 
to Charles X. by the emperor of Austria and valued at 1000 L. ; 
huge trunks of palm-trees ; a large round table formed of a solid 
slab of the wood of the Baobab tree. 

The Library, consisting of works on natural history and 
comprising a valuable collection of MSS. and original drawings, 
is situated in the S.W. wing of the building above mentioned. 

The Cabinet of Comparative Anatomy, situated on 
the N. side of the garden, resembles other collections of the same 
description : human and other skeletons , anatomical sections of 
animals, casts of the heads of criminals, as well as of eminent 
musicians, authors etc. 

The Zoological Garden (Menagerie) is the most frequented 
portion of the entire establishment. An idea of its arrangements 
will be best formed by consulting the annexed plan. The pen- 
tagonal building in the centre (Rotonde des grands animaux) con- 
tains the large vegetable-feeders : elephants , giraffes , hippopo- 
tami etc. ; in the long building on the W. side are kept the beasts 
of prey (animaux feroces) : lions, tigers, hyenas, wolves etc. The 
interior arrangements of the different cages and pavilions can only 
be inspected by special permission (p. 141), or in some cases by 
a trifling fee to the attendant. 



22. JARDIN DES PLANTES. 145 

The large semicircular Palais des Singes ("palace of monkeys") 
is a constant source of attraction to spectators. The same may 
be said of the 

Bears' Den (Fosse aux ours), "Martin" (named after his prede- 
cessor brought from Bern) being frequently called upon to exhibit 
his uncouth gambols. Some years ago one of the keepers ventured 
to descend into the den during the night for the purpose of 
recovering a coin which had accidentally fallen in. The bear 
immediately attacked the intruder, and the unfortunate man paid 
for his temerity with his life. 

The confined space in front of the Elephant's Cage is always 
crowded, its inmate being an unfailing source of amusement. 

Birds and Snakes, Crocodiles, Chameleons and Tortoises are 
kept in cages and sheds on the N. side of the garden. 

The Botanic Garden is intersected by three beautiful ave- 
nues of lime and chestnut-trees, and perfumed with the fragrance 
of the choicest flowers, which render it one of the most delightful 
promenades in Paris. — Kitchen -herbs are denoted by green 
labels, medical plants by red, poisonous plants by black, those 
employed in dyeing by blue , and ornamental plants by yellow. 

The Nursery of Forest-trees occupies the S.E. side of the garden. 

23. The Gobelins. 

The "Manufactures hnperiales de tapisseries des Oobelins et de 
tapis de la Savonnerie" , Rue Mouffetard 254 , is accessible to 
strangers on Wednesdays and Saturdays, from 2 to 4 o'clock in 
summer and from 1 to 3 in winter: admission is obtained 
gratuitously on presenting a passport or visiting-card, or by tickets 
procured from the administrator (M. 1'administrateur de la manu- 
facture imperiale des Gobelins). 

The Gobelins is situated about 2 M. from the Louvre and 
may be conveniently visited on the same day as the Pantheon, 
1 M. distant, or the Jardin des Plantes, V2 M. distant. 

At the S.E. extremity of Paris, on the 1. bank of the Seine, 
the brook la Bitvre skirts the city and falls into the Seine abovo 
the Pont d'Austerlitz. During several centuries its water has 
been considered peculiarly adapted for dyeing purposes. In 1450 
Jean Gobelin erected a dyeing establishment on its banks, which 
was combined by his successors with a manufactory of tapestry. 

These manufacturers had acquired such a high reputation 
about the middle of the 17th cent., that Colbert, the minister of 
Louis XIV., a warm promoter of industrial enterprise, caused 
the establishment to be purchased and carried on at the expense 
of government. 

After the lapse of years, however, the manufactory was found 
to yield profits totally inadequate to the expense of its mainte- 

Baedeker . Paris ', 'nd Edition. 10 



146 23. THE GOBELINS. 

nance. It was therefore converted into and still continues to be 
an establishment which supplies the family of the reigning mo- 
narch with the choicest fabrics which art can produce. Its manu- 
factures are also presented as gifts to foreign courts, personages 
of high rank, ambassadors etc. 

The same remarks apply to the Savonnerie , a carpet manu- 
factory founded in 1604 hy Marie de Me"dicis, which derived its 
appellation from having been originally established in a soap 
manufactory, but was in 1826 transferred to the same building 
as the Gobelins. 

About 150 workmen are employed in these establishments, 
each of whom receives 1000 — S000 fr. per annum. These are 
of course all intelligent men of a superior class, and style them- 
selves "artistes-ouvriers". 

The work requires the utmost patience and the most practised 
eye. An area of 6 sq. inches is the average daily task of each 
workman. The visitor will, therefore, hardly be surprised to learn 
that many years are sometimes requisite for the execution of 
the larger designs, which when complete are worth 2000 — 6000 L. 

There is of course here little scope for originality, the object 
of the work beinjr simply the accurate imitation of paintings and 
other designs. The perfection, however, to which the art has 
attained is truly astonishing, and its results may be not inaptly 
compared to literary works translated from some foreign language 
by a masterly hand. 

The exhibition-rooms are so limited in size that the designs 
exposed to view are frequently removed to make '.n ay for the 
newer works. In January, 1867 r the following designs, about 
100 in number, were exhibited. (The name in Italics are those 
of the artists from whose pictures the designs have been copied.) 

1. The School of Athens, Raphael; 2. and 3. Parnassus, in 
fragments, Raphael; 4. Triumph of Bacchus, Raphael and Noel 
Coypel; 5. — 8. Arabesques; 9. The family of Darius at Alexander's 
feet, Lebrun; 10. Entrance into Babylon of Alexander the Great; 
11, 12. Curtains; 13. — 16. Animals; 17. Saturn, Boulongne; 
18. Juno, Boulongne; 19. Portrait of the painter Boucher; 
20. Neptune, Boulongne; 21. Coats of arms; 22. The Seine; 
23. Song; '24. Apollo; 25. Madonna, Maratte; 26. Horse torn to 
pieces by wolves, Snyders; 27. Venus in the work -shop of 
Vulcan: 28. Silenus; 29. Peace; 30. Rinaldo and Armide; 31. 
Clytia metamorphosed by Apollo into a flower; 82. Rape of 
Proserpine, Vien; 33. Triumph of Amphitrite; 34. Hector's fare- 
well, Vien; 35. Contest of Mars and Diomede , Le Doyen; 36. 
Meleager surrounded by his family entreating him to take up arms 
against the approaching enemy, Menageot; 37. Napoleon in the 
plague-hospital at Jaffa, Oros; 38. Bonaparte pardoning the rebels 
at Cairo, Querin; 39. Napoleon restoring his arms to the com- 



23. THE GOBELINS. 147 

mandant of Alexandria, Mulard; 40. Napoleon issuing commands 
on the morning of the battle of Austerlitz, Horace Vernet; 41. 
The surrender of Vienna, Oirodet-Trioson ; 42. French soldiers 
finding their flags in the arsenal in Innspruck , Meynier ; 43. 
Napoleon and the Princess Hatzfeld, Boisfremont; 44. Napoleon 
receiving the Persian ambassador, Mulard; 45. Portrait of the 
empress Josephine, Lethihre; 46. Napoleon and Alexander on the 
Niemen, Gautherot; 47. Napoleon and the Queen of Prussia at 
Tilsit, Berton; 48. Napoleon presenting a Russian soldier with 
the cross of the legion of honour, Debret; 49. The imperial arms; 
50. The Italian arms; 57. Boreas carrying off Orithia, from the 
marble group in the Jardin des Tuileries; 52. Louis XVIII., Gerard; 
53. The dauphin, Lawrence; 54. Zeuxis seeking among the fairest 
of the women of Greece for a model for his Juno Lucina, Vincent; 
55. Louis XVI. ; 56. The same ; 57. Chelonis following Cleombrotus 
into exile, Lemonnier; 58. Marie Antoinette and her children, 
Madame Lebrun; 59. Sylvia rescued from a monster by Amyntas, 
Boucher; RO. Filial love, Guerin; 61. Phsedra and Hippolytus, 
Guerin; 62. Pyrrhus protecting Andromache, Guerin; 63. Peter 
the Great on the lake of Ladoga, Steuben; 64. Conspiracy of the 
Strelitzes, Steuben; 65. Joan of Arc, Blondel; 66. Ste. Clotilde, 
Guerin; 67. Joseph and his brethren, Coypel; 68. Paul preaching 
at Athens ; 69. Paul and Barnabas refuse to receive sacrifice , 
Raphael; 70. The wolf and the lamb; 71. The two dogs; 72. Spring, 
Steinheil; 73. Autumn, the same; 74. Incremation of the body 
of Phocion, Meynier; 75. Foundation of the museum at Ver- 
sailles, Alaux and Couder; 76. The Louvre and Tuileries; 77. Venus, 
Juno and Ceres, from pictures in the Villa Farnese by Raphael: 
78. Psyche's return from the infernal regions, Raphael; 79. Ju- 
piter and Cupid, Raphael; 80. Assembly of the gods; 81. Ch. Le- 
brun, Couder; 82. Portrait of Charles Lebrun the painter, Lar- 
gilliere; 83. Colbert, Lefebvre; 84. Christ in the sepulchre, Cham- 
paigne; 85. Louis XIV., Rigaud; 86. The Transfiguration, Raphael; 
87. Assumption of the Virgin, Titian; 88. 89. Napoleon 111. 
and the Empress Euge'nie; 90 — 94 Flowers and animals; 95. Ma- 
donna, Raphael; 96. Jupiter under the form of Diana at the feet 
of the nymph Calisto, Boucher; 97. Venus, Boucher. Among the 
copies in process of execution are: 98. Madonna, Raphael, begun 
in 1859; 100. The Gossip, Boucher, begun in 1860; 108. Muses, 
Lesueur. 

The buildings in which the manufactory is established, as 
well as their situation, are far from attractive. The long Rue 
Mouffetard is inhabited by the poorest classes only and is the 
head-quarters of rag-collectors (chiffonniers). 

In the same street is situated the church of St. Medard, con- 
taining the "wonder-working" shrine of a certain Abbe" Paris , to 

10* 



148 24. HOTEL DES MONNAIES. 

which in 1732 Louis XV. forbade pilgrimages to be made. This 
gave rise to the witticism : 

"De par le Roi , defense a Dieu , 

De fake miracle en ce lieu." 

24. Hotel des Monnaies, 

One half of the space on the Quai Conti , between the Pont 
Nenf and the Pont des Arts, is occupied by the extensive build- 
ings (completed in 17:">5) of the Mint, which are upwards of 
120 yds. in length The exhibition-rooms are open to the public 
on Tuesdays and Fridays from 12 to ?> o'clock ; the mint itself, 
the work-rooms , laboratories etc.. are accessible on the same 
days at the same hours by special permission of the director, 
for which application should be made to "Monsieur le President 
de la Commission des Monnaies et des Me'dailles, a l'Hotel des 
Monnaies". (Comp. form given at p. 141.} 

The staircase to the r. in the vestibule ascends to the exhibi- 
tion-rooms. Beginning on the left hand side in the principal 
room, the visitor will perceive an interesting collection of medals, 
arranged chronologically, from the time of Charlemagne down to the 
present day. Those of the reign of Louis XIV. and Louis Philippe 
are especially numerous; the first case by the window also con- 
tains medals of Luther, Bucer, Melanothon and Ignatius Loyola. 

To the r. are exhibited coins of various states. The last case 
contains the most ancient, those of the Merovingian period. 

The three cases by the window to the r. contain a series of 
smaller medals (jetons particuliers). 

The following rooms contain models of dies, a collection of 
medals of the period of the consulate and the empire, and others 
in commemoration of the German campaigns of 180f> — 1807. A 
model of the Vendome Column , which is placed here , with the 
statue of the emperor in his coronation robes , affords the visitor 
a better opportunity of examining the relief and other details 
than the original itself. Here too is a bust of Napoleon I. by 
Canova, executed in 1806 , and a cast of the emperor's face taken 
20 hours after death. 

The upper apartments contain a collection of old dies, royal 
seals and other objects of little interest. 

The Laboratoire and Ateliers, with their steam-engines, furnaces 
and machinery, are well worth visiting. The coining-machines, 
the invention of M. Thonnelier , are highly ingenious. — In the 
same establishment are performed all the operations of assaying 
and stamping the gold and silver wares of the jewellers, as well 
as the coinage of private medals and counters , an especial pri- 
vilege of the Parisian mint. 

Pont Neuf, see p. 98. 



149 



25. Institut de France. 



This singular looking edifice is situated on the Quai Gonti 
on the 1. bank of the Seine, at the S. extremity of the Pont des 
Arts and opposite to the Louvre. It has two lateral projecting 
pavilions with arcades and is surmounted hy a dome ; the approach 
is adorned with a fountain and two figures of lions. The insti- 
tution was originally founded by Cardinal Mazarin for the education 
of youths from the newly acquired provinces of Roussillon, Pig- 
nerol , Flanders and Alsace. It was erected in the latter half ot 
the. 17th cent, and occupies the site of the Tour de Nesle, the 
traditional scene of many a dark tragedy. 

Though originally called the College Mazarine, it was popularly 
known as the College des Quatre Nations. During the revolution 
it was converted into a prison, but was in 1795 ceded by the 
Convention to the Academies, or societies of savants, who had 
hitherto held their sessions in. the Louvre, and its appellation 
changed. 

The Institut de France consists of five departments: 

1. The Academie Francaise, the principal labour of which is 
the supervision of the French language and its orthography and 
the publication of the Dictionnaire de V Academie. The annual 
session takes place on the first Thursday in May, the weekly 
meetings every Thursday at 3 o'clock 

2. The Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres is devoted 
to the study of the ancient languages and to archaeological re- 
search. Annual session on the first Friday in July, weekly mee- 
tings every Friday at 3 o'clock. 

3. The Academie des Sciences (mathematics and natural science) 
holds its meetings, to which the public are admitted, every 
Monday at 3 o'clock; annual session on the last Monday in January. 

4. The Academie des Beaux Arts (painting, sculpture, archi- 
tecture , musical composition) holds its annual session on the 
first Saturday in October, its weekly meetings every Saturday 
at 3 o'clock. 

5. The Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques (philosophy, 
history, political economy) meets every Saturday at 12 o'clock; 
annual session on the first Saturday in January. 

The Institut numbers upwards of 200 members, whose com- 
plement is replenished by election when necessary. Each member 
receives an annual sum of 1500 fr. The title of "Membre de 
l'lnstitut" is the object of the highest aspirations of every lite- 
rary and scientific Frenchman. 

Strangers, and especially the learned, will therefore find a 
visit to some of these meetings of the highest interest. They 
will here in the Palais de l'lnstitut have an admirable opportu- 
nity of hearing discussions in which the most eminent French 



150 25. INSTITUT DE FRANCE. 

savants take part. The grand session of the five, departments 
combined is held on Aug. 15th (Napoleon's Day) in what was 
formerly the church, when the annual distribution of prizes takes 
place. By a decree of April, 1855, the period of the annual 
session of each academy separately is determined by the minister 
of instruction. 

Strangers obtain access to these meetings by addressing a 
written application to the secretary of the department they de- 
sire to visit f. 

Strangers are not admitted to the valuable and admirably 
arranged Library of the Institut unless accompanied by a member. 
A second library , the Bibliotheque Mazarine (in the first court, 
to the 1. of the entrance), contains 120,000 vols., 50,000 MSS. 
and many valuable antiquities and curiosities. Admission daily 
from 10 to 3 o'clock. Vacation from Sept. 15th to Nov. 1st. 

26. Ecole Imperiale des Beaux Arts. 

In the immediate vicinity of the Institut de France , on the 
W. side, is situated the E cole des Beaux Arts, entrance Rue 
Bonaparte 14, accessible daily from 10 to 4 o'clock (fee 1 fr.); in 
September on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays only. The fine 
arts taught here are divided into two sections, one for painting 
and sculpture, the other for architecture. The edifice itself, com- 
pleted in 1838, is admirably adapted to the purpose for which 
it was erected. It occupies the site of the former convent des 
Petits Augustins, in which at the period of the first revolution 
a large number of valuable monuments and relics of the middle 
ages were collected by the indefatigable and praiseworthy exertions 
of the painter M. Alex. Lenoir. 

This Musee des Monuments Fran^ais, as it was termed, was 
abolished by Louis XVIII. in 1816, and most of the monuments 
restored to the churches and cemeteries from which they had 
been removed. 

A railing separates the first court of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts from the Rue Bonaparte. Here, as well as in the other 

+ The application may be worded as follows: "Monsieur, je prends la 
liberty, en quality d^etranger, de vous prier de vouloir bien m'autoriser a 
assister a la prochaine se'ance de TAcademle des . . 

Serait-ce abuser de votre obligeance que de vous prier de vouloir 
bien adresser cette autorisation a Tadresse ci-dessous. 

Veuillez bien, Monsieur, excuser mon importunite et recevolr a Tavance 
les remerciments de 

votre tres-humble serviteur" 

Name, profession and address should be written very distinctly , and 
the letter furnished with a postage stamp of 10 c. For one of the weekly 
meetings the address is: "A Monsieur le Secretaire perpetuel de l'Aca- 
d^mie des . . . (mentioning the name of the department) au Palais de l'ln- 
stitut" ; for one of the annual sessions : "A Monsieur le Chef du Secretariat 
de Tlnstitut, au Palais de I'lnstitut". 



26. ECOLE IMPERIALE DES BEAUX ARTS. 151 

courts , all the fine architectural fragments which survived the 
dissolution of the Muse'e des Monuments Francais have been built 
into the walls. Thus a kind of "museum has been formed, in 
which a number of highly interesting relics of mediaeval archi- 
tecture are preserved. 

In the first open court to the r. the celebrated portal of the 
Chateau d'Anet, which Henry II. caused to be erected in 1548, by 
Jean Goujon and Philibert Delorme, for Diana of Poitiers, forms 
the entrance to the Chapelle Sixtine. In the interior of the chapel 
is a fine copy by Sigalon of Michel Angelo's Last Judgment, 
occupying the whole of the wall at the end. The chapel derives 
its name from this and copies of the other twelve great frescoes 
by Michael Angelo in the Sixtine Chapel at Rome. It contains 
a collection of casts of celebrated antiques, several works of 
Michael Angelo etc. In a separate chamber there is a small 
model of the colossal elephant with which Napoleon I. proposed 
to adorn the Place de la Bastille. 

In the court, adjacent to the portal, some fragments built 
into the wall once belonged to the Hotel de la Tremouille, which 
formerly stood in the Rue des Bourdonnais, interesting relics of 
a fine edifice of the 14th cent. 

The first court is divided into two portions by the Arc de 
Gaillon, or facade of a partly Gothic , partly Renaissance palace 
of that name erected in 1500 by Cardinal d'Amboise, minister 
of Louis XII. It was carefully transported hither and re-erected 
by M. Lenoir. 

The principal building, which bounds this court on the W. side, 
upwards of 80 yds. in length, contains a number of statues, copies 
from the antique , the work of young French students of art at 
Rome , whither the most meritorious of the pupils of the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts are sent at the expense of government to com- 
plete their studies. Three rooms in the upper story contain 
works of all the pupils who have since 1721 been selected to 
be sent to Rome ; in others are portraits of professors , and 
models of ancient structures in plaster of Paris or cork: the 
amphitheatres of Aries and Orange, the Colosseum, the Baths 
of Augustus, the leaning tower of Pisa etc.. 

The amphitheatrical examination-hall, the most interesting 
part of the establishment, contains a celebrated *picture by Paul 
Delaroche (d. 18, )6), painted on the hemicycle of the wall. The 
greater number of the 75 figures represent celebrated artists of 
all ages and nations, slightly in excess of life-size. On a lofty 
throne in the centre, as representatives of the three arts, the 
three great Greek masters, Phidias the sculptor, Iktinos, the 
architect of the Parthenon , and Apelles the painter. Four 
female figures in front of these represent Greek and Gothic (1.). 
Roman and Renaissance (r.) art. The Muse of Gothic art with 



152 27. PALAIS DU CORPS LEGISLATIF. 

long fair hair is a portrait of the artist's wife, a daughter of 
Horace Vernet. — A large and admirably executed engraving 
from this picture may be obtained at the masazine of Goupil 
et Conip., Boulevard Montmartre 19, the epreuves d' artiste at 600 fr., 
epreuves avec la lettre 150 fr. 

27. Palais du Corps Legislatif. 

The Place de la Concorde is connected with the 1. bank of 
the Seine by a bridge of the same name, opposite to which is 
situated the posterior facade of the Palais du Corps Legislatif, 
an edifice in the style of a Greek temple, adorned with allegorical 
statues and reliefs. In front of the principal facade in the Rue 
de l'Universite is a marble statue by Feucheres representing Law, 
erected in 1855 by a minister of the Emperor. The palace, 
formerly Palais Bourbon, was commenced by Girardini in 1722 
for the dowager Duchess of Bourbon and continued by Mansard. 
The Prince of Conde expended 20 million fr. on the edifice. 
In 1795 the Council of the Five Hundred held their sessions 
here, and subsequently the Chamber of Deputies, whose president 
resides in the palace. Access daily (gratuity of 1 fr. or more), 
except during the session. In order to obtain permission to visit 
the gallery (see below) application must be made to the president, 
either by prepaid (10 c.) letter, or by a verbal request accompanied 
by a visiting-card. 

The principal saloons in the palace (entrance from the river) 
are: the Salle de la Paix, with ceiling painted by Horace \ernet 
and several copies of antiques; Salle du Trone, now disused, 
as the Chambers are now opened at the Louvre (p. — ); in the 
Salle Casimir Perier the statues of Mirabeau and Bailly, the 
well-known mayor of Paris in 1786, by Jaley, C. Perier by Duret, 
and General Foy by Desprez; in the Salle des Conferences, decorated 
by Heim, a Mazeppa by H. Vernet. The Assembly Hall, decorated 
with allegorical statues, has retained its original form. Here, on 
Feb. 24th, 1848, the Duchess of Orleans with her two sons, the 
Count of Paris and the Duke of Chartres, appeared before the 
National Assembly in order to endeavour to secure the throne 
for them. On May 15th of the same year the National Assembly 
was expelled hence by the Socialists, and order restored by 
the National Guard. Since 1863 the number of deputies has 
been 283 (under the July kingdom 459). A limited number 
only of cards of admission to the sittings is issued; application 
should be made in writing to the president or to the ambassador 
of the traveller's nationality. 

The Galerie du Corps Legislatif (entered from the W. portal 
in the Rue de l'Universite") contains about 50 modern pictures, 
among which are several of great merit. 



27. PALAIS DU CORPS LEGISLAT1F. 153 

At the entrance marble statues: 51. Arethusa, Durand, 1865; 
52. Bathsheba, Ottin, 18(34; at the opposite extremity: 49. Mercury, 
Chapu, 1863; 50. First Attempt, Delorme, 1863. 

Pictures : r. 44. Charge of the artillery-guards at Tractir in 
the Crimea (Aug. 1 6th, 1855), Schreyer, 1865 ; r. 28. Two Italian 
Abbe's playing at chess, Leleu , 18(34 ; r. *42. Charlotte Corday 
arrested and protected after the murder of Marat (July 23rd, 1793), 
Henri Scheffer, 1831; 1. 7. Sheepfold , Brendel, 1863; 1. 5. Winter 
Scene, Bodmer, 1850; 1. 30. St. Lucia at Naples, Bodmer, 1837; 
r. 20. Portrait, Hersent, 1819; r. *46. Oxen going to work, Troyon, 
18l5; r. 12. Hide and Seek, Duverger, 1864; r. 39. Scene from the 
Night of St. Bartholomew, R. Fleury, 1833; r. 21. Joan of Arc, Ingres 
(d. 1867) ; 1. 27. Gathering carnations in Picardy, Laugee, 1860 ; 
1. 16. "Long live the 34!" Gros-Claude, 1835; 1. 9. Evening, 
Breton, 1861; 1. *24. The Promenade, Knaus, 1855; r. 19. Scene 
at a Mont de Piete", Heilbuth, 18C>1 ; r. *6. Hay Harvest, Rosa 
Bonheur, 1855; r. 20. Pine Forest near Pisa, Lanoue, 1861 ; 1. 31. 
Palace and Town of Pau, Ouvrie', 1844; 1. 22. Ebb-tide, Jsabey, 
1833; 1. 47. Sea-piece, Wyld; r. 96. Louis XIV. imparting his 
benediction to his grand-nephew, Hersent, 1824; r. 43. Cossack 
horses in the snow, Schreyer, 1864. 

In the following cabinet: Tambourine-player, A. Hesse; 36. Sea- 
piece, Place, 1849; 32. Spring, Palhzi, 1852; 10. Dante and 
Virgil on the shores of Tartarus, Curzon, 1857 ; 35. Louis XV. 
visits the battle-field of Fontenoy, Philippoteaux, 1840; 1. Fes- 
tival at Genzano near Rome, Achenbach, 1865. 

The other saloons are richly decorated, but contain nothing 
of special interest. 

Above the Pont de la Concorde, opposite the Palais de la 
Legion d'Honneur, is situated the Pont de Solferino, constructed 
in 1858 — 59, inscribed with the names of victories gained in 
the Crimea. 



28. Musee d'Artillerie. 

Church of t>t. Thomas d'Aquin. 

Since the year 1797 the Depot Central d'Artillerie has been 
established in an edifice which was formerly a convent of the 
Jacobins, adjoining the church of St. Thomas d'Aquin. The spacious 
apartments of this extensive building contain work-shops, labora- 
tories, models, maps, plans etc., as well as a highly interesting 
museum, connected with the artillery service. The last-named 
department is open (gratuitously) to the public on Thursdays 
from 12 to 4 o'clock. The custodians are usually discharged 
non-commissioned officers. 



154 28. MUSKK D'ARTILLERIE. 

The number of objects contained in the Musee d'Artillerie is 
upwards of 4000, for the thorough examination of which a cata- 
logue (1 fr.J is indispensable. 

In the passage of the basement-story, the former cloisters of 
the ancient convent, is suspended the Chdine du Danube, 590 ft. 
in length and about 8000 lbs. in weight, which was employed by 
the Turks during the siege of Vienna in 1683 for the purpose 
of facilitating the passage of the Danube. It formed part of the 
spoil brought from Vienna by the French in 1805; another similar 
chain is preserved in the imperial armoury at Vienna. Of the 
numerous old guns preserved on the ground-floor the finest are 
two from Algiers, near the staircase leading to the upper stories. 
Here , too , are exhibited 12 different species of breech-loader, 
presented by M. Krupp. 

A hall on the ground-floor contains a collection of weapons, 
gun-barrels, projectiles, models of gun-carriages etc. from the 
time of Louis XIV. down to the present day. Here, too, is pre- 
served one of the Russian torpedos which in 1854 and 185r> oc- 
casioned considerable damage to the French and English fleets 
before Cronstadt. In a glass case at the end of the hall are kept 
the arms of the emperor of China, brought from Pekin in 1860; 
adjacent to it, his saddle, Japanese and Mongolian weapons, and 
other trophies of the Chinese campaign. 

The upper floor consists of four galleries and the Salle des 
Armures. The latter contains numerous specimens of armour, 
most of them of the 15th and 16th centuries, coats of mail, 
shields , helmets and weapons. Ancient weapons of stone and 
other curious and valuable relics are preserved in glass cases. 

The First Gallery contains guns and pistols with flint-locks, 
cross-bows, inlaid carabines and other weapons of the 16th and 
17th centuries. Above the glass cabinet are placed some trophies 
from the Crimean war. 

The Second Gallery contains fire-arms , lances and halberds. 
In the glass cases ancient and modern guns and pistols of rich 
workmanship: No. 1831. Indian gun; Nos. 183^ — 1848. Guns from 
Algiers; No. Irf49. A gun inlaid with gold and precious stones, 
manufactured at Rotterdam and destined by Napoleon I. as a pre- 
sent for the Dey of Morocco. 

In the Third Gallery more modern fire-arms of various descrip- 
tions. In cases oriental weapons and poniards; in glass cabinets 
Etruscan and Roman arms. 

The Fourth Gallery contains swords, rapiers, poniards, halberds, 
falchions. 

In the court may be seen several Russian anchors and pieces 
of ordnance captured at Sebastopol. 

The contiguous church of St. Thomas d'Aquin, erected 1740, 
is the parish church of the aristocratic Faubourg St. Germain. It 



29. HOTEL DES INVALIDES. 155 

possesses little to interest the stranger, with the exception of a 
few good pictures : in the choir frescoes by Blondel , and the 
Ascension, painted on the ceiling, by Lemoine; Descent from 
the Cross by Ouillemot; St. Thomas Aquinas calming a storm, by 
Ary Schejfer; Christ on the Mount of Olives, a landscape by E. Bertin. 
Sainte Clotilde, the modern Gothic church of the Faubourg 
St. Germain, see p. 165. 

29. Hotel des Invalides. 

Napoleon's Tomb. Champ de Mars. Manufacture Imptriale des Tabacs. 

One of the most conspicuous objects in Paris is the lofty 
dome of the Eglise des Invalides , situated at the S. W. extremity 
of the city and distinctly visible from every part of it ; from a 
distance the basement appears to be formed by the extensive 
Hotel itself, which, however, is detached from the church. 

By a decree of April 15th, 1670, Louis XIV. founded this 
splendid institution , "pour assurer une existence heureuse aux mi- 
litaires qui , vieillards mutiles ou infirmes , se trouveraient sans res- 
sources apres avoir blanchi sous lea drapeaux ou verse leur sang 
pour la patrie". The structure was commenced in 1071 , under 
the superintendence of the talented architect Liberal Bruant , and 
completed in 1675. 

Soldiers disabled by wounds and those who have served for 
30 years are entitled to be received into the establishment. The 
present number of inmates considerably exceeds 2000, of whom 
about 170 are officers. In case of necessity, however, the insti- 
tution can accommodate 5000 persons. Besides board and lodging, 
each inmate receives a small monthly pension , a colonel 30 fr. , 
a major 20 fr., a captain 10 fr., lieutenants and corporals 5—3 fr. , 
privates 2 fr. A loaf of excellent white bread and a bottle of 
good wine are daily distributed to all inmates alike. On Sundays 
at 12 o'clock military mass is performed in the church, at half 
past 12 a parade with military music is held in the Cour d'Hon- 
neur (jp. 156). 

The gate of the court, which is surrounded on three sides 
by dry moats, 18 ft. in breadth, is approached by the Esplanade 
des Invalides, a double avenue, about 270 yds. long. The sentinels 
of the gate are posted in the two guard-houses at the entrance. 

A "Batterie Trophee" of eighteen guns is here placed and em- 
ployed periodically in firing salutes on grand occasions. To the 
right (facing the Seine) are two French 24-pounders, which in 
1837 were employed in the siege of Constantine ; two Austrian 
cannons, one cast in 1681 , the other in 1580, with the inscription 
in German : When my song resounds in the air, many a wall 
will fall before me" ; four Prussian guns , decorated with the images 
and, names of four Electors-; a Dutch 24-pounder, captured at 



156 28. HOTEL DES 1NVALIDES. 

the siege of Antwerp in 1832 ; four cannons and two howitzers 
from Sebastopol ; a mortar from Algiers. To the left: the first 
gun is from Wirtemberg, a master- piece of its kind, and is de- 
corated with allegorical statuettes and one of the Duke ; a Venetian 
piece, of 1708 ; the remaining pieces correspond to those on the 
r. side. 

The remaining portion of the terrace is laid out in small 
gardens, which it is the privilege of the 'Mnvalides" to cultivate; 
several of them are adorned with small statues of Napoleon I., 
whose memory is still fondly cherished by the veterans who sur- 
vive him. 

The Front of this handsome edifice , with its three pavilions, 
is upwards of 600 ft. in length. At the corners of the lateral 
pavilions are placed four groups in bronze , by Desjardins, emble- 
matic of four conquered nations (Burgundy, Germany, Spain, 
Holland), formerly appertaining to the statue of Louis XIV. in 
the Place des Victoires, but transferred to their present position 
in the year 1800. 

The building consists of three stories; the dormer-windows 
are curiously constructed of military trophies in stone , surmounted 
by helmets. On the tympan above the entrance is an equestrian 
statue of Louis XIV. , with the inscription : Ludovicus Magnus 
militibus, regali munifictntia in perpetuum providens, has cedes 
posuit 7675. 

In the large inner court with its open arcades, formerly termed 
the Cour Boyale, now Cour d'Honneur, the visitor is met by an 
invalide (1 fr. gratuity) who conducts them through the courts and 
external portions of the establishment. Different guides (50 c. 
each) are appointed to show the dining-hall , kitchen , council- 
chamber and library. The kitchen and dormitories are similar to 
those of large barracks. On public days visitors are admitted 
gratuitously to every portion of the establishment. 

The Library, founded by Napoleon, contains aboiit 30,000 vols. 
and several MSS. of Sully and Colbert, a copy of David's picture 
of Bonaparte crossing the St. Bernard , a fine portrait of Napo- 
leon III. by Logier, an equestrian statuette of Marshal Turenne 
and the Austrian cannon-ball which caused his death near Baden- 
Baden in 1675; Mso a large plan in relief of the Hotel des 
Invalides. 

The vestibule of the Council-chamber (Salle du Conseil) is 
adorned with drawings of flags and banners captured in battle 
and of the arms of French towns. The adjoining apartments 
contain portraits of the two architects of the edifice, Liberal 
Bruant and Jules Mansard, and of the following marshals : Lannes, 
Bessieres, Berthier, Brune, Augereau, Masse"na, Victor, Lefebvre, 
Kellermann, Beurnonville , Davoust. Pe'rignon , Due de Coigny, 
Serrurier, Suchet, Gouvion St. Cyr, Ney, Jourdan , Moncey, Oudi- 



28. HOTEL DES INVALIDED 157 

not, Lauriston, Duo de Belle Isle, Due de Broglie, Marquis de 
Viomenisl ; also a portrait of Napoleon I. in his coronation robes, 
one of Louis XIV., and busts of Napoleon I., Napoleon II. and 
Prince Jerome. 

The four spacious Refectories on the ground-floor are adorned 
with allegorical pictures , most of which have reference to the war 
of Louis XIV. in the Netherlands (1672). Among others are 
those representing the capture of Wesel, Emmerich and Utrecht, 
towns which were not in a position to defend themselves and 
surrendered almost without a blow. Most of these paintings are 
by Martin , a pupil of the prolific Van der Meulen. The plate 
used at the officers' table was presented by Marie Louise. 

Patients in the Infirmerie are waited upon by 25 sisters of 
charity (Sceurs de Vordre de St. Vincent de Paul). 

The Church at present consists of two separate portions , the 
Ancienne Eglise (Eglise de St. Louis, eglise des soldats) and the 
Kglise nouvelle (Dome des Invalides) , the latter constructed by 
Jules Mansard in 1706. "When united, as is intended, the former 
church will form the nave, the latter the choir. 

The old church is entered by a portal on the S. side of the 
Cour d'Honneur. It consists of a long nave and two low aisles , 
and is adorned with a number of banners, most of which were 
captured during the African war under Louis Philippe. The last 
flag to the r., with the double eagle, is from Sebastopol, the 
white one opposite once waved on the Malakoff tower. 

During the reign of Napoleon I. nearly 3000 flags adorned 
the nave. On the evening before the entry of the allied troops 
into Paris (March 30th, 1814), they were burned in the court 
to prevent their falling into the hands of the allies , by order of 
Marshal Clarke (Duo de Feltre), at that time minister of war. 
The order was thrice given before the Invalides could be induced 
to 'destroy their cherished trophies. On the same occasion the 
sword which Napoleon brought from the tomb of Frederick the 
Great at Potsdam in 1806 was destroyed. On Aug. 12th, 1851, 
on the occasion of the funeral obsequies of Marshal Sebastiani, 
several of the remaining flags were accidentally destroyed by fire. 

Several monuments and memorial tablets on the pillars are 
inscribed with the names of former governors of tho Hotel des 
Invalides : Comte de Ouibert (d. 1786), Due de Coigny (d. 1821), 
Marshal Lobau (d. 1838), Marshal Moncey (d. 1842), Marshal 
Oudinot (d. 1847) with medallion bust. Baron Espagnac (d. 1782), 
Marshal Jourdan (d. 1833). Two bronze tablets record the names 
of those marshals and officers whose remains repose in the vaults 
of the church, among others that of Marshal Mortier, who was 
killed in 1835 by the explosion of Fieschi's infernal machine in 
the Boulevard du Temple , and Marshal "Jacques Leroy de St. Ar- 
naud, chef de I'armee de I Orient, decide en mer !i bord du Ber- 



158 29. HOTEL DES INVALIDES. 

toilet" (d. 1854). On Sundays at noon mass is celebrated here, 
accompanied by the usual Roman Catholic military ceremonies. 

The Dome des Jnvalides consists of a square mass, 180 ft. in 
breadth, surmounted by a lofty dome, above which rises a gilded 
globe and cross, the summit of which is 320 ft. above the pavement. 

On either side of the high altar winding staircases descend 
to the entrance of the crypt which contains the *Tomb of Na- 
poleon I. (Admission to the Dome and the tomb on Mondays 
and Thursdays from 12 to 3; no gratuity need be given.) The 
crypt consists of a circular excavation 20 ft. in depth and 36 ft. 
in diameter; the walls are of polished slabs of granite, adorned 
by ten marble reliefs by Simart: 1. Restoration of public order; 
2. The Concordate ; 3. The reformed Administration ; 4 State-council; 
5. The Code ; 6. The University ; 7. Chamber of finance ; 8. En- 
couragement of commerce and industry; 9. Public works; 10 The 
Legion of Honour. The twelve colossal figures emblematic of 
victory were one of the last works of the celebrated Pradier 
(d. 1852); between them are six trophies consisting of 60 flags 
which had long lain concealed in the Luxembourg. On the pave- 
ment are recorded the names of the victories of Rivoli , Pyra- 
mides, Marengo , Austerlitz , Jena, Friedland , Wagram, Moskowa. 

From the centre of the wreath of laurels in mosaic with which 
the pavement is decorated rises the sarcophagus: the cover 
consists of a huge monolith of reddish brown granite, weigh- 
ing upwards of 60 tons , and exquisitely polished. This pon- 
derous block was brought from Lake Onega in Finland; the 
cost of the transport alone is said to have exceeded 140,000 fr. 
Immediately above the crypt, at a height of 150 ft , rises the lofty 
dome, consisting of two cupolas, the higher of which is adorned 
with a painting by Delufosse , representing St. Louis receiving 
from Christ the sword with which he vanquished the foes of 
Christianity. The faint, bluish light admitted from above, and 
the sombre aspect of the crypt and its adjuncts contribute es- 
sentially to the solemn grandeur of the scene. 

The entrance to the vault from the back of the high altar in 
the old church consists of a bronze gate flanked by two sarco- 
phagi , on which are inscribed the names of Duroc and Bertrand, 
the emperor's faithful friends. The former fell at the battle of 
Bautzen in 1813, the latter (d. 1844) was the emperor's constant 
companion in all his campaigns and in his captivity, and accom- 
panied his remains from St. Helena in 1840 to their final resting- 
place in the Dome des Invalides 

Above the entrance are inscribed these words from the em- 
peror's will: "Je desire, que mes cendres reposent sur les Lords 
de la Seine, au milieu de ce peuple francais que j'ai tant aime." 

To the right and left of the entrance stand two colossal carya- 
tides in bronze, designed by Buret, one of which bears a globe, 



28. HOTEL DES INVALIDES. 159 

the other a sceptre and crown. They are intended to proclaim 
"par leur aspect grandiose et imposant, la saintete du lieu oft 
Ton va descendre , et semblent destinies a la garde silencieuse 
et eternelle du tombeau qui renferme les restes preYienx du 
plus grand capitaine des temps modernes". 

The monuments of Vauban and Turenne with their recumbent 
effigies , the former erected in 1807, the latter removed hither 
from St. Denis , are situated in the transepts near the S. en- 
trance , but sink into insignificance when compared with the pro- 
foundly impressive tomb of Napoleon. 

The principal facade of the church is to the S. , towards the 
Place Vauban, where it is intended to erect statues of Napoleon I. 
and twelve of his marshals. 

In the vicinity of the S. entrance to the D6me des Invalides 
is situated the Ecole Militaire , founded in 1751 by Louis XV., 
"pour y elever 500 gentilshommes dans toutes les sciences ne"- 
cessaires et convenables a un officier". In 1792 it was fitted up 
as barracks (for 5000 men and 800 horses). From 1804 to 1830 
the Guards were stationed here , and the edifice is still employed 
as barracks and the seat of the general staff of the new Impe- 
rial Guard. 

In front of the r^cole Militaire , to the N.W. , extends the 
Champ de Mars (site of the Exhibition of 1867) , a large 
open space upwards of 1000 yds. in length and 700 yds. in 
breadth , surrounded by rows of trees , employed as an 
exercising-ground , for reviews etc. It was formerly (till 1861) 
enclosed by ditches and embankments , in the formation of 
which no fewer than 60,000 Parisians of both sexes assisted in 
the year 1790. The embankments were then furnished with 
rows of seats, thus enabling hundreds of thousands of the 
people to witness the celebrated Fete de la Federation which took 
place on July 14th of the same year. In front of the Ecole 
Militaire was erected the Autel de la Patrie , where the king , the 
national assembly, the provinces and the representatives of the 
army swore fidelity to the new constitution. Talleyrand , Bishop 
ofAutun, with 400 of the clergy, officiated in the religious portion 
of the ceremony. The rejoicings on this occasion were universal, 
as it was believed that the troubles of the revolution were now 
happily terminated. 

A similar festival, the famous Champ de Mai, was celebrated 
with the utmost pomp by Napoleon, June 1st, 1815, and was 
attended with the same formalities. Here too, August, 1830, 
Louis Philippe presented colours to the National Guard , and in 
1852 the present emperor distributed to the army the Eagles 
which were to replace the Gallic Cock. 

All the principal military reviews and parades are held in 
the Champ de Mars, when the ground is kept clear. 



160 29. HOTEL DES INVALIDES. 

These occasions afford the stranger a convenient opportunity 
of seeing some of the most illustrious personages and officers of 
the highest rank in France. The best point of observation is the 
Pont d'Je'na , on the side nearest to the left bank of the river, 
as the staff of officers usually cross this bridge , or ride past it 
after having crossed by another route. Those who desire to wit- 
ness the reviews will find ample space along the margin of the 
ground. The ordinary drill generally takes place on Fridays. 

The races of the French Jockey Club, "Courses encouragees 
par l'fitat", formerly took place here in September. They are 
now held on the new race-course of Longchamps and in the forest 
ofVincennes. Races also take place at La Marche (beyond Ville 
d'Avray, p. 169), at Versailles, and at Chantilly , Department of 
the Oise , stat. St. Leu on the Northern railway. 

On the Quai d'Orsay (Nr. 63), a short distance below the 
Pont des Invalides, two statues on which represent Navigation 
and Peace , rises the extensive Manufacture Imperiale des 
T abacs, occupying the entire block between the Rue St. Jean, 
the Rue de rUniversite" and the Boucherie des Invalides. It is 
accessible on Thursdays only, 10 — 12 and 2 — 4 o'clock; visitors 
ring at the principal entrance, where a flag usually hangs. The 
arrangements of the establishment are interesting. About 
18 — 1900 operatives are here employed, of whom 1400 are 
women; the latter, when industrious, earn 27 2 fr. per diem on 
an average. 

There are altogether 17 Imperial manufactories of tobacco in 
France, all of which are dependent on that of Paris. They yield 
an annual revenue of 180 million fr. 



30. Blind, and Deaf and Dumb Institutions. 

At the S. extremity of the Boulevard des Invalides is situated 
the institution Imperiale des jeunes Aveugles. This hand- 
some edifice, erected in 1839 — 1845, with its two projecting 
pavilions , is separated from the boulevard by a railing. The bas- 
relief which adorns the pediment above the entrance , by Jouffroy, 
represents Valentin Hai'iy (d. 1822), the founder of the institution, 
instructing his pupils under the protection of Religion. In the 
court is placed a marble statue of the founder; with a blind girl 
at his feet. Admission on application to the director, or by pass- 
port or visiting-card, on Wednesdays only, 1 1 / 2 — 5 o'clock. The 
primary object of the institution is the reception and instruction 
of blind children of both sexes, of 9 — 13 years of age. Their 
residence may, if necessary, be prolonged to their 20th year. 
The majority of the inmates are supported by government or by 
the parishes to which they belong. Private pupils of any age 
are received for an annual sum of 1000 fr. 



30. BLIND, AND DEAF AND DUMB INSTITUTIONS. 161 

The usual number of inmates is 200 — 300, of which three 
fourths are boys. The masters and female teachers are all them- 
selves blind, most of them having been educated at this establishment. 

One of the attendants (fee 1 fr.) conducts visitors through the 
different portions of the institution, the dining-rooms, work-rooms, 
dormitories, printing-office, garden, gymnastic and play-ground. 

The Printing-office is one of the most remarkable departments. 
Books for the blind only are here printed in raised characters. 
The alphabet consists of six points, different positions and com- 
binations of which form the different letters. The same system 
is employed in writing, the pupil impressing the points on paper 
with a pointed instrument. 

The principal manual occupations of the inmates are carpen- 
tering , turning , brush-making , straw-plaiting , netting and weaving. 
Specimens of their workmanship may be purchased in a room 
set apart for the purpose. 

The most important branch of instruction is music , for which 
the blind usually evince a remarkable aptitude , and which of all 
pursuits is the best calculated to enable them to gain their own 
livelihood. Several public, concerts are given annually in the 
chapel , the directors of which are blind as well as the orchestra. 
The frescoes in the chapel , by H. Lehmann , represent Christ 
speaking words of consolation to the blind. 

On the last Saturday of every month an examination of the 
pupils takes place. Visitors may obtain access by applying to 
"Monsieur Boue de Verdier, Directeur de l'lnstitution Impe'riale 
des jeunes aveugles, Boulevard des Invalides 56'' (comp. formula 
given at p. 150). 

The Deaf and Dumb Institution (Institution imperiale des 
sourds-muets) , Rue St. Jacques 2'24, in the vicinity of the Jardin 
du Luxembourg, is a similar establishment to the above-mentioned , 
but less extensive and far inferior in its internal arrangements. The 
Classe d' articulation, which usually begins at half past 4 o'clock, 
well merits a visit. Here different trades are likewise taught , 
such as turning, shoemaking, lithographing etc. The number of 
pupils is about 200 , 75 of whom are girls. The Salle des Exercices 
is adorned with busts of the Abbe de I'Epee, the founder of the 
establishment (p. 108), and his successor the Abbe Sicard. It also 
contains an interesting picture representing the Abbe" de l'Epe"e 
embracing the young Comte de Toulouse, one of his deaf and 
dumb pupils , who had been abandoned by his relations. 

The altar-pieee in the chapel, by Vernet, represents Christ 
healing a deaf man; to the 1. is a painting of the deathbed of 
the Abbe - de l'Ep^e , by Peyson , a deaf and dumb artist. 

Both of these establishments are closed during the vacation 
(August and September). 

Baedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 11 



162 

31. Churches on the Left Bank of the Seine. 

HI. Sulpice, St. Etienne du Mont, Si. Germain des PrU , Ste. Clotilde. 

Of the churches mentioned at p. 103 the four following are 
situated in the S. quarter of the city, on the 1. bank of the 
Seine. In these also the three styles of architecture observable 
in all the Parisian churches will be remarked: St. Sulpice, 
modern style; St. Etienne du Mont, late Gothic and Renaissance; 
St. Oermain den Pres , early Gothic ; Ste. Clotilde , the first attempt 
at modern Gothic in Paris. 

*St. Sulpice, a short distance to the N.W. of the Palais du 
Luxembourg, is the most important and the richest of these 
churches. Its proportions are strikingly grand. It was commenced 
in 1646, but not completed until a century later. The form of 
the church is a cross, 432 ft. in length, 174 ft. in breadth, 100 ft. 
in height ; the interior consists of a nave and two aisles which 
surround the choir also. The facade is open to criticism and the 
towers are not symmetrical. 

On the W. side the church is approached by a flight of steps, 
intersected by the projecting bases of the Doric pillars of the 
portico At the entrance are placed as receptacles for holy water 
two remarkably large shells (triduchna gigas) , which rest on rock- 
work of marble, designed by Pigalle. 

The principal objects of interest are the frescoes in the chapels. 
R. *lst Chapel on the S. side : 1. Jacob wrestling with the Angel; 
2. Balthazar ejected from the Temple; on the cupola, St. Michael 
conquering Satan ; all by Eug. Delacroix. 

*2nd Chapel : 1. Religion solacing a dying man ; 2. Efficacy of 
prayer for the dead ; by Heim. 

3rd Chapel ; 1. St Roch praying for the cessation of the 
plague; 2. Death of the saint in the prison of Montpellier ; on 
the ceiling his Apotheosis; executed by Abel de Pujol in 1821. 

4th Chape] : Scenes from the life of St. Maurice , painted by 
Vinchon in 1822. 

5th Chapel : Marble monument of the pastor Lenglet (d. 1 750), 
by Michael Sloodtt 

1st lateral Chapel on the N. side : 1. St. Francois Xavier 
resuscitating a corpse; 2. Miraculous cure of sick persons past 
whom the saint's remains are carried; by Lason. 

2nd Chapel: 1. St. Francois de Sales preaching in Savoy, 
2. Ste. Chantal receiving from the saint statutes of a new 
order of nuns ; painted by Hesse in 1860. 

3rd Chapel : St. Paul's Conversion and his announcement of 
the resurrection before the Areopagus at Athens , painted by 
Drolling in 1850. 



31. ST. ETIENNE DU MONT. 163 

4th Chapel : St. Vincent de Paul recommending foundlings to 
the care of sisters of charity ; the saint at the deathbed of 
Louis XIII. , executed by Quillemot in 1825. 

1st Chapel on the N. side of the choir : Triumph and Martyr- 
dom of St. John , two frescoes painted by Glaize in 1859. 

1st Chapel on the S. side of the choir : St. Denis preaching 
to the heathen Romans and his Condemnation to death, both by 
Jobbe-Duval in 1859. 

The pulpit, which is supported by the staircase alone, is ad- 
orned with figures of Faith, Hope and Charity. The organ is 
richly carved and is externally the finest in Paris. 

The Baptistery in the N. aisle contains a fine stained glass 
window representing the Marriage of the Virgin. 

The statues of St. Paul and St. John by the sacristy are by 
Pradier , those ef the twelve apostles on the piers of the choir 
transepts by Bouchardon. 

The handsome square in front of the church is adorned by 
the Fontaine St. Sulpice, designed by Visconti and erected in 
1847. It consists of three concentric basins, one above the other, 
over the highest of which in niches are placed statues of the 
four most celebrated preachers in France: Bossuet fd. 1704), 
Fe'ne'lon (d. 1715), Massillon (d. 1742) and Fle'chier (d. 1710). 

The Place St. Sulpice is one of the most animated omnibus 
stations. A flower-market is held here on Mondays and Thursdays. 

The long edifice on the S. side of the Place is the Seminaire 
de St. Sulpice , for the education of priests. — In the vicinity 
is the Marche St. Qermain, see p. 18. 

*St. Etienne du Mont, at no great distance from the Pan- 
theon, is internally an extremely interesting edifice, but exter- 
nally presents a singular mixture of different architectural styles ; 
the W. facade is partly Gothic, partly Italian. The church is be- 
lieved to have been founded about the beginning of the 12th cent. ; 
in the 13th cent, the square tower with the circular turret at 
the side was probably erected ; in 1537 the greater portion of 
the edifice was rebuilt, and in 1610 the W. portal was erected 
by Margaret Valois, first consort of Henry IV. 

The interior consists of a nave and two aisles , the latter un- 
usually lofty; the columns are connected halfway up by arches 
which support a narrow gallery. The rich and elaborate deco- 
rations belong to the latest Gothic style, shortly before the transi- 
tion to the Renaissance. The lofty vaulting is supported by 
graceful round columns from which spring the ribs terminating 
in imposts. The choir is separated from the nave by a *Lectorium 
(screen) of the most exquisite workmanship ; round the pillars 
wind two light and graceful spiral staircases , which ascend to 
the galleries. 

11* 



164 31. ST. GERMAIN DES PRES. 

The S. aisle, contiguous to the choir, contains the Tomb of 
Ste. Genevieve (d. about 500) , the patron saint of Paris. The 
sarcophagus is said to be the original depository of the remains 
of the saint, but is evidently a work of the 13th cent. The 
chapel containing it is gorgeously painted and gilded in the By- 
zantine style. 

A chapel on the same side, the 5th from the entrance, con- 
tains a life-size Entombment of Christ, in stone. 

The Pulpit, designed by Lahire, is borne by a Samson and 
adorned with elegant statuettes. 

Most of the paintings are of the 18th cent. : the S. chapels, 
however, contain some fine modern works by Orenier, Abel de 
Pujol, Aliyny and Carninade. The stained glass dates from 1568. 

The aisles contain two fine pictures presented by the city of 
Paris : S. , the Genius of France with the Parliament interceding 
with' Ste. Genevieve for the cessation of a famine : N., the Prevot 
des Marchands and civic dignitaries ; both executed at the end 
of the 17th cent, by Largillilre, the greatest portrait-painter of 
his time. 

On marble tablets are inscribed the names of several illus- 
trious personages interred in this church, among others Pascal 
(d. WW) and Racine (d. 1699). On January 3rd, 1857, Arch- 
bishop Sibour was here assassinated by an ex-priest. 

St. Germain des Pres , Rue Bonaparte , situated a short dis- 
tance to the S. of the Ecole des Beaux Arts , is the most ancient 
church in Paris, and to antiquarians an object of great interest. 
The original edifice was dedicated in 557 and appertained to a 
monastery, the most ancient in Paris, founded through the advice 
of St. Germain , Bishop of Paris , by Childebert I. about the year 
551. The monastery and church were almost entirely destroyed 
by the Normans in the 9th cent. ; at the close of the 10th cent, 
the construction of the present edifice was commenced , and in 
1163 completed. The basement portion is Romanesque, the upper 
part, Gothic. .A view of the W. portal only can be obtained, the 
three other sides being enclosed by narrow streets. 

In 1789, on the outbreak of the revolution, the church was 
secularized and converted into a saltpetre manufactory; in 1794 
it was seriously damaged by an explosion; under Charles X. it 
was once more used as a place of worship , and in 1836 the 
restoration was completed. The gorgeous style in which the 
interior has recently (1852 — 1856) been painted and gilded is 
an imitation of the ancient decorations of the abbey-church. 

The large frescoes on a gold ground in the choir are by 
Tlandrin , on the N. side Christ entering Jerusalem , on the S. side 
Christ bearing the Cross ; over the arches the twelve apostles and 
the emblems of the evangelists , the Angel , Lion , Ox and Eagle. 



31. STE. CLOTILDE. 165 

The windows of the choir are filled with modem stained glass, 
representing Christ , the Virgin and the apostles. 

The frieze of the nave is also decorated with a series of fine 
frescoes by Flundrin , representing biblical subjects , so arranged 
that there are two compartments over each arch , one containing 
a subject from the Old , the other from the New Testament. 

The S. transept contains a handsome marble monument of the 
Castellan family, dating from the latter half of the 17th cent. 
The chapel in the choir , contiguous to the sacristy, is the burial- 
place of James, Duke of Douglas (d. 1645). The following 
chapel contains memorial tablets of black marble which record 
the names of several illustrious men of letters interred here : 
Mubillon (d. 1707) , Descartes (d. 1650J and Montfaucon (d. 1641). 

The Chapel of Our Lady behind the high altar is a modern 
structure , adorned with the Adoration of the Magi and the Pre- 
sentation in the Temple, by Abel de Pujol. The Chapel of St. Paul 
contains a tablet in memory of the poet Boileau, whose heart was 
transferred hither from the Sainte Chapelle in 1819. The ad- 
joining chapel contains another monument of the Douglas family. 

The N. aisle contains the tomb of Casimir V. (d. 1672), king 
of Poland, who, at first a Jesuit and cardinal, succeeded his 
brother in 1648 on the Polish throne. In 1608 he abdicated, 
and resuming his ecclesiastical garb became Abbot of St. Germain 
des Pre"s. 

: Ste. Clo tilde, Place Bellechasse , Faubourg St. Germain, near 
the Palais du Corps Legislatif, is one of the newest churches in 
Paris, having been commenced in 1846 at the instance of Queen 
Amelie. It is a chapel of ease to the church of St. Thomas 
d'Aquin, the insignificant parish church of this wealthy and 
aristocratic quarter of the city, and was completed in 1857 at 
a cost of 8 million fr. 

Ste. Clotilde, the first new church (300 ft. long, 100 ft. 
broad, 80 ft. high) in Paris of the Gothic style, is well situated 
in an open space. Two towers rise above the N. portal, which 
contains three entrances. The interior is remarkable for its dig- 
nified simplicity, being decorated with marble-reliefs only. The 
magnificent stained-glass windows, especially those of the choir, 
effectually soften and subdue the light. The frescoes of the 
five chapels of the choir are by Pico*, those of the two chapels 
in the transepts by Lehmann, those in the Baptistery and 
Burial Chapel by Delaborde. The sculptures are by Pradier, 
Duret, Guillaume, Triqueti, Paul Gayrand, Lequisne etc., the 
stained glass by Marichal, Hesse, Lamotte and Chancel. The 
stalls in the choir are masterpieces of carving. 



166 

32. Cemetery of Montparnasse. 

This cemetery , the third of the great Parisian burial-grounds, 
is intended for all the interments which take place in the S. 
portion of the city, on the 1. bank of the Seine. It was first 
laid out in 1824, when it consisted of a space of about 30 acres; 
its present extent is nearly five times greater. Compared with 
the cemetery of Pere Lachaise, and even that of Montmartre, it 
presents few features of interest ; the stranger may, however, con- 
veniently visit it either before or after an excursion to Versailles, 
the railway-station for which (rive gauche) is in the vicinity. 

Near the entrance , to the r. , is the burying-ground of the 
sisters of charity, where one of the most conspicuous crosses in- 
dicates the grave of Sceur Rosalie Rendu, who was presented 
with the cross of the Legion of Honour in recognition of her un- 
wearied and disinterested labours in the Crimea. That her name 
is still regarded with reverence is indicated by the fresh flowers 
and wreaths placed on her grave at intervals by soldiers of the 
French army. A short distance farther, to the 1. as the principal 
avenue is entered, is the monument of a Mile. Leontine Spiegel, 
remarkable for the beauty of the statue in white marble which 
adorns it. 

A cross to the 1. in the principal walk, leading from N. to S., 
indicates the grave of Henri Oregoire (d. 1832), "ancien eveque de 
Blois", one of the first of the clergy who swore fidelity to the 
new constitution in 1790 ; and in 1795 a member of the council 
of the Five Hundred. In 1815 he was deprived of his bishopric 
by Louis XVIII. and excluded from the Institut of which he was 
a member. On his death the archbishop of Paris refused his re- 
mains Christian burial. 

In the preceding adjacent walk the visitor will perceive the 
names of several men of letters: Mongez, Thurot, Duval etc. 
Beyond these : Ottavi, "orateur, parent de Napoleon". 

In the rotunda, to the 1. : Mazois (d. 1826), an eminent archi- 
tect; Orfila, the physician; Boyer, the celebrated surgeon, with 
a bust. — Farther on , to the 1. : Champagny , due de Cadore, 
minister of the exterior from 1807 to 1811. 

To the r. in the principal walk: Duval (d. 1842), the dramatist. 

In the W. avenue, to the r. when entered from the rotunda: 
Admiral Count Dumont d'Urville, who with his wife and only 
son lost his life by a railway accident in 1842 (comp. p. 109), 
with gaudy representations of his principal voyages. 

In the E. avenue: General Henri de Mylius (d. 1866), who 
entered the army in 1800 and was thrice wounded in the cam- 
paigns of Napoleon, a large monument with a bust in bronze. 
Then: Boulay, de la Meurltie (d. 1840), member of the Five 



33. THE CATACOMBS. 167 

Hundred and president of the legislative commission under Na- 
poleon I. 

In the vicinity (opposite) the singular monument of Aug. 
Domes, " representant du peuple, mort pour la Republique" . 

In the N. E. avenue: Jacques Lisfranc (d. 1847), an eminent 
military surgeon and professor ; one of the reliefs on the sides 
represents a scene from the battle of Leipsic, the other a lecture 
attended by numerous pupils. 

33. The Catacombs. 

The Catacombs were formerly quarries known and employed 
as far back as the Roman period , yielding a soft kind of lime- 
stone which hardens on exposure to the air. Many of the streets 
in the S. part of Paris, being undermined by these quarries, be- 
gan to give indications of sinking, in consequence of which in 
1784 steps were taken by government to avert the danger by con- 
structing piers and buttresses where the upper surface was in- 
sufficiently supported. About the same time the Council of 
State issued a decree for the removal of the bodies from the 
Cemetery of the Innocents and others to these subterranean quar- 
ries. The catacombs were accordingly consecrated in 178(i and 
the work of conveying the bones to their new receptacle per- 
formed by night. During the revolution and the Reign of Terror 
immense numbers of bodies were thrown into these cavities , and 
the bones brought from other quarters were heaped together in 
confused masses. In 1810, however, a regular system was com- 
menced for the more seemly disposition of these remains and the 
proper organisation of their final resting-place. New pillars have 
since then been erected to support the roof, excavations made to 
admit more air, and channels dug to convey away the under- 
ground springs. The galleries and different compartments are 
completely lined with human bones , arranged with great care and 
intermingled with rows of skulls. Several chapels have also been 
constructed entirely of the same ghastly materials and furnished 
with various inscriptions. There are altogether upwards of sixty 
different entrances to the catacombs, the principal staircases being 
at the former Barriero de l'Enfer, in the Rue de la Tombe Isoire 
and in the plain of Montsouris. These gloomy caverns once con- 
stitued one of the usual sights of Paris ; the public are now 
excluded , and it is a matter of great difficulty to obtain per- 
mission to visit them. The official to whom application must be 
made is the Ingenieur en Chef des mines et inspecteur general des 
rarrieres de Paris, who resides at the Hotel de Ville. 



ENVIRONS OF PARIS. 



34. Versailles. 

Three different routes lead from Paris to Versailles, situated about 
10 M. to the S. W. of the city : the two railways on the r. and 1. banks 
of the river, and the high road which lies between them. As the stranger 
will probably desire to visit the extensive historical museum (closed on 
Mondays) more than once, he may on each occasion agreeably vary his 
route. Admission to the museum, see p. 171; fountains, see p. 184. 

Railway on the right bank of the Seine (rive droite); first class 
(diligence) I fr. 50 c. , second class (wagon) 1 fr. 25 c. , on Sundays and 
holidays 2 fr. and 1 fr. 50 c. Trains start from Paris every hour from 
7. 30 a. m. till 8. 30 p. m. , and from Versailles every hour from 7 a. m. 
till 10 p m. ; time of journey 44 min. Omnibus see p. 24. Station in the 
Rue St. Lazare 124 (Plan, red C). 

Passing through two tunnels, the first under the Place de 
l'Europe , the second penetrating the ramparts , the train skirts 
the Docks Napoleon, and leaves the city behind. Between Clichy 
and Asnieres , where the "Casino d'Asnieres" and a much fre- 
quented swimming-bath are situated , the Seine is crossed. The 
lines to Argenteuil, St. Germain and Rouen here diverge to the 
r. (pp. 187, 221). 

The Versailles line describes a wide curve. The long edifice 
to the 1. of the station of Courbevoie is a barrack erected by 
Louis XV. lor his Swiss Guard; under Napoleon I. it was oc- 
cupied by the Imperial Guards and is now tenanted by troops 
of the same corps. The next station is Puteaux. The line tra- 
verses elevated ground and affords an extensive prospect of Paris, 
the Bois de Boulogne and the valley of the Seine. 

Mont Valerien, the base of which is skirted by the rail- 
way near the station of Suresnes, rises to a height of BOO ft. 
above the Seine and commands a magnificent view. It cannot, 
however, be visited without the permission of the commandant 
which is not always granted. The summit was formerly occupied 
by Le Calvaire , a monastery erected in the reign of Louis XIII. 
and a popular resort of the pious. Napoleon 1. caused the buil- 
ding to be demolished and an establishment for the education 
of daughters of members of the Legion of Honour to be erected 
on the site. Under the Restoration the hill again came into the 
possession of an ecclesiastical body, the Plres de la foi , and was 
once more frequented by pilgrims. These ecclesiastics were dis- 
persed by the revolution of July, and ten years later the forti- 
fication was commenced. 



34. VERSAILLES. 169 

The train next stops at the station of St. Cloud (p. 185), then 
passes through a short tunnel and skirts the deer-park of the 
imperial chateau. Some distance farther, a second tunnel. 

To the r. of the line is situated Ville d'Avray , a pleasant and 
picturesque summer resort of the Parisians , and at the same time 
the station for Sevres (jp: 187). Chaville is next passed and the 
train reaches the viaduct which crosses the high road and unites 
the lines of the right and left banks. 

The station of this line (rive droite) at Versailles is nearly 
1 M. distant from the palace. On the way thither after leaving 
the station, the visitor will perceive an open space in which, to 
the r. , is situated Lemaire's Statue of General Hoche, "tie u Ver- 
sailles le 24 Juin 1768, soldat a 16 ans, general en chef a 25, 
mort a 29, pacificateur de la Vendee". Another monument to the 
memory of this illustrious soldier has been erected near Neuwied 
on the Rhine , where shortly before his sudden death at Wetzlar 
he had crossed the river and repulsed the Austrian forces. 

Railway on the left bank of the Seine (rive gauche); fares the same 
-as by the rive droite; the journey occupies 35 min. Trains start from 
Paris every hour from 8 a. m. till 10 p. m., from Versailles every hour 
from 8. 30 a. m. till 8. 30 p. m., also at 10 p. m. Station, Boulevard 
Montparnasse 44 (PI., blue 6), 35 min. drive from the Bourse. Omnibus, 
see p. 25. The finest views are to the right. 

On the way to the station , in the Rue de Sevres , adjoining 
the Hopital des incurables (femmes) , the stranger will observe a 
fountain ornamented with a fine figure of an Egyptian woman 
pouring water out of two vessels. Farther on , in the Rue de 
Rennes to the 1. , is situated a small , new church , tastefully con- 
structed of wood. The Cemetery of Montparnasse is also in the 
vicinity of this station. 

The line skirts the village of Jssy , where on July 3rd, 1815, 
the last struggle for the possession of Paris took place between 
Bliicher and Davoust. On the same day the capitulation of Paris 
was signed. On the field of battle rises the Fort d'Issy, forming 
a portion of the fortifications of Paris. Clamart is the station 
for Vanvres, Issy and Chdtillon. Near the station, a German 
Hydropathic establishment. The line skirts the slopes of the hills, 
affording a fine view of Paris and the valley of the Seine. 

Meudon possesses an imperial chateau, where during the Rus- 
sian campaign in 1812 the empress Marie Louise resided with the 
king of Rome. It is now a summer residence of Prince Napoleon. 

Bellevue is the station for the palace of St. Cloud (p. 185), 
about 1 V2 M. distant. Near the station is situated a small Gothic 
chapel, dedicated to Notre Dame des Flammes. It commemorates 
a frightful railway catastrophe, May 8th, 1842. The train caught 
fire, and upwards of 200 persons perished, amongst them Admiral 
d'Urville (p. 166). 



170 34. VERSAILLES. 

The next stations are Sevres (p. 1ST), Chaville , Viroflay, and 
then Versailles. The station of this line (rive gauche) is about 
1 /j M. distant from the palace. 

High Road. Omnibus (Chemin ie fer amiricain) , Rue du Louvre 2, 
opposite the great colonnade, from Paris to Versailles by Sevres every 
hour from 8 a. m. till dusk; fares 1 fr. or (Imperiale) 80 c; on Sundays 
and festivals 1 fr. 10 c. or 90 c; time of journey 1 hr. 

The route by Sevres is extremely animated. For a long 
distance it skirts the Seine , passes the bridges at the W. extre- 
mity of the city, the Barritre de Passy and almost unbroken rows 
of houses, and traverses the suburbs of Passy and Auteuil, much 
frequented by the Parisians in summer and once a favourite resort 
of Iloileau , Lafontaine, Racine, Moliere etc. Here the external 
fortifications of Paris are intersected (the road to St. Cloud di- 
verges to the r.J , the Seine crossed and Sevres reached. The 
drive from Sevres to Versailles occupies 20 min. more ; the road 
passes under the railway viaduct and soon reaches the Avenue 
de Paris. 

The town of Versailles is indebted to Louis XIV. for its 
foundation. That monarch, like his predecessors, had during the 
first years of his reign made St. Germain his summer residence , 
but , as is alleged , conceived a dislike to it from the fact of 
the tower of St. Denis, the royal burying-place , being visible 
from the palace. The palace and park of Versailles, termed by 
Voltaire "iabime des depenses" are said to have cost the enormous 
sum of 400 million francs (16 million pounds) ; vast sums were 
also expended on it by subsequent monarchs. 

Near the statue of Hoche (p. 169) is the Church of Notre 
Dame, erected in 1684; the second chapel to the 1. contains the 
remains of M. de Vergennes (d. 1787), minister of Louis XVI. 

In the Quartier St. Louis, the S. portion of the town, at no 
great distance from the palace , is situated the Jeu de Paume or 
tennis-court, memorable in history as the spot where the National 
Assembly held the decisive session of June 23rd 1789, in which 
the Marquis de Dreux-Bre'ze' appeared as the king's deputy and 
pronounced the assembly dissolved , but received the audacious 
reply from Mirabeau : "Allez dire a votre maUre que nous sommes 
iei par la volonte du peuple , et que nous n'en sortirons que par 
la force des bayonnettes" . The tennis-court is now disused. 

Versailles (*H6tel des Reservoirs, in the Rue des Reservoirs; 
'"Hotel de France, Place des Ames 5; Cafe de la Comedie, in the 
p:irk, near the Bassin du Dragon; at the station (rive gauche) 'Restau- 
rant du Coin), notwithstanding its population of ,'10,000 inhabi- 
tants, its extensive palace, erected in 1660 — 1710 by Mansard, 
its gardens, villas etc., has little to attract the stranger beyond 
the incomparable **Musee Historique, founded by Louis Philippe, 
and occupying an almost interminable suite of apartments in the 
palace. In 18'1? these rooms were entirely refitted and adorned 



34. VERSAILLES. 171 

with historical pictures brought from the Louvre and other palaces, 
the deficiencies being supplied by works of the most eminent 
living artists. The first establishment of the museum is said to 
have cost upwards of 600,000 L., the funds being derived from 
the civil list. Subsequent governments have retained the original 
disposition of the museum , and have greatly enriched and ex- 
tended it. 

The gallery of Versailles may be regarded as a collection of 
modern pictures and sculptures. The historical object, however, 
was always predominant , to serve which , numerous works were 
received often without regard to their merits as works of art. 
The critical eye, therefore, will not fail to detect very inferior 
productions intermingled with the efforts of transcendant genius. 

The Historical Museum is open daily, Mondays excepted, from 
May 1st to Sept. 30th 11 — O o'clock, during the rest of the year 
11 — 4 only. The mass of pictures and sculptures is so over- 
whelming that the stranger will find one visit totally inadequate 
for the examination even of the most celebrated works. A walk 
through the entire suite of apartments without a single halt alone 
occupies 1 '/g nr - 

Strangers are particularly cautioned against purchasing cata- 
logues from persons who hawk spurious and unauthorized editions 
in the vicinity of the chateau. The best selection of works of 
this description is to be found in the entrance-hall of the palace 
itself, where the purchaser should be careful to make choice of 
one which embraces the entire collection. As, however , the pic- 
tures are all furnished with the name of the artist and of the 
subject, a catalogue may be dispensed with in a cursory visit. 

The Palace Court is entered by a handsome gateway, the 
pillars of which are adorned by groups emblematical of the victo- 
ries of Louis XIV. over Austria to the r. (eagle) and Spain to 
the 1. (lion). In the court are placed two rows of colossal Statues, 
some of which stood on the Pont de la Concorde in Paris until 
the year lf-37. To the right: Bayard (d. 1524): Colbert 
(d. 1683), the able minister of Louis XIV.; Cardinal Richelieu 
(d. 1642), regent of France under Louis XIII. ; Marshal Jourdan 
(d. 1833), Marshal Masse"na (d. 1817) ; Admiral Tourville (d. 1701); 
Admiral Dugay-Trouin (d. 1736) ; Marshal Turenne (d. 1675) 
To the left: Bertrand Duguesclin (d. 1380), Constable of France 
(p. 192); Sully (d. 1641), the celebrated minister of Henri IV. ; 
Suger (d. 1152), Abbot of St. Denis and regent under Louis VII. ; 
Marshal Lannes (d. 1809): Marshal Mortier (d. 1835); Admiral 
Suffren (d. 1789); Admiral Duquesne (d. 1687); the Great Conde' 
(d. 1686), general of Louis XIV. 

The friezes of the pediments of the two projecting lateral 
pavilions bear the inscription : "A toutes les gloires de la France." 



172 34. VERSAILLES. 

In the centre stands a colossal Equestrian Statue of Louis SIV. 
in bronze, the horse by Cartellier, the figure by Petitot. 

The palace is usually entered from the Cour de la Chapelle, 
to the right. Sticks and umbrellas must be given into the custody 
of an attendant at a charge of 10 c. each; overcoat 20 c. The 
following description is in accordance with the prescribed order 
in which the various apartments are visited. To facilitate the 
progress of visitors through the apartments, attendants are posted at 
intervals to indicate the route. 

The objects of the greatest interest , whether historical or artistic, 
are enumerated in the following pages. Strangers who are unable 
to pay more than one visit to Versailles are recommended to 
direct their attention almost exclusively to those works which 
are denoted by asterisks. Those whose time is less limited should 
devote their first visit to a walk through all the apartments, in 
order to gain a general idea of the whole , and subsequent visits 
to the examination of the objects in which they may feel interested. 
From the Vestibule de la Chapelle the visitor first enters the 
five *Salles des Croisades, adorned with fine carving and the 
armorial bearings of French crusaders, and containing a number 
of magnificent modern pictures. 

:: ist Room. Signol, the Christians crossing the Bosphorus under 
Godfrey de Bouillon in 1097. — Opposite, Signol, Taking of Je- 
rusalem (1099), the Christians return thanks for the victory. — 
3f>3. ti. Fleury, Baldwin enters Edessa. — 350. Hesse, Adoption 
of Godfrey de Bouillon by the Greek emperor Alexander Comne- 
nus (1097). — *356. Gallait, Taking of Antioch (1098). 

*2nd Room. *365. Schnetz, Battle of Ascalon (1099). 374. 
Signol , St. Bernard preaching the second Crusade at Vezelay in 
Burgundy (1146). 

*'3rd Room. Among the armorial bearings on the central pil- 
lars are those of Frederick Barbarossa, the Emperor Conrad III. 
and Richard, Cceur de Lion ; near them a mortar from the island 
of Rhodes; opposite, the gates of the Hospital of the knights of 
St John, from Rhodes, presented by the Sultan Mahmoud to 
Prince. Joinville in 1836. — Casts of the monuments of three 
grand masters of the Maltese order. *453. Eug. Delacroix, Ta- 
king of Constantinople (1204). — *451. Blondel, Surrender of 
Ptolemais to Philip Augustus and Richard, Coeur de Lion. — 465. 
Lariviere, Raising of the siege of Rhodes (1480). — 472. La- 
rivitre, Raising of the siege of Malta (1565). — Horace Vemet, 
Battle of Toulouse (1212). — "428. Schnetz, Procession of Cru- 
saders round Jerusalem. 

*4th Room. Rouget, Louis IX. receiving the emissaries of the 
Old Man of the Mountain (1251). — 403. Jacquand, Taking of 
Jerusalem by Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Templars 
(1299). — 408. Lepoittevin, Naval Battle of Embro (1346). 



34. VERSAILLES. 



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174 34. VERSAILLES. 

*5th Room. 380. Lariviere, Battle of Ascalon (1099). — *387. 
Hesse, Taking of Beyrout (1197). — 392. Gallait, Coronation of 
Count Baldwin of Flanders as Greek emperor (1204). 

The next rooms contain busts and statues, after examining 
which visitors are invited to inspect the Theatre , where the ill- 
judged fete to the Garde du Corps was given by the court in 
Oct., 1789. Beyond the interest of this historical association, it 
contains nothing worthy of note. 

A suite of eleven rooms is now entered, containing historical 
pictures from the time of Clovis to Louis XVI. 

1st and 2nd Rooms: Large pictures from the campaign in the 
Netherlands, of no great artistic value. 1st Room: 22f). Hersent, 
Louis XVI. and his family dispensing alms (1788). 

3rd Room: 180. Philippsburg; 187. Freiburg. 

4th Room: Similar pictures from the campaigns of 1672 to 
1677; 148. Sinzheim; 144. Emmerich; 143. Wesel ; 142. Biide- 
rich; 158. Philippsburg; 159. Mannheim; *154. Gallait, Battle of 
Cassel in Flanders. 

5th Room: Campaigns of 1644, 1645; 108. Bingen; 107. Ma- 
yence ; 109. Creuznach ; 106. Oppenheim; 104. Speyer; 105. 
Worms; 116 and 114. "Passage du Rhin" (1672), mentioned at 
p. 38. 

6th Room : Small pictures of battles in Turenne's campaigns 
on the Rhine (1644); 89. Durlach; 92. Philippsburg; 86. Frei- 
burg; 90. Baden. 

7th Room : Large pictures of no great value. 

8th Room: 59. Schnetz, Battle of Ce'risolles (1544). — 52. 
Ary Schejfer, Gaston de Foix's Death at the battle of Ravenna 
(1512). 

9th Room: 49. Lariviere, Taking of Brescia (1512). — 48. 
Jollivet, Battle of Agnadello in the Venetian Dominions (1509). 

10th Room: 34. Johannot, Battle of St. Jacob on the Birs, 
near Bale (1444). — 32. Vinchon, Coronation of Charles VII. at 
Rheims (1429). — 28. Johannot, Battle of Rosbeck in Flanders 
against Philip of Artevelde (1382). 

11th Room: 20. Rouget, St. Louis (d. 1270) acting as mediator 
between the king of England and his barons. — 8. H. Vernet, 
Charlemagne wrests the passes of Mt. Cenis from the Lombards, 
a large picture, occupying the principal wall. — 10. Ary Scheffer, 
Charlemagne dictating his code of laws (799). 

In the hall, at the egress of these saloons, busts and statues: 
cast of the monument of Ferdinand the Catholic and Isabella of 
Castille in the Escurial near Madrid. A spiral staircase is now 
ascended; at the entrance of the next saloon statues by Pradier 
of General Damremont, who fell in 1837 at the siege of Con- 
stantine, and the Due de Montpensier (d. 1807), brother of Louis 
Philippe. 



34. VERSAILLES. 175 

The suite of apartments which is now entered contains some 
of the finest pictures in the collection, among which is the 
Algerian series by Horace Vernet. 

1st Room. Occupying the principal wall : Chr. Miiller, Opening 
of the Chambers on March 29th 1852. — 2000. Vernet, Marshal 
Bosquet. Portraits of the marshals Regnauld de St. Jean d'Angely 
and Baraguay d'Hilliers and of Admiral Breat. — 1057. Rivoulon, 
Battle of the Alma. — Several pictures (Balaclava , Magenta, 
Solferino) by Jumel, a French staff -officer, are interesting on 
account of the accurate delineation of the ground and the po- 
sitions of the troops. 

2nd Room : Yvon, Retreat from Russia (1812}; 1994. Dubuffe, 
Congress of Paris (1856); 1964. Vernet, Storming of the "Mamelon 
Vert" at Sebastopol. 

**3rd Room: Horace Vernet, Taking of the Smalah of Abdel- 
Kader (May 16th, 1843), a magnificent picture 40 ft. in length 
and 16 ft. in height, containing numerous portraits as will be 
seen by the sketch beneath it. The "Smalah" of Abdel-Kader , 
consisting of his camp, his itinerant residence, his court, harem 
and treasury and upwards of 20,000 persons , including the chief- 
tains of the principal tribes with their families , was taken by 
surprise on this occasion by the Due d'Aumale at the head of 
two cavalry regiments. A booty of enormous value and 5000 pri- 
soners were the prize acquired with so little difficulty. Abdel- 
Kader himself was absent at the time. . 

2028. Vernet, Battle of the Isly (August 14th, 1844), won by 
Marshal Bugeaud : among the figures are portraits of Cavaignac 
and Lamoriciere. 

1945. Horace Vernet, Storming of one of the bastions at the 
siege of Rome (Juny 30th , 1849) , in consequence of which the 
city was compelled to capitulate. 

To the left : View of Rome and the work of the French 
besiegers, by Jung and Oobaut; portrait of Marshal Vaillant, 
by E. Bien; Decaen, Taking of Tigvert Hala (1857). 

To the right : Storming and capture of Laghouat (Dec. 4th, 1852), 
by Beauce; Tissier, Napoleon III. restoring his liberty to Abdel- 
Kader; Vernet, Marshal Pe'lissier; portrait of Abdel-Kader, by Tissier. 
**4th Room : seven large (and seven small) pictures by Horace 
Vernet: 2018. Battle of the Habrah (Dec. 3th 1835); 2021. Siege 
of Constantine (Oct. 10th, 1837) : in the foreground a churchyard, 
the tombstones of which are employed in constructing intrench- 
ments; to the 1. Constantine, a battalion of the Foreign Legion 
and another of the 26th light infantry engaged in action ; near 
two cypresses the Due de Nemours with his staff ; General Dam- 
re"mont reconnoitring, beside him General Rulliere; 2022. Advance 
of the troops to the storming (Oct. 13th, 1837) : in the foreground 



176 34. VERSAILLES. 

the breach battery, by one of the guns General Valleo , com- 
mander of the besiegers under the Due de Nemours ; to the 1. 
General Caraman , commander of the artillery, to the r. General 
Fleury of the engineers, in front the Due de Nemours, Colonel 
Lamoriciere at the head of the Zouaves , in the central group 
the English Lieutenant Temple. — 2023. Taking of Constantino 
(Oct. 13th, 1837) : in the centre Colonel Combes turning to those 
following him , above him to the r. Lamoriciere at the head of 
the Zouaves ; the drum-major with conscious dignity at the head 
of his drummers and trumpeters. — 2024. Attack on the Mexican 
fort St. Jean d'Ulloa by Admiral Baudin ; the vessel was com- 
manded by the Prince de Joinville. — 2025. Storming of the 
pass of Tenia de Mouzajah (May 12th, 1840). — 2016. Siege of 
the citadel of Antwerp (1840). 

5th Room : 1970. Yvon, Entrance of the tower of Malakoff. — 
19(59. Yvon, Storming of the Malakoff. — 1971. Yvon, Curtain 
of the Malakoff. — Yvon, Battle of the Alma. — Portraits of 
the marshals Mac-Mahon, Canrobert and Niel. — Yvon, Battle 
of Solferino. — Barrias, Disembarkation of the army on the 
coast of the Crimea. 

(ith Room : *1952. Bouchot, Bonaparte dissolving the Council of 
the Five Hundred (Nov. 9th, 1799). — 1954. Vinchon, Louis XV111. 
tendering the charte of the constitution and opening the Cham- 
bers. — 1951. Couder, Union of the National Guard with the 
army in the Champ de Mars (July 14th, 1790). — 1950. * Couder , 
Oath taken (June 20th, 1789) by the National Assembly in the 
.leu de Paume (p. 170), "de ne jamais se separer , de se rassembler 
partout oil les circonstanc.es I'exigeront, jusqu'h ce que la Constitu- 
tion du royaume soit etablie et affermie sur des fondements solides' . 

?th Room *1948. Steuben, Battle of Ivry (1590); Henry IV. 
rallying his followers with the words : "Si les cornettes (standards) 
vous manquent, ralliez-vous ?i mon panache (plume) blanc,ilvous 
menera toujours dans le chemin de I'honneur' . 

The long gallery of Statues is now entered. *Pradier's 
monument of the Duke of Orleans (p. 87), the figure in a sitting 
posture, with reliefs from the siege of Antwerp and Constantine. 
As counterpart to those mentioned at p. 174: Marshal Bugeaud, 
by Dumont; Count Beaujolais (d. 1808), brother of Louis Philippe, 
by Pradier. — At the extremity of the gallery an admirable 
statue of **Joan of Arc by the Princess Marie of Orleans 
(d. 1-39), daughter of Louis Philippe and wife of the Duke 
Alexander of Wirtemberg. 

Ascending to the second story and entering the Salle des 
Academiciens to the right, the visitor will find a series of Por- 
traits of eminent French civilians from the commencement of 
the 16th cent, to the present" day. The following eight Salles 



34. VERSAILLES. 177 

des portraits historiques anti'rirurs a 17U0 and a long gallery contain 
portraits of historical value only ; also a collection of coins. 

Descending to the first floor : ten rooms with P i ctu re s re- 
presenting events between the years 1800 and 1835. 

1st Room: (1830-1830). No. 1801). Court, Louis Philippe 
signing the well known proclamation terminating with the words: 
u la Charte sera desormais une veriti" ; the portraits deserve 
inspection. 

2nd Room: (1825—1830). No. 1792. Gerard, Coronation of 
Charles X. at Rheims. -- 171)1. Horace Vernet , Review of the 
National Guard in the Champ de Mars in presence of Charles X. 

3rd Room: (1814—1823). No. 1787. Paul Delaroche, Storm- 
ing of the Trocadero near Cadiz under the Duke of Angouleuie. 
— 1778. (iron, Louis XVIII. quitting the Tuileries on being 
apprized of Napoleon's approach. 

4th Room: (1813, 181 i). No. 1770. Copy from Horace 
Vernet by Henry Scheffer, Battle of Montmirail ; Napoleon against 
the Russians : in the foreground Davoust leading the old guard 
to the charge. — 1768. Copy from Horace Vernet by Feron , 
Rattle of Hanau, Napoleon against the Bavarians: in the fore- 
ground General Drouot attacked by Bavarian light cavalry. — 
176(i. Beaume, Battle of Liitzen , Napoleon against the Prussians 
and Russians under Bliicher, York and Wittgenstein : in the fore- 
ground Prussian and Russian prisoners. 

5th Room: (1810—1812). No. 1705. Langlois, Battle of Boro- 
dino , on the Moskowa. 

(ith Room: (1809). No. 174fi. Meynier, Napoleon retiring to 
the Lobau after the battle of Essling. — 1749. Bellange, Battle 
of Wagram. — 1745. Gautherot, Napoleon wounded on the battle 
field of Ratisbon (engravings from this picture are common). 

7th Room : (1807—1809). No. 1839. Hersent, Taking of Lands- 
hut. — 1740. Theoenin, Taking of Ratisbon. 

8th Room : (1806, 1807). No. 1803. Camus, Napoleon at the 
tomb of Frederick the Great at Potsdam. — 1720. Vafflard, Monu- 
ment on the battle-field of Rossbacli demolished by the French. 

1727 (over the door), liohn, Military hospital in the chateau 
of Marienburg occupied by Russians and French after the battle 
of Friedland. 

9th Room: (1800—1805). No. 1709. Taunay % The French 
entering Munich. 

10th Room : (1800). Campaigns in Egypt and Italy. — 
No. 1689. Langlois, Battle of Kenouth. 

As these rooms are quitted, a glimpse of the Chap el is ob- 
tained from above. 

The following Salon d'Hercule contains a portrait of Louis XIV. 
and a picture representing the Passage of the Rhine (p. 37). 

Baedeker. Paris, -nd Edition. i- 



178 34. VERSAILLES. 

In the small room next entered : 2038. Siege of Freiburg in 
1677, painted at that date by Van der Meulen. 

The next two rooms contain several drawings in crayon, the 
subjects being taken principally from the campaigns in the Nether- 
lands of 1745 and 1746. 

In the contiguous *Corner-apartment , with the inscription : 
" Etats generaux, Parlements, Lits de justice", a number of large 
pictures: *2275. Couder , Opening of the Chambers, May 5th, 1789. 
Above , continued round the entire room , Procession of the As- 
sembly to the Church of Notre Dame at Versailles, by Bellange. 

The following Salon de Venus , de Diane , de Mars , de Mer- 
cure, d'ApoUon, de la guerre contain a number of large pictures 
by Van der Meulen , subjects taken from the Netherlands campaigns 
of Louis XIV. The long Qalerie de Louis XIV. possesses nothing 
of interest beyond its magnificent fitments and its delightful 
situation facing the garden. To the left, adjoining this gallery are 
the three following apartments: the Salle des Pendules, so called 
from the intricate piece of mechanism it contains, by which the 
days of the month, the revolution of the earth, the phases of the 
moon etc. are recorded; the second is the sleeping apartment of 
Louis XIV., preserved nearly in its original condition, from the 
balcony of which (Sept. 1st, 1715) the king's chamberlain an- 
nounced to the people: "Le roi est mort!" at the same time 
breaking his wand of office; then taking another, he exclaimed: 
" Vive le Roi!" 

The third room is the QPAl de Bauf, so called from the oval 
form of a window at the extremity. Is was formerly the apart- 
ment where the courtiers awaited the lever of the monarch and 
was celebrated as the scene of numerous intrigues. To the left, 
are the Petits appartemenU of Marie Antoinette, whence the at- 
tempt at escape was made on the night of Oct. 5th, 1789. The 
rooms of Louis XVI. in the opposite wing are also deserving of 
a visit; a meridian employed by that monarch himself is still in 
the position in which he placed it. 

Quitting the (Eil de Bceuf and re-traversing the long gallery, 
the visitor enters a series of rooms containing large pictures, 
principally by Van der. Meulen, the contemporary of Louis XIV. 
In the 3rd Room: *2108. Gerard, The Duke of Anjou proclaimed 
king of Spain as Philip V. (Nov. 16th, 1700J. 

5th Room (Salle du sacre de Napoleon): *D<wid, Coronation 
of Napoleon and Josephine in the Cathedral of Notre Dame 
(Dec. '2nd. 1804). — *2278. David, Napoleon distributing the 
Eagles to the army. — *2276. tiros, Battle of Aboukir (1799). 

6th Room (campain of !792 -1793). *2327. Lami , Battle of 
Hondschoten. 



34. VERSAILLES. 179 

Small room to the left (campain of 1793—1794) : *Bellange, 
Battle of Fleuru* between the Austrians under Prince Cobourg 
and the French under Marshal Jourdan. 

*8th Room (1792) : Portraits of celebrated soldiers who after- 
wards became emperors , kings , marshals etc. , represented according 
to the rank they held in 1792. — No. 2335. Cannonade of Valmy, 
and 2336. Battle of Jemappes, in both of which Louis Philippe 
distinguished himself (copies from Horace Vernet) , reminiscences 
of his youth which that monarch appears to have specially valued. 
His portrait is also here (to the 1.), as "Louis Philippe d'Orltfans, 
due de Chartres, lieutenant-general". — 2333. Cogniet, Departure 
of the National Guard to join the army. 

An ascent of a few steps to the left leads to the Salle des 
gouaches tt aquarelles des campagnes de 1796 a 1814. In the 
first room pictures of French Uniforms, and sketches in Water- 
colours by French staff-officers, interesting on account of the 
subjects alone. 

Returning to the Room of 1792: in the passage a statue of 
Louis Philippe by Dumont. 

The **Galerie des Batailles, a magnificent hall in two 
compartments , is now entered. It contains 33 modem chefs 
d'oeuvre, and is adorned with the busts of 80 celebrated 
generals who have fallen in battle. Their names are inscribed 
on large tablets; those in the window-recesses record the names 
of the slain in the Crimean and Italian campaigns. 

To the left: *2670. Ary Scheffer, Battle of Tolbiac (496). 
*2671. Steuben, Battle of Tours (732). 

To the right: **2776. Horace Vernet, Second day of the battle 
of Wagram (1809). 

1. *2672. Ary Scheffer, Submission of the Saxon duke Witte- 
kind to Charlemagne (785). 

r. 2772. Hor. Vernet, Battle of Friedland (1807). 

1. *2673. Schnetz . Eudes, Count of Paris, delivers the city 
from the Normans (889). 

r. 2768. Hor. Vernet, Napoleon addressing the Guards before 
the battle of Jena ( 1806). 

1. **2674. Hor. Vernet, Philip Augustus defeats the Barons at 
♦he battle of Bouvines (1214). 

r. 2765. Gerard, Battle of Austerlitz. 

1. 2676. Kug. Delacroix, Battle of Taillebourg (1242). 

1. 2679. Henry Scheffer, Battle of Cassel in Flanders (1328). 

r. 2756. Philippoteaux, Hattle of Rivoli (1797). 

1. 2691 H. Scheffer, Joan of Arc raising the siege of Orleans. 

r. 2747. Couder, Sie^e of Yorktown in America under General 
Rochambeau and Washington (1781). 

r. 2744. Couder, Battle of Laeffelt (or. Lawfeld) near Maast- 
richt (1747). 

r.2 



180 34. VERSAILLES. 

1. 2715. Gerard, Henry IV. entering Paris (1594). 

r. **2743. Horace Vernet, Battle of Fonteney, Marshal Saxe 
against the English (1745). 

1. 2721. fleim, Battle of Rocroy, Conde against the Spaniards 
(1043). 

r. 2741. Alaux, Battle of Denain, Marshal Villars against Prince 
Eugene (1712). 

The Salle de 1830, which is next entered, contains five 
large pictures referring to the July Kingdom: 

2785. Lariviere, Arrival of the Duke of Orleans at the Place 
de l'Hotel de Ville; to the 1. by the door of the edifice Lafayette 
in the uniform of the National Guard, his hat in his hand. 

2786. Gerard, Reading of the declaration of the deputies, and 
proclamation of the Duke of Orleans as "lieutenant-general du 
royaume". 

2787. Ary Scheffer , Louis Philippe as "lieutenant-general'', 
accompanied by the Duke of Nemours, receiving his eldest son 
the Duke of Cbartres (afterwards Duke of Orleans) at the head 
of his regiment of hussars. 

2788. Eugene Deveria, Louis Philippe in presence of the 
Chambers and his whole family swears fidelity to the charter. 

2789. Court, The King distributes Hags to the National Guard 
in the Champ de Mars. All these pictures deserve careful exami- 
nation on account of the portraits they contain of the promoters 
of the July revolution. 

Passing through a small door to the right, the visitor again 
ascends to the second story (on the staircase: Vernet, Pope Gre- 
gory XII. : Decaisne, Death of Louis XIII.) and enters the Galerie 
des portraits de personnages celebres, a series of apartments con- 
taining an immense number of Portraits. Among others, in 
the 4th Room: Washington and other American celebrities; Ma- 
dame Roland, beheaded in 1793, wife of the minister, who was 
banished after the fall of the Gironde; Charlotte Corday, by whose 
dagger Marat fell, also beheaded in 1793. In the passage room 
portraits of English celebrities, amongst them *Queen Victoria 
and *Prince Albert, painted by Winterhalter in 1842. 

The two Salles des residences royales contain portraits of the 
Napoleon family; among them, to the r. , a well-known *picture 
by David, Napoleon as First Consul on the St. Bernard, painted 
in 1805; in the two Galeries des portraits de I' Empire et de la 
Tiestauration are Portraits of the period of the empire, among 
them the "Birth of the king of Rome" by Bouget, and portraits 
of the Turkish emperor Selim III. (d. 1808) and of Feth-Ali-Schah 
(d. 1834), king of Persia. 

In the last room: Madame Cauipan (d. 1822); *Pope Gre- 
gory XVI. (d. 1840), by Paul Delaroche; the Duchess of Berry 
with her two children the Duke of Bordeaux and the last Duchess 



34. VERSAILLES. 181 

of Parma; the Duke of Angouleme (d. 1844) on the battle-field, 
a large painting by Paul Delaroche; Pope Pius IX. with several 
cardinals, by Horace Yernet (d. 1863). 

The last small room contains a picture representing a lecture 
delivered by Professor Andrieux, containing 46 portraits of emi- 
nent men of letters, actors and actresses, painted by Heim. 

The visitor now retraces his steps, descends to the hall of 
1830 and finally regains the staircase at the entrance to the 
Galerie des Batailles, where the statues of Louis Philippe , Napo- 
leon I. and Louis XIV. are placed. Descending the stair to 
the ground -floor, he then enters the Salles des campagnes de 
1796 h 1810. 

1st Room (1796). In the centre a small statue by Matthieu 
Meusnier, representing the youthful Jos. Agricola Viala, woundpd 
and with an axe in his hand. When a number of Royalists were 
about to march from Avignon against Lyons in 1793, this youth 
severed with an axe the rope of the ferry-boat on the Durance, 
thus retarding their progress. His heroic deed w;is scarcely ac- 
complished when he was killed by a bullet. The Convention 
directed his remains to be interred in the Pantheon. 

2nd Room (1797). 1488. The Rattle of Rivoli, a copy from 
r. Vernet. — 1493. Lelhitre, Conclusion of peace at Leobtn bet- 
ween Bonaparte, the Marquis de Gallo and General Merveldt. 

3rd Room (1798). *1496. Gros, Battle of the Pyramids; 
"Soldats , du haut de ces pyramides quarante siecles vow con- 
templent" was Bonaparte's address to his troops. — In the centre: 
Kleber's Death, a group in marble by Iiougron. 

4th Room (1802, 1803). 1501. Van Bree, Bonaparte enter- 
ing Antwerp. 

5th Room (1804). 1505. Serangeli, Napoleon after his coron- 
ation receiving the deputies of the army in the Louvre. 

6th Room (1805). *1514. Victor Adam, Capitulation of an 
Austrian cavalry brigade at Noerdlingen. 

The suite is here broken by the *Hall of busts and statues 
of the Imperial Family; in the centre Napoleon I., a copy of 
the statue on the Vendome column. 

7th Room (1805). *1546. Debret , "Napoleon rend honneur 
au courage malheureux", the words reported to have been uttered 
by the emperor as he raised his hat in passing a waggon contain- 
ing wounded Austrians. 

8th Room (1805). 1551. Gros, Interview of Napoleon with 
the emperor Francis during the bivouac on the day after the 
battle of Austerlitz , Dec. 3rd, 1805. "Je vous recois dans le 
seul palais que j'habite depuis deux mow" were the words with 
which Napoleon addressed Francis. " Vous tirez si bon parti de 
cette habitation, quelle doit vous plaire", was the reply. 



182 34. VERSAILLES. 

9th Room (1806, 1807). 1552. Meynier, The French army 
entering Berlin, Oct. 27th, 1806. — 1553. Berthon, Napoleon 
receiving the deputies of the senate in the palace at Berlin. 

10th Room (1807). 1555. Gosse, Napoleon and the king and 
queen of Prussia at Tilsit. 

11th Room (1808). 1558. Reynault, Nuptials of Prince Jerome 
with the Princess of Wirtemberg. 

12th Room (1809, 1810). 1561. Debret, Napoleon addressing 
his German troops before the battle of Abensberg, the Crown- 
prince Louis of Bavaria on horseback beside the emperor. — 
1565. Rouget, Nuptials of Napoleon with the Grand -duchess 
Marie Louise. 

*Salle de Marengo (1800). *1567. David, Bonaparte ascending 
the St. Bernard. - 1566. Thevenin, The French crossing the 
St. Bernard. — 1568. C. Vernet, Battle of Marengo. 

A staircase to the right, by the statue of Hoche at the 
entrance to the hall of sculptures, now descends to four small 
rooms containing *Sea-pieces, the finest of which are by Gudin. 

The long Hall of sculptures contains Statues and Busts of 
celebrities of the republic and empire, generals who fell in battle etc. 
The statue of Hoche (d. 1797) at the entrance, by Milhomme, 
represents the general in a sitting posture; the reliefs pourtray 
his passage of the Rhine and the engagement at Neuwied. To 
the left, farther on, the naturalist Cuvier (d. 1832); to the right 
Champollion (d. 1831), the eminent archaeologist and decipherer 
of hieroglyphics; in the centre of the hall two reliefs representing 
the delivery of the keys of Vienna and the peace of Pressburg. 

At the extremity of this hall is the issue from the S. wing 
of the palace into the Cour des Princes. 

The Visitor should, however, first inspect the Basement-story 
of the principal part of the edifice, where a long series of apart- 
ments, extending as far as the outlet into the Cour de la Cha- 
pelle, contain numerous Portraits; the first two, Admirals and 
Constables; the following, Marshals of France. Memorial ta- 
blets record the names of the marshals whose portraits could not 
be procured. 

6th Room. *Count de Rantzau, a German who in 1635 quitted 
the Swedish service for that of France, and subsequently com- 
manded the corps of Bernard de Weimar after the death of the 
latter. This eminently brave man was repeatedly wounded in 
battle and lost several of his limbs, to which allusion is made 
in his epitaph in the Abbaye des Bons-Hommes at Pas.sy: 

"II dispersa partout ses membres et sa gloire, 
Tout abattu qu'il fut, il demeura vainqueur. 
Son sang fut en cent lieux de prix de la victoire, 
Et Mars ne lui laissa rien d'entier que le coeur". 



34. VERSAILLES. 183 

St.li Room: Marshal Schowberg , born in 1616 at Heidelberg, 
served successively in the armies of the Netherlands, France, 
Brandenburg and England, and fell at the battle of the Boyne 
in 1690. 

9th Room: Vnuban (d. 1707). 

The Salle des rois, to the right, contains modern portraits by 
Signol, Rouget, Blondel and Steuben of all (67") the monarohs 
of France from Clovis to Napoleon III. Several apartments, ad- 
joining the latter towards the right , contain Residences royales 
and ancient chateaux. 

The Oalerie de Louis XIII., facing the garden, is next visited : 
*1066. Schnetz, Battle of Roeroy (1643). — Then three more 
rooms with portraits of marshals: 

1st Room: Saxe (d. 1750); Lozwendal (d. 1750), natural son 
of Frederick III. of Denmark, successively in the Austrian, Saxon 
and Russian service; both portraits by Couder-. 

2nd Room: Prince Soubise (d. 1789), defeated at the battle of 
Rossbach by Frederick the Great in 1757. 

3rd Room: Luckner , first in the service of Hanover during 
the Seven Years' War. then (1763) in that of France, guillotined 
in 1794; Murat (d. 1815); Gerard (d 1852). 

The three following rooms contain portraits of all the Mar- 
shals of the Empire, the next two "Ouerriers celebres", not mar- 
shals, from Godfrey de Bouillon (d. 1190) to Eugene Beauharnais 
(d. 1824), viceroy of Italy. Finally the halls containing "Bastes 
d'officiers generaux tues en combattant pour la France," among 
them General de Brea who perished in the revolution of 1848. 

The Gardens and Park, with their numerous fountains and 
celebrated Orangerie, some of the trees in which are several cen- 
turies old , are nearly in the same condition as when first laid 
out by Le Notre (d. 1700). the most eminent landscape gardener 
of his time. The greater part of the grounds, which are not of 
very considerable extent, may be surveyed from the terrace. 

The garden contains an immense number of groups, statues 
and vases , some of which are copies from celebrated antiques, 
others originals of the 17th cent. 

Some of the finest groups adorn the Parterres du Midi et du 
Nord; by the steps which descend to the garden are two large 
basins, the Fontaine de Diane and the Fontaine du Point du Jour, 
both adorned with fine groups of animals by Keller. 

At the foot of the steps is situated the Bassin de Latone, 
consisting of several concentric basins surmounted by a magni- 
ficent group in white marble of *Latona with Apollo and Diana, 
by Marsy. The goddess entreats Jupiter to chastise the peasants 
of Lycia who refused her a draught of water; they are accord- 
ingly metamorphosed , some partially , others entirely , into frogs 



184 34 VERSAILLES. 

or tortoises (Ovid's Metaniorph. VI, 313-381) which spnut forth 
water on Latona in every direction. 

The Statues and Groups in the crescent or Pourtour tie La- 
tone are the finest in the garden to the left a singular statue 
representing Melancholy, by La Perdrix, the book, purse and 
bandaged mouth being supposed to indicate its peculiarities. Then 
Antinous, Tigranes, Faiinns, Bacchus, Faustina, Hercules Commo- 
dus, Urania, Jupiter and Ganymede, and opposite, Venus i7) the 
shell. — On the other side the Dying Gladiator, Apollo Belve- 
dere!, Urania, Mercury, Antinous, Silenus, Venus Kallipygos, Ti- 
ridates, Fire, Lyric Poetry. 

At the extremity of the Tapis Vert, a long, narrow lawn, is 
situated the Bassin J'Apollon, a magnificent fountain, environed 
with tritons, nymphs and dolphins. In the centre Neptune and 
Amphitrite are represented seated in an enormous shell , on the 
E. side Proteus and on the W. the Ocean. The upper border 
is adorned with a number of vases ornamented with reliefs. 

The Canal, situated to the W. of the Bassin d'Apollon, is 
nearly 1 M. in length. Its form is that of a cross, the two arms 
of which together measure about 2 / 3 M. ; the N. Portion extends 
to the vicinity of the Grand Trianon. 

To the right and left in the grounds of the park, which are 
laid out in a symmetrical but simple style, are several other ba- 
sins. These, however, possess nothing worthy of mention and 
need not be visited except when the fountains (les grandes eaux) 
play, an imposing spectacle which is computed to cost about 
10,000 francs on each occasion, and may usually be witnessed on 
the first Sunday of each month from May to October. (Comp. 
Galignani's Messenger.) At 4 o'clock the minor fountains (les 
petites eaux) begin to play: Bassin d'Apollon, Bassin de Latone, 
la Salle de lial ou des Rocailles, Bosquet de la Colonnade, Bos- 
quet des Domes, Bassin d'Encelade, VObelisque ou les Cent Tuyaux. 

The greater of these fountains, the Bassin du Dragon ou 
I'Allee d'Kau and the Bassin de Neptune begin to play about 
5 o'clock; the columns of water which issue from these are up- 
wards of 80 ft. in height As the spectacle does not last more 
than twenty minutes, visitors are recommended to secure a good 
point of view in time (chair 50 c.). 

Vast numbers of visitors flock to Versailles on these occasions 
and all the public conveyances are crowded. Strangers will 
therefore act wisely lit starting from Paris at an early hour and 
not returning until late in the evening when the crowd has con- 
siderably decreased. 

The Grand Trianon, a handsome villa situated about 3 / ( M. 
from the terrace of the palace , was erected by Louis XIV. for 
Madame de Maintenon. It contains several sumptuous apartments 
and some fine modern works of art. The Salle de Malachite de- 



34. THE TRIANONS. 185 

rives its name from the magnificent basin presented by the em- 
peror of Russia to Napoleon on the conclusion of the treaty of 
Tilsit. The interior may bo visited daily (Mondays excepted) 
(gratuity 1 fr): for those, however, whose time is limited a 
glance at the exterior will suffice. 

The Petit Trianon (card of admission from the Ministre de 
la Maison de l'Empereur necessary^, a short distance to the N.E , 
was erected by Louis XV. for Madame Dubarry. It is tastefully 
fitted up, but contains nothing remarkable. The garden, 
however, is worthy of a visit. It possesses some magnificent 
trees and an artificial lake, once a favourite resort of Marie An- 
toinette and the Duchess of Orleans. The villa was also occa- 
sionally occupied by the empress Marie Louise. 

Between the two villas a "Musee des voitures" has recently 
been formed , containing a collection of state-carriages from the 
commencement of the first empire to the baptism of the Imperial 
prince in 1856. 

Strangers may now , instead of returning to Paris , prefer to 
proceed to St. Germain-en-Laye (p. 187J , to which an omnibus 
runs daily about 4 p. m. , starting from the corner of the Rue 
des Reservoirs and the Rue de la Paroisse. 

35. St. Cloud and Sevres. 

Railways to St. Cloud and Sevres see pp. 168, 169; Steamboat see p. 25. 
Horse-railway from the Place de la Concorde (60 c ). 

The route as far as Auteuil has already been described at p. 170. 
Here the road to St. Cloud diverges to the r., intersects the forti- 
fications and in a straight direction traverses the S. extremity of 
the Bois de Boulogne. Beyond the suburb of Boulogne, almost 
exclusively peopled by "blanchisseuses" , the Seine is crossed. 
On the opposite bank rises the small town of St. Cloud (3000 inh.), 
with a new Romanesque parish church. 

On an eminence above the town is situated the Palace of 
St. Cloud, erected in 1572 by the wealthy financier Je'rome de 
Gondy, purchased in 1658 by Louis XIV. and presented to his 
„ brother the Duke of Orleans , whose family occupied it during 
more than a century. In 1782 it was purchased by Louis XVI. 
for Marie Antoinette with whom it was a favourite resort. — 
Here in 1589 Henry III. was assassinated by the fanatical Do- 
minican Jacques Clement. 

The Salle de I'Orangerie is celebrated as the apartment 
where the Council of the Five Hundred held their sessions. On 
March 9th, 1799, Bonaparte with his grenadiers dispersed the 
assembly , and a few days later caused himself to be nominated 
First Consul. To these reminiscences of the first rise of his 
power is perhaps to be ascribed the marked preference which 
the emperor always manifested for St. Cloud. 



186 35. SEVRES. 

On July 3rd, 1815, the second capitulation of Paris was here 
signed. Here likewise in 1830 Charles X. signed the fatal de- 
crees (abolition of the freedom of the press, dissolution of the 
Chambers, alteration of the statutes respecting elections) which 
immediately preceded the revolution of July. 

St. Cloud is now the principal summer residence of the emperor 
and is only shown during the absence of the imperial family, when 
the public are admitted on Sundays and Thursdays 2 — 4. The 
palace contains but few reminiscences of Napoleon 1., although 
once his favourite residence, and a very limited number of works 
of art. In the vestibule is placed *Pradier's Sappho , his last 
work (1852); in one of the apartments Pollet's Hora ("une heure 
de la nuit"); several modern pictures, among others the Sisters 
of Charity by Pils; several choice specimens of Gobelins tapestry; 
a collection of Sevres porcelain etc. 

The terrace in front of the palace commands a magnificent 
prospect. The park, laid out by the celebrated Le Notre and 
considered his master-piece, contains another still finer point 
of view. 

Quitting the palace by the route by which he ascended, the 
visitor takes the first path to the right and proceeds in a straight 
direction through the avenue, passing La Haute et la Basse Cas- 
cade, the former surmounted by a fine group by Adam, . repre- 
senting the Seine and the Marne. The fountains usually play 
every alternate Sunday in summer, and every Sunday from 4 to 
ft o'clock during the fete of St. Cloud which takes place in the 
three last weeks of September. The "Jet Oeant" or Grand jet 
d'eau, to the left of the cascades, rises to a height of 140 ft. 
By the small fish-pond the paved path to the left, by the 
iron railing, should be taken. The visitor soon after turns to 
the right and finally ascends a grassy slope to the left, opposite 
to the W. side and the gardens of the palace. 

On the summit of the hill is situated the Lantern e de JDe- 
mosthine, about 25 minutes' walk from the terrace of the palace. 
It is a lofty tower surmounted by a cupola and supported by 
Corinthian columns, and was erected by Napoleon I. in imitation 
of the so-called Lantern of Demosthenes at Athens executed by 
Lysicrates. The summit of the tower affords an extensive and 
magnificent • *panorama. Far below flows the Seine, to the left 
is the bridge of St. Cloud, beyond it the town and the Bois de 
Boulogne, then the triumphal arch and in the background Mont- 
martre ; from among the houses of Paris rise St. Vincent de Paul, 
the Dome of the Invalides, St. Sulpice, the Pantheon and (the 
last dome to the right) the church of Val de Grace; to the r. of 
Paris the village of Issy (p. 169), commanded by the fort. On 
the farther side of the city the cemetery of Pere Lachaise may 
also be distinguished. 



35. ST. CLOUD. 187 

If the stranger here pursue his route towards the right, then 
turn to the left, cross a bridge, and where the path divides select 
that to the right, he will in V t hr. reach the village of Sevres 
(Restaurant au Berceau), one of the most ancient in the environs 
of Paris. The celebrated Imperial *Porcelain Manufactory 
is situated 5 minutes' walk farther. It has for upwards of a 
century been the property of the government, and employs 
180 hands. 

The public are admitted (after 11 o'clock) to the Exhibition 
Rooms only (1 fr. gratuity), which contain a great number of 
specimens of the products of the manufactory, the most remarkable 
being the large paintings on porcelain , most of them copies 
from celebrated Italian masters. Stained glass is likewise here 
manufactured and may be compared with some beautiful specimens 
of German workmanship from Munich, presented in 1838. 

The Musee Ceramique (open to the public on Thursdays), 
founded in 1800 by Alexander Brongniart, consists of an exten- 
sive collection of objects bearing reference to the history of the 
fabrication of porcelain, and of specimens of modern manufactures 
from all parts of the world. Among other articles may be mentioned 
those of the period of Bernard Palissy (15th cent.), the inventor 
of glazing. The collection, however, possesses more interest for 
the virtuoso than the ordinary visitor. 

The old chateau in which the manufactory is at present 
established being in a dilapidated condition, the works will soon 
be transferred to a new building now in course of construction 
nearer the Pont de Sevres. 

Railway (rive gauche) see p. 169; the trains of this line also 
stop at Sevres, those to Versailles at a quarter after every hour, 
to Paris a quarter before every hour. 

36. St. Germain-en-Laye. 

Railway-station (Rue St. Lazare 124) and omnibus see p. 23. Trains 
start from Paris every hour from 8. 30 a. m to 8 30 p. m., from St Ger- 
main every hour from 8 a. m. to 8 p. m., also at 10 and II p. in. nn 
.Sundays and holidays; time of journey 42 min. ; fares, diligence 1 fr. 
50 c, wagon 1 fr. 25 c; return- tickets al a reduced rale. — There arc 
also two omnibus routes , one by Nanterre, the other by Bougival, the 
latter very agreeable and recommended to those whose time is not limited. 

The first portion of the route as far as Asnieres , where the 
line to Versailles diverges to the left, is described at p. 168. 

Nanterre, the following station, is a village where tradition 
alleges that Ste. Genevieve, the patron saint of Paris, was born 
in 425. 

The chateau of Malmaison. not visible from the line, situated 
in the wood to the left', 1 V2 M from the Station of Rueil, was 
the residence of the Empress Josephine after her divorce (1809). 
Here she died in 1814, and was interred in the small church of 



J 88 36. St. GERMAIN-EN-LA YE. 

Rueil , which is also remarkable for its Saxon architecture. The 
lateral chapels of the choir contain the monuments of the empress 
and Queen Hortense. The former, erected by Eugene Beau- 
harnais and Queen Hortense, executed by Carlellier, represents 
the empress in a kneeling posture and bears the inscription . ".4 
Josephine, Engine et Hortense, 182!)". The monument to Queen 
Hortense is of similar design and bears the inscription: „A 
la Keine Hortense, son fils Napole'on III." After the battle 
of Waterloo Napoleon retired to the chateau of Malmaison , but 
on the approach of the Prussian troops from Argenteuil and 
Chaton quitted it, June 29th, 1815. In 1842 the chateau became 
the property of Queen Christina of Spain, who resided in it for 
several years, and in 1861 it was repurchased by the present 
emperor. 

As the train proceeds, the arches of the aqueduct which 
supplies the fountains of Versailles are perceived on the summit 
of the wooded hills to the left. 

Near Chatou the line crosses the Seine, which is here divided 
into two arms by an island, and beyond Le Vesinet again reaches 
the river, whence, it ascends a considerable incline to St. Germain. 

St. Germain - en - Laye is a quiet town (14,283 inhab.) of 
similar origin with Versailles. It is indebted for its foundation 
to the Palace, a large, gloomy edifice, constructed principally of 
brick, in the vicinity of the railway-station, and once the favourite 
residence of Francis I., Henry II., Henry IV., Charles IX. and 
Louis XIV. 

It was finally quitted by the last-named monarch, who pre- 
sented it to Madame de Montespan and transferred his residence 
to Versailles. Napoleon I. converted the palace into a school for 
cavalry-officers. .Subsequently it served as a military prison, and 
is now destined for the reception of a museum of Gallo-Roman 
antiquities. The church, situated in the Place du Chateau facing 
the palace, contains a handsome monument in white marble, 
erected by George IV. of England to the memory of James II., 
who during his exile resided in the palace and died there in 
1701. The monument has recently been restored by order of 
Queen Victoria. 

The principal charm of St. Germain consists of the *Terrace, 
which extends for upwards of IV2 M. along the E. slope of the 
hill at a considerable elevation above the Seine , and commands 
a magnificent prospect of the valley , the winding river and the 
animated plain. At the base of the hill is situated the village 
of Le Pecq, to the right Marly, the aqueduct (see above^ and 
Louvecienn.es, once the country residence of Madame Pubarry, 
and in the distance the towers of St. Denis. Paris itself is con- 
cealed from view by Mont Valerien. 




1 1 Post? iriLjr. <he.ran.r 
Salle d'AjfOe, 6.4 

SaRe lO-.y Arts A.5 
r },;-,; tr, B.C. 5 

\%Temph> jbtgHean B.4 
> Temple PrutextarUAJS.2 
Veneris B.2 



Ijith. gpj>gr. Anstah ro?t ii,.Wagna',J)ar~mstnJkj. 



37. ST. DENIS. 189 

The beautiful and extensive forest of St. Germain is preserved 
in admirable order and affords abundant shade and retirement. 
The animated Fete des Loges which takes place in the forest on 
the first Sunday in September and the two following days, derives 
its name from Les Loges, a country residence erected by Anne 
of Austria, consort of Louis XIII. The railway to Rouen traverses 
the forest. (One-horse carr. 2 fr. per hour, on Sundays 2'/2fi\i 
two-horse carr. 50 c. morej. 

The elevated and salubrious situation of St. Germain render 
it a favourite summer residence of the Parisians, as well as of a 
number of English families. 

At the S. extremity of the terrace is sitnated a pavilion com- 
manding a magnificent view, alleged to have been the birth-place 
of I.onis XIV., now converted into a "restaurant, 5 minutes' walk 
from the railway-station. (Charges at the restaurants in the town 
more moderate; adjoining the station *Oalle.) 

Omnibus (l'^fr.), three times daily to Versailles by Marly, 
in 1 hour. 



37. St. Denis. 

Chemiii de fer du Nord, station in the Place Roubaix (PI., red 10); 
trains every hour to St. Denis in 11 min. A recently completed line 
(Service circulaire de fa {/are du Nord a la gave dc f'Ouest) runs to St. Denis, 
Kpinay, Enghien (p. 195) and Erwont, returning to Paris by Santtoia, Argenteuil^ 
Colombes and Asnieres (p. 168). Tickets for this agreeable circuit, which 
may he broken at any of the stations, I fr. 80 c, 1 fr. 35 c, and 1 fr. 

(bimiliuses which start every half hour from the suburb of La Chapelle 
(harriere de St. lienis), situated to the E. of Montmartre, convey passengers 
to St. Denis in half-an-hour ; others start from Les HaliynoUes (Jiarriere de 
Clirhti) , to the W. of Montmartre , and proceed to St. Denis by St. ihien 
in 50 min. ; fares 30—50 c, "correspondances" see p. 23. In the chateau 
at St. Oiien in 1814 Louis XVIII. before entering Paris signed the procla- 
mation by which the "Charte" was promised to the country. He after- 
wards presented the chateau to Madame du Cayla, who in 185ti bequeathed 
it to the city, on condition that a monument should be erected to the 
memory of Louis XVIII. The bequest was, however, declined. 

In the vicinity are extensive Olacieres, establishments where in winter 
the production of ice is facilitated by artificial means. 

A visit to Montmartre and its cemetery may be conveniently combined 
with an excursion to St. Denis, if the stranger have an entire day at 
his disposal. 

The station at St. Denis is "/.j M. distant from the abbey-church. The 
town is reached by the principal street The new and still unfinished 
(Uithic church rises to the 1. Near the station are several small restaurants. 

St. Denis, which contains a population of about 16,000, is 
indebted for its celebrity to its ancient abbey-church, which the 
monarchs of France have chosen for their burial-place. The 
edifice is at present undergoing complete restoration and is only 
partially accessible. It is one of the finest monuments of French 
Gothic and replete with the most interesting historical associations. 



190 37. ST. DENIS. 

About the year 250 a chapel was erected here in honour of 
St. Dionysius (St. Denis) the Areopagite, who suffered martyrdom 
on Montmartre (mons martyrum). 

Dagobert I., king of Austrasia, and subsequently of the whole 
of France, here founded a Benedictine Abbey, and about the year 
630 commenced the construction of a new church. During a long 
series of years masses for his soul were celebrated by the monks 
on Jan. 19th, the anniversary of his death. 

A new edifice was erected on the same spot by Pepin in 
754 and completed by Charlemagne in 775. No trace of either 
of these ancient structures exists at the present day. 

Suger (d. 1152), the celebrated abbot of St. Denis, the ad- 
viser of Louis VI. and Louis VII. and administrator of the king- 
dom during the absence of the latter in the Holy Land, demo- 
lished the church and caused a more handsome edifice to be 
erected on the site, which was consecrated in 1144. The portal and 
a portion of the towers of the present day belong to that period. 

A century later the church was partially destroyed by light- 
ning and was restored in 1234 — 1284 by St. Louis. During sub- 
sequent ages it underwent numerous alterations, but under Louis 
Philippe was judiciously restored in the original style. 

During the first revolution the sacred edifice, once so rich in 
relics and sacred ornaments, was entirely pillaged and desecrated, 
and converted successively into a "temple of reason", a depot of 
artillery and a salt-magazine. In accordance with the sacrilegious 
spirit of the day the name of St. Denis was abolished and the 
town called Franciade. The building being in a dilapidated and 
dangerous condition, it was afterwards proposed to demolish it 
entirely and convert the site into a public market-place. From 
this fate, however, it was rescued by Napoleon I., who by a decree 
of Feb. 19th, 1806, caused the edifice to be repaired and restored 
to its sacred uses. 

In 1837 the N. tower was destroyed by lightning and, although 
partially re-erected, was subsequently found to be in so defective 
a condition that it was entirely pulled down. 

The facade of the church contains three receding portals 
adorned with numerous sculptures. Those of the central portal 
represent the Last Judgment; at the sides the Wise and Foolish 
Virgins. The S. portal contains a representation of the martyr- 
dom of St. Denis ; on either side of the entrance are curious 
sculptures of the occupations peculiar to each month of the year. 
The N. portal belongs to the period ol the restoration. 

A very limited portion of the interior of the church is acces- 
sible to visitors, who are conducted by the verger (I fr.) through 
a narrow passage to the choir. A sufficient survey, however, is 
thus obtained of the noble proportions of the church and its 
numerous monumonts. A decree of 1859 provided that the 



37. ST. DENIS. 191 

ancient burial place of the kings of France should also be that 
of her emperors, and an entire restoration of the church was 
commenced. The style of the 12th cent, is most carefully ad- 
hered to , and the pavement of the aisles has been lowered to 
its original level. The church is cruciform; length 332 V2» 
breadth 114 ft. 

The Stained Glass of the windows is almost exclusively 
modern; the two wheel-windows, especially that on the S. side 
with the genealogy of Christ, merit particular attention. Those 
of the galleries above contain a perplexing multitude of portraits, 
saints, church-fathers, popes, kings and queens, abbots etc. In 
the large windows of the nave are 55 large figures of kings and 
queens from Clovis and Clotilde to Philip the Bold and Isabella 
of Arragon; in the N. transept events from the crusades and the 
life of St. Louis; in the S. transept the restoration of St. Denis 
by Napoleon, interment of Louis XV1I1., the visit of Louis 
Philippe to the church and armorial bearings; in the choir the 
history of St. Denis. All of these are destined to undergo a 
careful renovation. 

During the spring of 1867 divine service was performed in 
a portion of the aisle, termed the Chaur d'Hiver. The altar-piece, 
representing the martyrdom of St. Denis, is by Cusp, de Crayer, 
a pupil of Rubens. At the entrance the tombstone of the abbot 
Antoine de la Haye (d. 1550). 

An exhaustive enumeration of the monuments in the church 
cannot be given until the restoration is completed. The places 
assigned to them after the Revolution have been entirely changed, 
as every endeavour is made to restore the edifice to its original 
condition. Among the most interesting may be mentioned those 
of Dayobert (d. 638) and his queen Nantilde, probably dating 
from the 13th cent. The three singular reliefs of the former 
represent the delivery of the monarch's soul from purgatory, 
through the intervention of St. Denis, St. Martin and St. Maurice, 
and his reception into heaven. 

The N. transept contains the lofty monument of Louis Xlf. 
(d. 1515) and his queen Anne of Bretayne, designed in 1527 by 
Paolo Poncio. The king and queen are represented in a recum- 
bent posture on the sarcophagus, which is surrounded by twelve 
arches, richly decorated and supported by graceful pilasters, be- 
neath which are statues of the twelve apostles The pedestal is 
adorned with reliefs representing the entry of Louis XII. into 
Milan (1499), his passage of the Genoese mountains (1507), the 
victory over the Venetians at Agnadello (1509) and their final 
submission. 

The adjoining monument of Henry 11. (d. 1599) and Cathe- 
rine de Medicis, executed by Germain Pilon, is of similar design; 
the recumbent effigy of the queen and the drapery deserve 



192 37. ST. DENIS. 

examination; the reliefs represent faith, hope, charity and good 
works. 

The S. transept contains the monument of Francis I. (A. 1547) 
and his queen Claude, the most sumptuous of these three of 
the 10th cent., designed by Delorme and executed by several 
eminent sculptors of that period. The basement is adorned with 
numerous reliefs of scenes from the battles of Marignano (1515) 
and Ceri soles (1544). 

Another historically interesting tomb is that of "Nolle homme 
Messire Jiertrand du Guesclin, comte de Longueville et Connestable 
de France" {A. l.'ISO), one of France's most heroic, warriors in 
her contests with England. In the left eye is indicated the 
wound which the constable received in battle. The tomb of 
his companion in arms, the Constable Louis de Sancerre (d. 1402) 
is in the same chapel. 

The Sacristy is adorned with ten modern paintings bearing 
reference to the history of the abbey: Monsiuu, Coronation of 
Marie de Me'dicis; *Qros, Charles V. and Francis I. visiting the 
abbey ; Menjaud, Death of Louis VI. ; Ouerin, Philip 111. presents 
the abbey with the relics of St. Louis; Barbier, St. Louis recei- 
ving the Oriflamme, the sacred banner of France formerly pre- 
served in the church; Landon, St. Louis restoring the burial 
vaults; Meynier, Charlemagne at the consecration of the church; 
Gamier, Obsequies of king Dagobert; Monsiuu, Preaching of 
St. Denis; Heim, Discovery of the remains of the kings in 1817. 

The sacristan, if desired, also shows the treasury of the church, 
containing valuable ecclesiastical robes and utensils. A suit of 
armour preserved here is alleged to have belonged to Joan 
of Arc. 

At the High-Altar, on April 1st, 1K10, the nuptials of Napo- 
leon with the Archduchess Marie Louise were solemnized, and 
on the same spot, in 1593, Henry IV. was received into the pale 
of the Roman Catholic church. 

The four stoi e slabs in front of the raised choir mark the 
entrance to the Crypt, which has been restored at the instance 
of the emperor. Its history is replete with vicissitudes. The 
vaults, which since the time of Dagobert (d. 638) had served 
as a burial-place for the royal family of France, extended as far 
as the W. side of the crypt only. When the last vacant space 
was filled after the death of the Infanta Maria Theresa (d. 1083), 
consort of Louis XIV., that monarch directed the vaults to be 
extended and a burial-place to be constructed for the Bourbons. 
This was accomplished by an encroachment on the crypt. 

But few members of this family here found a resting-place 
when the revolution broke out. "La main puissante de la 
Ilepubliquc doit ejfacer impitoyablement ce.< epitaphe:! sitperlex et 



37. ST. DENIS. 193 

demolir ces mausolees qui rappeleraient des rois Veffrayant souve- 
nir" were the words used by Barrlre before the Convention on 
July 31st, 1793, and a commission was accordingly formed to 
■carry out this sacrilegious proposition. The Convention was also 
influenced by the consideration that the government was in want 
of ammunition, and therefore decreed that the metal thus obtained 
should be employed in casting guns and bullets. 

By a singular coincidence the work of desecration was com- 
menced on Oct. 12th, 1793, the precise day on which, exactly 
one century before, Louis XIV. had caused the demolition of the 
ancient tombs of the emperors at Spires. Hents, the agent em- 
ployed by the Convention, was moreover a namesake of the super- 
intendent of the work of destruction at Spires. The remains of 
Louis XIV. himself were among the first which were desinterred, 
and a few days later those of Louis XV. "Mercredi le 16 Octobre 
a onze heures du matin, dans le moment oil la reine Marie An- 
toinette d'Autriche, femme de Louis XVI., eut la tete tranchee, 
en enleva le cercueil de Louis XV. mort le 10 Mai 1774" is the 
testimony of an eye-witness. In order the more speedily to ac- 
complish the work, the wall of the crypt was broken through and 
the bodies of the illustrious dead, among others those of Dago- 
bert and his queen Nanthilde, Louis X., Charles V., Charles VI., 
Louis XIII. etc., conveyed to trenches ("fosses communes") dug 
in the adjacent Cimetiere de Valois. 

These atrocities were completed an Oct. 25th, but even with 
these the sacrilegious Convention does not appear to have been 
satisfied. The eye-witness of their proceedings already mentioned 
goes on to relate: "Quelques jours apres, les ouvriers avec le 
commissaire aux plombs ont ete au couvent des Carmelites faire 
V extraction du cercueil de Madame Louise de France, fille de 
Louis XV, morte le 23 dec. 1787, dgee de 50 ans et environ six mois. 
lis Vont apporte dans le cimetiere et le corps a et£ depose dans la 
fosse commune: il etait tout entier, mais en pleine putrefaction; 
ses habits de carmelite etaient trls-bien conserves" . 

On the restoration of the abbey in 1806, Napoleon decreed 
that the crypt should be employed as a place of sepulture for 
himself and his successors. Only one member of his family, 
however, was here interred, the young Napoleon Charles, the son 
of his brother Louis. The coffin was afterwards conveyed to 
St. Leu, near Senlis, and there re-interred with the remains of 
Charles Buonaparte, who died at Montpellier in 1783. The church 
of St. Leu has been redecorated by the present emperor and ad- 
orned with a monument to his mother Queen Hortense, to whose 
memory a service is annually performed. 

Louis XVIII. in 1817 caused the remains of his ancestors, as 
well as those of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette who had been 
interred in the churchyard of the Madeleine, to be re-interred in 

13 



194 37. ST. DENIS. 

the crypt. He himself (d. 1821), the Due de Berry who was 
assassinated in Feb., 1820, and several of his children were the 
last of the Bourbons here interred. Charles X. died and was 
interred at Gcerz in Austria in 1836. Louis Philippe had destined 
the ancient chateau of Dreux for his family burial-place, but was 
buried at Weybridge in England, where he died in Aug., 1850. 

Napoleon III. has revived the plan of his great ancestor and 
by a decree of Jan. 1859 destined this to be the resting placfr 
of the French emperors. The crypt has in consequence been 
entirely remodelled; the former monuments have been removed 
and some of them placed in the church above. Until farther 
notice the crypt is not accessible to the public. 

In 1817, when the Abbey recovered its ancient privileges, Louis XVIII. 
directed all the monumeuts which had been rescued in 1793 and had been 
preserved with many from other churches in the Musee des Petits Au- 
gustins (Ecole des Beaux Arts, p. 150) to be brought back to St. Denis. 

A flight of steps formerly descended from the N. aisle to the crypt. 
The numerous figures and a few monuments, none of them dating earlier 
than the 13th cent., have been arranged as far as possible in chronolo- 
gical order. 

The first four halls contain the monuments (32) of the Merovingians 
and Garlovingians, from Clovis the Great, king of the Salic Franks (d. 511), 
to Carlman (d. 771), king of Austrasia. (Charlemagne was by his own 
wish interred at Aix-la-Chapelle instead of here; see p. 248.) 

Then Hugh Capet (d. 996) and his descendants (34), down to Charles IV. 
(d. 1328). Near the former are several sarcophagi, obscurely placed, con- 
taining the remains which were re-exhumed in 1817 (see p. 193). 

In the first semicircular space are the *sarcophagi of the two young 
princes, Philippe, the brother, and Louis, the son of St. Louis, both of 
whom died in the early part of the 13th cent. They formerly reposed in 
the Abbey of Royaumont. Adjacent are two magnificent commemorative 
stones, adorned with gold and colours, recording the victory gained by 
Philip Augustus over the German emperor Otto IV. at Bouvines in Flan- 
ders in 1215. 

Napoleon I. caused the new entrance to the crypt to be transferred 
to the spot where the aperture had been made in 1793 in order to remove 
the coffins. Louis XVIII. directed this to be re-closed and replaced by a 
Chapelle Expiatoire, gaudily painted and containing four marble tablets 
with the names of all the members of the royal family here interred, as 
well as of the abbots and other celebrated personages. Opposite to it is 
the entrance of the vault constructed by Louis XIV. 

The House o/Valois begins with Philip VI. (1350) and terminates with 
Henry III. , who was assassinated by the Dominican Jacques Cle'ment 
in 1589. There were formerly 47 monuments here, the finest of which is 
that of *Duke Louis of Orleans, second son of Charles V. (d. 1380), and 
his consort Valentine, duchess of Milan, the work of Italian artists of the 
16th cent, in the Renaissance style. A marble vase contains the heart of 
Francis I. (d. 1547). 

The House of Bourbon commences with Henry IV. , who in 1593 was 
here received into the pale of the Rom. Cath. church and was assassinated 
by Ravaillac in 1610. It consists of 15 monuments placed in the halls of 
the S. outlet of the crypt, most of them being fragments from other tombs, 
often clumsily put together; also kneeling statues of Louis XVI. and his 
consort, destined for a different site, and groups from the monuments of 
the Due de Berri and Louis XVIII. 

The Tower, 190 ft. in height, is ascended by a staircase to 
which a door in the S. portal leads. The summit commands a 



37. MONTMORENCY. 195 

magnificent *panorama: on an eminence to the N. the tower of 
Montmorency ; S.E. the village of Aubervillers-les-Vertus with its 
fort, and contiguous to it the Canal de St. Denis -which in the 
vicinity unites with the Seine and in connection with the Canal 
St. Martin cuts off the wide curve which the river describes 
between the Pont d'Austerlitz and St. Denis. To the S. lies Paris 
in which the most conspicuous objects are the Pantheon, Mont- 
martre, Dome des Invalides and Arc de l'Etoile. To the S.W. 
is situated the village of St. Ouen (p. 189), beyond which rises 
the fortification of Mont Valerien. 

The extensive buildings which adjoin the abbey -church of 
St. Denis were erected by Louis XV. on the site of the monastery. 

Subsequently to 1815 the Educational Establishment 
for sisters and daughters of members of the Legion of Honour, 
founded by Napoleon in 1801 and originally established in the 
chateau of Ecouen, 6 M. to the N. of St. Denis, was transferred 
to this secularized monastery. This "Maison Imperiale d' Educa- 
tion de la Legion d'Honneur" is fitted up for the reception of 
upwards of 500 pupils, who enjoy educational advantages of the 
most superior description. Their dress is entirely black and the 
discipline partakes of an almost military character. Admission 
may be procured by applying to the Grand Chancellor of the 
Legion who resides in Paris, Rue de Lille 64. 

Enghien-les-Bains , a small watering-place possessing a sul- 
phureous spring, a park and a lake, is reached by the trains of 
the Northern line in 12 min. from St. Denis. The grounds afford 
delightful promenades and are a favourite holiday resort of the 
Parisians. 

On an eminence to the right, surrounded with fruit-trees, is 
situated Montmorency, another popular place of summer resort. 
It is well known from having once been the residence of Rous- 
seau, who spent two years (1756 — 1758) in the house termed 
"VErmitage de Jean Jacques Rousseau", and there wrote his 
Nouvelle Helo'ise. This habitation, which was originally a hermi- 
tage, was fitted up for the use of the philosopher by the Countess 
d'Epinay, in order to prevent his return to Geneva. During the 
revolution the Hermitage became national property and was for a 
short period occupied by Robespierre, who spent a night in it 
three days previous to his execution (July 28th, 1794). In 1798 
the Hermitage was purchased by the eminent composer Qretry, 
who died here in 1813. His heart was interred in the garden, 
where a monument was erected to his memory, but in conse- 
quence of a law-suit was afterwards conveyed to Liege, his native 
place. To this the inscription alludes: "Qretry, ton genie est 
partout, mais ton caur n'est quid. Les Liegois n'en ont enlevS 
que la poussiere" 

13* 



196 38. FONTAINEBLEAU. 

The Hermitage (access sometimes denied) has recently been 
much altered and no longer contains reminiscences of Rousseau. 
The garden , however , retains its former aspect. A stone bears 
the inscription : "Ici J. J. Rousseau aimait a se reposer". The 
laurel near it is said to have been planted by him. 

An omnibus runs in 20 min. from the station of Enghien-les- 
Bains to Montmorency (fare 50 c). Passengers desirous of visit- 
ing the Hermitage quit the omnibus a short distance before Mont- 
morency is reached and enter the Rue Gretry. The Hermitage is 
a small, red house near the extremity of the street, to the garden 
of which strangers are generally admitted, on ringing at the 
gate and applying for permission. 

38. Fontainebleau. 

By the Chemin de fer de Lyon in 2 hrs.; six trains daily; fares 6 fr. 
10, 4 fr. 95, 3 fr. 35 c. ; return -tickets, available for the day of issue, at 
reduced rates. The station (PI., blue 12) is in the Boulevard Mazas, on 
the right bank of the Seine, in the vicinity of the Pont d'Austerlitz. Spe- 
cial omnibuses start from the points mentioned at p. 24 half an hour be- 
fore the departure of each train. 
Those who desire to visit Fontainebleau should devote an entire day 
to the excursion and leave Paris by an early train (views on the left side), 
reaching their destination in 2 hrs. One hour will probably suffice for 
the inspection of the palace and garden , after which a drive or walk to 
the Gorges de Franchard will occupy 2 — 3 hrs., and a visit to the Fort 
de TEmpereur 1 hr. If the stranger purposes dining at Fontainebleau he 
will do well on his arrival to order a "diner a 4 ou 5 fr. par tete" at a 
hotel, for the hour at which he intends to return from his walk. 

Soon after quitting Paris the train crosses the Marne near its 
confluence with the Seine at the station of Charenton (the lunatic 
asylum is on an eminence to the left, p. 127). Alfort, on the 
opposite bank of the Marne, possesses a Veterinary School. To 
the right and left rise the forts of Ivry and Charenton which here 
command the course of the Seine. 

Villeneuve St. Oeorges, a place of some importance, with a 
suspension-bridge over the Seine, is picturesquely situated on the 
slope of a wooded eminence. 

The beautiful green dale of the Yeres, a small but deep river, 
bordered with rows of willows and poplars , is now traversed. 
Picturesque country residences, small parks and thriving mills 
are passed in rapid succession. 

The next stations are Montgeron and Brunoy. The chain of 
hills to the left, as well as the plain, are studded with innumer- 
able dwellings. Brunoy is charmingly situated in the midst of 
plantations and is inhabited almost exclusively by wealthy Pa- 
risians and retired men of business. 

Before Brunoy is reached the train crosses the Yeres, and 
beyond the village passes over a viaduct which affords an ad- 
mirable prospect. 



38. FONTAINEBLEAU. 197 

The valley of the Yeres is now quitted, and the district he- 
comes flatter. Stations Combs-la-Ville, Lieusaint and Cesson. 

The Seine is again reached and crossed by a handsome iron 
bridge at Melnn (Hdtel de France), an ancient town with a po- 
pulation of 11,000, known to the Romans under the name of 
Methalum or Melodunum, and picturesquely situated on an emi- 
nence above the river. The Church of Notre Dame, dating from 
the 10th cent , and the modern Gothic Town-hall are fine edifices. 

After affording several picturesque glimpses of the valley of 
the Seine , the train reaches the forest of Fontainebleau. The 
last station is Bois-le-Roi. 

The station of Fontainebleau is situated upwards of 1 M. 
from the palace. The town {Hotel de Londres; Aigle Noir; Hotel 
de France; a Cafe adjoins the Aigle Noir), which owes its origin 
principally to the proximity of the palace, and contains 10,500 
inhabitants, is a quiet place with broad and clean streets. 

The town contains nothing to arrest the attention of the 
stranger, except perhaps the Statue of General Damesme, erected 
in 1851 in the Place du Palais de Justice. This officer, a native 
of Fontainebleau, was killed during the revolution of June, 1848, 
when at the head of the guards he was in the act of tearing" 
down a flag from a barricade near the Pantheon. 

The *Palace (accessible daily during the absence of the 
emperor), situated on the W. side of the town, is an extensive 
pile and possesses five different courts: Cour du Cheval Blanc, 
Cour de la Fontaine, Cour Ovale or du Donjon, Cour des Princes 
and Cour des Cuisines or de Henri IV. 

The spacious entrance court, the Cour du Cheval Blanc, sepa- 
rated from the street and the Place de Fen-are by an elegant 
iron railing, derives its appellation from a statue formerly placed 
here. It is sometimes termed the Cour des Adieux from having 
been the scene of Napoleon's parting from his old Guard and 
grenadiers, April 20th, 1814, after his abdication. Here, too, 
March 20th, 1815, on his return from Elba, the emperor reviewed 
the same grenadiers previous to marching with them to Paris. 

The site of the Palace is said to have been formerly occupied 
by a fortified chateau founded by Louis "VII. about the year 1162. 
The present edifice was almost entirely constructed and decorated 
by a number of French and Italian architects, sculptors and artists 
under Francis 1. (d. 1547), whose favourite residence it became. 
Henry IV. afterwards made considerable additions, and Louis XV. 
substituted a new wing for one of the period of Francis I. It 
subsequently became a favourite residence of Napoleon I. , but 
its after the restoration was much neglected. For its rescue 
from its dilapidated condition it was indebted to Louis Philippe. 

In addition to the historical associations mentioned in the 
course of the following description , a few more may now be 



198 



38. FONTAINEBLEAU. 



enumerated. Here, June 4th, 1602, Henry IV caused his com- 
panion in arms Marshal Biron to be arrested on a charge of high 
treason and a month later to be beheaded in the Bastille. Here 
in 1685 Louis XIV. signed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, by 
which in 1598 Henry IV. had granted toleration to the Protestants. 




r^7^fiii,f> ■ / ■ /ill 



A. Place de l'Etape aux vins. 

B. Place du grand Marche. 

C. Place du Palais de Justice. 

D. Place d'Armes. 

E. Place aux charbons. 

F. Place de Ferrare. 

1. Sous-Prefecture. 

2. Hotel de Ville. 

3. Poste. 

4. Grand Quartier de Cavalerie. 

5. La Charite. 



6. Poste aux Chevaux. 

7. Mauutention. 

8. Magasins a Fourrnges. 

9. Cour du Cheval Blanc oo des 
Adieux. 

10. Cour de la Fontaine. 

11. Jardin de TOrangerie. 

12. Cour Ovale ou du Donjon. 

13. Cour des Princes. 

14. Cour de Henri IV ou des Cuisines. 

15. Pavilion de l'Etang. 



38. FONTAINEBLEAU. 199 

In 1808 the dethroned king Charles IV. of Spain was confined 
during 24 days in the palace hy order of Napoleon. Here too, 
Dec. 16th, 1809, the divorce of Napoleon from Josephine took place. 

The palace is usually entered by a door below the Escalier 
du Fer-a-cheval , so called from being in the form of a horse- 
shoe, situated on the E. side of the Cour du Cheval Blanc. This 
central "Pavilion des Peintures" is adorned with a bust of Francis I., 
placed there by order of Louis Philippe. 

An attendant (fee 1 fr.) here receives the visitor and con- 
ducts him through a long series of apartments, many of them sump- 
tuously fitted up, but possessing no great artistic merit. A few 
only of the more interesting objects need here be enumerated. 

The Galerie des A'ssiettes derives its name from the porcelain 
plates with which the wainscoting is decorated. 

The Appartements des Reines Meres were once occupied by 
Catherine de Medicis (d. 1588, mother of three kings, Francis II., 
Charles IX., Henry III.) and by Anne of Austria (d. 1666), mother 
of Louis XIV. The same apartments were assigned to Pope 
Pius VII. during his imprisonment from June, 1812, to January, 
1814. Under Louis Philippe they were redecorated for the re- 
ception of the Duke and Duchess of Orleans. The pictures are 
by Coypel, Mignard, Vien and other French masters ; the tapestry 
is from the Gobelins manufactory. 

The Oalerie de Francois I., 200 ft. long and 20 ft. in width, 
contains 14 large frescoes by Rosso and Primaticcio , containing 
allegorical and mythological illustrations of the adventures of 
Francis I. The walls are decorated with reliefs, caryatides, 
trophies and medallions, among which the letter "F" and the 
salamander, the emblem of Francis I., are frequently repeated. 

In the Salle d'abdication Napoleon signed the document by 
which he resigned his imperial dignity, April 6th, 1814. The 
table on which this was done is still shown. The adjacent 
sleeping apartment is in the same condition as when occupied 
by the emperor. 

In the Salle du Trone, which is richly decorated and contains 
a magnificent chandelier of rock-crystal, the marshals of France 
formerly took their oaths of allegiance. 

The Oalerie de Diane, a long corridor erected under Henry IV. 
and restored by Napoleon I. and Louis XVIII., contains a number 
of paintings from historical subjects ; the ceiling is decorated with 
mythological scenes from the lives of Apollo and Diana. 

(The Petits Appartements, situated below the Galerie de Diane, 
formerly accessible by ticket, are now under repair and closed 
to the public. They comprise the room in which Christina of 
Sweden, whilst a guest at the French court after her abdication 
in 1654, caused her unfortunate secretary and favourite Count 
Monaldeschi to be put to death after a pretended trial. Louis XIV. 



200 38. FONTAINEBLEAU. 

expressed his strong disapprobation of this proceeding, but took 
no farther steps in the matter, and for two years longer Christina 
continued to reside at Fontainebleau. A marble slab in the- 
pavement of the small church of Avon, a village on the E. side 
of the park, about 1 M. from the palace, bears the inscription: 
"Ici fut inhume, le 15 octobre 1657, a 6 hemes du soir , le corps 
de Monaldeschi, mis a mort dans la galerie des Cerfs, a 4 heures 
et demie du mtme jour."~) 

The Galerie de Henri II., a spacious Salle de Bal, 95 ft. in 
length and 32 ft. in breadth, was erected by Francis I. and 
magnificently decorated by Henry II. for Diana of Poitiers. Her 
emblem, a half-moon, and the initials "H" and "D" frequently 
meet the eye. This sumptuous saloon was carefully restored 
under Louis Philippe. 

The paintings , the subjects of which are exclusively mytho- 
logical , were executed by Primaticcio and his pupil Nicolo del 
Ablate, and afterwards revived by Alaux. The chimney piece in 
white marble, decorated with lilies, is a fine work by Rondelet. 

The Chapel of St. Saturnin contains windows filled with stained 
glass executed at Sevres from designs by the Princess Marie of 
Orleans (p. 87). Here Pope Pius VII. usually performed mass 
during his detention in the palace. The chapel occupies the site 
of a more ancient edifice founded by Louis VII. and consecrated 
by Thomas a Becket, at that time absent from England on 
account of his differences with Henry II. 

In the adjoining Galerie des Colonnes, of the same dimensions 
as the Galerie de Henri II., the nuptials of the Duke of Orleans 
with the Princess of Mecklenburg were solemnized according to 
the rites of the Protestant church. The Roman Catholic ceremony 
took place in the Chapelle de la Trinite, where in 1725 the 
marriage of Louis XV. with Maria Lescinska of Poland was cele- 
brated, and in 1810 Napoleon III. was baptized. 

The Porte Doree, of the period of Francis I., as the salamander 
which is occasionally introduced among the decorations indicates, 
a magnificent portal adorned with revived frescoes designed by 
Primaticcio, leads to the Cour Ovale or Cow du Donjon, the 
most ancient in the palace and remarkable for its Renaissance 
decorations. Facing this portal is the Allie de Maintenon. 

The Jardin Anglais, behind the palace, merits a visit. The 
Parterre was laid out by Le Notre in the style of that period. 
The Etang, a fine sheet of water, contains a number of remark- 
ably large carp , which visitors generally amuse themselves by 
feeding. The Chasselas de Fontainebleau are grapes of a superior 
quality which are here trained on long frames (Treilles du RoiJ. 

A lofty Obelisk at the S.W. extremity of a small plantation 
in the rear of the palace and garden , marks the spot where at 
a cross path in the forest the ''wild huntsman" is said to have 



38. FONTAINEBLEAU. 201 

appeared to Henry IV. shortly before his assassination by Ra- 
vaillac (1610). 

The *Forest of Fontainebleau has for centuries been the 
favourite chasse of the monarchs of France. It is abundantly 
stocked with deer and pheasants, and is remarkable for its stri- 
kingly picturesque scenery. It is 60 M. in circumference and. 
possesses an area of 50,000 acres. It is intersected by paths in 
all directions and affords the most delightful walks and rambles. 

Those who are desirous of thoroughly exploring the forest 
are recommended to procure the admirable Carte topographique 
de la foret et des environs de Fontainebleau by Denecourt (scale 
1 : 100,000), which may be purchased (2 fr.) in the vestibule of 
the Escalier du Fer-a-Cheval (p. 198). Strangers whose time is 
limited may also visit the finest points under the guidance of 
a conducteur (about 5 fr. per diem), or by carriage (about 12 fr. ; 
Rue de France 49 and 59). Mules and donkeys may also be 
hired. Good walkers, however, furnished with the above mentioned 
map, may by the aid of the numerous direction -posts which the 
forest contains explore every part of it without difficulty. It 
should be observed that the blue marks , which M. Denecourt, 
the publisher of the map, has been instrumental in causing to 
be placed on trees and rocks , indicate the way to the most 
picturesque points ; the red marks of the forest administration 
point in the direction of the town. 

Ordinary visitors seldom have leisure to extend their excursion 
beyond the Bochers et Gorges de Franchard, about 3 M. from 
the town, the route to which they may, by attending to the 
following directions, find without a guide. 

From the Barriere de Paris, at the N.W. extremity of the 
town, the broad path, which diverges to the left from the high 
road to Paris, must be taken ; after 35 min. a cross-way (carre- 
four) is reached, where the road to the left must be followed, 
from which after 5 min. a footpath to the r. diverges, leading 
through the forest in 5 min. more to the Restaurant de Franchard,. 
one of the most frequented spots in the environs of Fontainebleau. 

The celebrated Rochers et Gorges de Franchard, a rocky basin 
overgrown with trees and bushes, about 3 M. in circuit, commence 
about 5 minutes walk to the W., at the Rochers des Ermites and 
the "Roche qui pleure" , a short distance beyond the ruins of an 
ancient monastery (now forester's dwelling). The water- which 
trickles from this "weeping rock" is popularly believed to be 
beneficial in cases of diseases of the eye ; its appearance , how- 
ever, is not inviting. "Veau que filtre le rocher qui est proche- 
votre cellule n'est ni belle a voir ni bonne a boire" wrote the 
Abbot of Ste. Genevieve upwards of 800 years ago to the founder 
of the monastery above alluded to. The accuracy of this opinion 
may be tested on the spot. 



202 38. FONTAINEBLEAU. 

Above the Roche qui pleure a, good survey of the entire gorge 
is obtained: in the distance to the N. the Gorges d'Apremont, 
another well known rocky wilderness, are visible. These ravines 
all partake of the same character, being strewn with huge blocks 
of "gres de Fontainebleau" , a species of hard white sandstone 
of which a considerable portion of the paving -stones of Paris 
are formed. 

The visitor may now return to the town by the same route. 

An excursion to the Rochers and Gorges dApremont and the 
neighbouring Bas-Breau is not less interesting than the above. 
This locality affords an admirable field for artists, a whole colony 
of whom have established themselves at the village of Barbison 
in the vicinity. (The village of Marlotte , on the opposite verge 
of the forest, contains a similar community.") 

Many of the magnificent forest -trees of the Bas-Breau are 
designated by various names, such as Henri FV. , Sully, Reine 
Blanche etc. Between the Rochers d'Apremont and the Monts 
Girard, another chain of hills, the Dormoir extends, a plain partly 
wooded and partly covered with rocks and heath, one of the most 
beautiful portions of the forest and a favourite rendezvous of 
the Imperial chasse. In the upper part of the Gorges d'Apremont 
is situated the Caverne de Brigands, said once to have been the 
haunt of bandits. The only inhabitant of this locality at the 
present day is an individual who lives in a rustic hut and sup- 
ports himself by the sale of beverages, carved walking-sticks, 
living reptiles etc. 

Among the innumerable other delightful rambles which the 
forest affords may be mentioned the Belle Croix with its numerous 
miniature lakes (mares), the largest of which is the Mare a Piat; 
the Hauteur de la Solle, near which, in the Vallee de la Solle, 
races take place in summer; and above all the Gros Fouteau, 
with its magnificent forest-trees, at no great distance from the 
town, the Rendez-vous des Artistes in the vicinity, and the Gorge 
aux Loups and Longs Rochers near the village of Marlotte. 

The most beautiful view in the neighbourhood of Fontaine- 
bleau is afforded by the *Fort de l'Empereur, which may be 
attained with ease in 25 min. from the railway station. By the 
unpretending restaurants of the station the road to the left must 
be ascended; after 10 min., where the wood commences, it should 
T>e entered to the left and the broad, sandy path followed, leading 
to the eminence on which the "Fort" is situated. This is a bel- 
vedere , constructed in the form of a small fortification, which 
commands a most strikingly picturesque panorama, embracing a 
great portion of the forest, and to the N. and E. the chain of 
hills studded with numerous villages , at the base of which the 
Seine flows. The town of Melun is a conspicuous object; Paris 
itself may in favourable weather be distinguished in the distance. 



NORTHERN FRANCE. 

A. ROUTES FROM LONDON TO PARIS. 



39. By Folkstone, Boulogne and Amiens. 

By Tidal Express Trains (see advertisements in the "Times" or 
"Bradshaw" from Charing Cross or London Bridge in 10 — 12 hrs., average 
sea-passage 2 hrs.; fares 2 L. 11 s. 8 d. and 1 L. 18 s., return tickets valid 
for one month 4 L. 7 s. and 3 L. 7 s. — Passengers with single tickets 
may break their journey at the principal stations and spend 7 days on 
the route. Omnibus from the harbour at Boulogne to the railway station 
gratis. Luggage registered from London or Folkstone to Paris is not 
examined before arrival at Paris (station, Place Roubaix). 

By Steamboat from London to Boulogne daily (see adver- 
tisement in the "Times" or in "Bradshaw") and thence to Paris by railway ; 
total 14—17 hrs. excl. of detention at Boulogne, where the trains do not 
always correspond with the steamers; river - passage about 6 hrs., sea- 
passage 3 hrs.; fares 25s. and 18s.; tickets available for 10 days. This 
is the cheapest and in favourable weather the pleasantest route. 

Boulogne-Sur-Mer. (Hotels: *des Bains; *d' Angleterre; du 
Nord, all in the Rue Napoleon and in the vicinity of the harbour. Oppo- 
site to the steamboat-wharf: London and Folkstone Hotel. Near 
the baths : Hotel de laMarine and Grand Hotel du Pavilion, com- 
manding a fine view. — Restaurants: Vermond and Cafi de France et 
d'Angleterre in the Rue Napoleon; Cafi Veyez, Grand'Rue 1. — Voitures de 
place: per drive 1 fr. 50 c, per hour 2 fr. for the first, 1 fr. 75 c. for the 
following. — Diligence to Calais 3 times daily in 31/2 nrs - — English Church 
Service in the Haute- Ville , the Basse-Ville , the Rue Royale and the Rue 
de la Lampe.) 

Boulogne, termed "sur mer" to distinguish it from Boulogne- 
sur-Seine near Paris, the Bononia (?) or Oesoriacum of the Ro- 
mans, is an important sea-port town, situated on the Liane, with 
a population of 36,265, of whom upwards of 2000 are English. 
The aspect of the town may be said to combine a certain amount 
of English comfort with French taste. It possesses 120 educational 
establishments, many of which enjoy a high reputation. 

The Basse-Ville is situated on a slight eminence which rises 
gradually from the river. A broad street [Rue de la Lampe, 
Rue St. Nicolas, Orand'Rue) leads from the Pont de I'Ecluse to 
the Haute-Ville. This line of streets is intersected by another 
(Rue Napoleon , Rue Royale) , from N.W. to S.E. , the most ani- 
mated portion of the town, where the principal shops are situated. 

The *Museum (open to the public on Sundays , Thursdays 
and Saturdays from 10 to 4 o'clock; at other times, fee 1 fr.), 
situated in the Grand'Rue, merits a visit. 1st Room: curiosities 
from China, India and the South Sea Islands; French coins and 
medals, among the latter one bearing an inscription which will 
provoke the smile of the English traveller : "Descente en Angle- 



204 39. BOTJLOGNE-SUR-MER. From London 

terre, frappe a Londres", in reality "frappe"" at Paris in 1804 for 
the purpose of commemorating Napoleon's projected invasion of 
England. — 2nd Room: Roman antiquities, ancient weapons and 
armour, carving, coins etc. — 3rd Room: Celtic, Greek and 
Egyptian antiquities, amongst the latter a mummy, pronounced 
by the celebrated archseologist Champollion to be a finer specimen 
than any of those contained in the Louvre. — A large hall 
contains casts from -well known sculptures. — The upper story 
contains pictures, stuffed quadrupeds etc. — On the basement story, 
to the left, models of naval and architectural objects, of the Co- 
lonne Napole'on and the Tower of Caligula. — The Library contains 
30,000 vols., among which are some good specimens of early printing. 

At the extremity of the Grand'Rue, to the left, is the Es- 
planade, adorned with a colossal bust of Henry II. of France by 
David, commemorating the restoration of the town to the French 
by the English (1550). 

The Haute-Ville, enclosed by lofty walls, is entered by the 
Porte des Dunes, within which, to the left, the H&tel de Ville 
is situated, occupying the site of an ancient castle where in 1065 
the crusader Godfrey de Bouillon, third son of the Count de 
Boulogne, was born. The lower portion of the tower dates from 
the 1 1th. cent., the upper portion from the year 1544. 

The Cathedral, situated in the vicinity, a modern and still 
unfinished building in the Italian style , occupies the site of a 
Gothic church demolished in 1793. The perforated vaulting of 
the cupola over the transept is peculiar. The principal point of 
attraction in this edifice is the lofty dome, conspicuous from a 
great distance and affording a most extensive *prospect, com- 
prising the downs, the elevated plain which the road to Calais 
traverses, in the foreground the Colonne Napoleon, and in the 
distance , in favourable weather , the white cliffs of the English 
coast. The entrance to the staircase is by a door to the right 
in the interior of the church (access gratuitous). 

The Crypt, discovered in 1840 during the construction of the 
church, is believed to date from the 8th or 9th cent. Entrance 
(1 fr.) near the staircase to the dome. 

The E. angle of the Haute-Ville is formed by the Chateau, 
in which Louis Napoleon was confined after the attempted in- 
surrection of 1840. It is now converted into barracks and an 
artillery depot. No. 3, Rue du Chateau, in the vicinity, is the 
house in which Lesage, the author of Gil Bias, died (1747). 

The Harbour, especially the W. portion near the Douane 
and the steamboat-wharf, in the vicinity of some of the principal 
hotels, presents a scene of the greatest animation. 

At the extremity of the harbour is situated the Etablisse- 
ment de Bains, a spacious building, open from May to November, 
but far inferior to that of Dieppe. 



to Paris. 39. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. 205 

Towards evening the Pier (Jetee), which extends upwards of 
500 yds. from the shore, forms a favourite promenade. The op- 
posite (W.) pier is 180 yds. longer. Both are provided with 
light-houses. 

The spacious, semi-circular Basin on the left bank of the 
Liane was constructed by order of Napoleon I. to accommodate 
the flotilla which was to convey his troops to England (see below). 

The Fish-Market is held at an early hour in the morning on 
the quay, near the Hotel des Bains. The fishermen and their 
families occupy a separate quarter of the town on the W. side 
and constitute one tenth of the entire population. They are re- 
markable for their adherence to the picturesque costume of their 
ancestors, and in their character and usages differ materially from 
the other inhabitants of the town. The women ( Matelottes) , as 
is usually the case in communities of this description , exercise 
unlimited sway on shore, whilst the sea is the undisputed domain 
of their husbands. 

Jesus Flagelle, a small chapel lVa M. to the N. of the town, 
a few hundred paces to the left of the Colonne Napoleon is a 
place of pious resort, much frequented by the fishing population 
as the greater number of the votive tablets indicate. 

Boulogne possesses upwards of 250 fishing boats, which during 
the herring fishery extend their voyages as far as the Scottish 
coast and even to Iceland, and in favourable seasons realize a 
sum of 60,000 L. 

In 1804 Napoleon assembled an army of 172,000 infantry and 
9000 cavalry on the table-land to the N. of Boulogne, under the 
command of Soult, Ney, Davoust and Victor, and in the harbour 
a flotilla consisting of 2413 craft of various dimensions, for the 
purpose of invading England and establishing a republic there. 
The troops were admirably drilled and only awaited the arrival of 
the fleets from Antwerp, Brest, Cadiz and the harbours of the 
Mediterranean, which had been formed several years previously 
■with this express object. Their union was prevented by the 
English fleet under Sir Robert Calder, and the victory of Nelson 
at Trafalgar (Oct. 22nd, 1805) completed the triumph of England 
and the discomfiture of the entire undertaking. 

The Colonne Napoleon, a pillar of marble of the Doric order, 
160 ft. in height, situated l 1 / 2 M. from Boulogne on the road to 
Calais, was founded in 1804, the first stone being laid by Marshal 
Soult in the presence of the whole army. It was not , however, 
completed until 1841. The summit is occupied by a statue of 
the emperor, one of Bosio's finest works. The basement is ad- 
orned with reliefs and emblems of war. The view from the 
summit (custodian's fee 50 c.) is similar to that commanded by 
the dome of the cathedral. Model in the museum (p. 204). 



206 39. ABBEVILLE. From London 

A Block of Marble , situated about 3 /4 M. nearer the coast, 
commemorates the distribution of the decorations of the Legion 
of Honour to the army in 1804. It was removed after the Resto- 
ration but subsequently replaced. In the vicinity is the pilgri- 
mage chapel of Jesus Flagelle, mentioned above. 

Nearer the town, on the chalk cliffs (falaises) above the bathing 
establishment , are seen the scanty remnants of a Roman tower 
(La Tour d'Ordre, perhaps from turris ardens), conjectured to 
have been a light-house, erected by Caligula in the year 40, who 
like Napoleon made an unsuccessful attempt to invade England 
from this point. When this district was conquered by the English 
in 1544, the tower was still standing and at a distance of 
200 yds. from the cliffs. A century later it fell, and since that 
period the sea has made such encroachments that the fragments 
of the tower are new close to the verge. Model in the museum 
(p. 204). 

The railway-station at Boulogne is on the left bank of the 
Liane, close to the bridge. 



On quitting the station the train traverses the valley of the 
Liane. The country soon becomes flat and uninteresting. Near 
the station of Pont-de-Brique is situated a chateau in which Na- 
poleon frequently resided, and whence several of his imperial de- 
crees emanated. The following station is Neufchdtel. 

The train now traverses sandy downs and crosses the Cauche 
by a long bridge. Near the station of Etaples two lofty light- 
houses are conspicuous objects. Montreui I - Verton is one of the 
places mentioned in Sterne's "Sentimental Journey". Near Noyelle, 
situated in the midst of a dreary expanse of sand , the Somme 
was crossed by Edward III. before the battle of Cressy. The 
train now quits the sea-coast and proceeds inland, generally 
following the course of the Somme. 

Abbeville (Hotel de V Europe; Tete de Bauf) is a manufac- 
turing town of ancient origin, with a population of 20,058. The 
principal object of interest is the unfinished Church of St. Wolfram, 
founded by Cardinal d'Amboise, the minister and favourite of 
Louis XII., at the commencement of the 16th cent. The facade 
with its three portals, a richly decorated specimen of florid Go- 
thic, merits examination. 

The district now becomes more picturesque as the fertile 
valley of the Somme is ascended. After passing several stations 
of minor importance the train traverses three short tunnels and 
stops at the station of 

Amiens (Hotel de France; Hotel de Paris; Hotel du Rhin 
situated in a small garden near the station; Hotel de l'Univers; 
*R ail way Restaurant), the ancient capital of Picardy, now of the 
Department of the Somme, with a population of 58,780, is one 



to Paris. 39. AMIENS. 207 

of the most considerable manufacturing towns in France. In 1802' 
the peace between France and England was here concluded. 

The *Cathedral, one of the finest Gothic structures in Europe, 
was erected in 1220—1288 by the architects Robert de Luzarche,. 
Thomas de Cormont and his son Renault. The lofty tower over 
the transept, 350 ft. in height, was erected in 1529 to replace 
a tower which had been destroyed by lightning two years pre- 
viously. The uncompleted towers of the W. facade belong (the 
lower) to the 13th and the 15th centuries The three lofty 
Portals, with their retiring arches , are richly decorated with re- 
liefs and statues. The reliefs of the central portal represent the 
Final Judgment, the statues the 12 Apostles. "Le beau dien 
d'Amiens" is an admirable figure of the Saviour which separates 
the doors of this portal. Above the portal to the right is repre- 
sented the entombment of the Virgin, above that to the left the 
history of St. Firmin, the apostle of Picardy. 

The church possesses a nave and transept with two aisles. 
The choir with its four aisles is flanked by a series of 7 lateral 
chapels. The chapels in the other aisles were added at a period 
subsequent to that of the original edifice. The magnificent rose- 
windows, each upwards of 100 ft. in circumference, are filled 
with stained glass. A visit to the triforium , which commands 
a good survey of the church, may conveniently be combined with 
a walk round the external gallery and the ascent of the tower. 
(The sacristan lives to the left of the W. facade; fee 1 fr.) 

The S. transept contains a high relief of the 16th cent., painted and 
gilded, representing in four compartments the history of St. James the 
Great. The N. transept contains similar reliefs, representing the expul- 
sion of the money-changers from the Temple. A species of stone vessel, 
resembling a sarcophagus and probably dating from the 11th cent., is be- 
lieved to have been employed in ancient times as a font. 

The N. wall of the choir is adorned with reliefs representing the his- 
tory of John the Baptist; those on the S. side illustrate the life of St. Firmin, 
sculptured in 1480 and 1539. 

Behind the high-altar is a monument to Canon Lucas, executed at the 
commencement of the last century by Blasset. Between the statues of the 
canon and the Virgin is a much admired weeping angel ("enfant pleureur v ). 

The stalls of the choir are fine specimens of carving of the commence- 
ment of the 16th cent, and deserve examination. At the entrance to the 
choir are placed statues of St. Vincent de Paul and St. Carlo Borromeo. 

With the exception of the cathedral Amiens possesses little 
to arrest the traveller A colossal statue of Dufresne Ducange 
(d. 1688), an eminent linguist and native of Amiens, is passed 
on the way from the station to the town. 

At Longueau (Rail, restaurant), the first station after Amiens, 
the lines from Boulogne and Calais unite. 

Near Boves are seen the ruins of an ancient castle in which 
Henry IV. frequently resided with the beautiful Gabrielle d'Estrees. 
A view is here obtained of the picturesque valley of the Noye. 



208 40. CALAIS. From London 

Clermont, to the right, the next station of importance, is si- 
tuated on a grassy eminence, crowned with an ancient chateau, 
now employed as a prison. The district here becomes extremely 
picturesque and animated. 

Liancourt. To the left of the line a handsome church of the 
16th cent. By the desire of Henry IV. Gabrielle d'Estrees was 
married to a certain Seigneur de Liancourt, a man of deformed 
stature and deficient intellect, on condition that he should never 
see her again after the ceremony. 

As the train approaches Creil (*Refreshment-room) it skirts 
the bank of the Oise. Extensive porcelain manufactory on an 
island in the river. 

Beauvais, 1 hr. by railway to the N. W. of Creil, possesses a mag- 
nificent, though uncompleted, Gothic cathedral, remarkable for its noble 
and lofty proportions. 

The direct line to Paris is via Chantilly and St. Denis. Mont- 
martre rises to the right as the city is approached. The 
magnificent Station du Nord, erected in 1863, is adorned exter- 
nally with a number of statues emblematical of the principal 
■cities of Europe. — Conveyances see p. 1. 

40. By Dover, Calais and Amiens. 

By Express Trains, starting from the London Bridge, Charing 
Cross, Victoria and Blackfriars stations, in IOV2 — HV2 hrs.; sea passage 
generally under 2 hrs. ; fares 2 L. 17 s. 10 d. and 2L. 2 s. 6 d- ; tickets avai- 
lable for 7 days, with option of halting at Dover, Calais and Amiens; re- 
turn-tickets, valid for one month, 4 L. 7 s. and 3 L. 7 s. Luggage should 
be registered, in order that the examination at Calais may be avoided. 
By Steamer from London to Calais twice a week (comp. ad- 
vertisement in the "Times" or in "Bradshaw") and thence to Paris by 
railway; total 15—20 hrs., excl. of detention at Calais where the trains 
seldom correspond with the steamboat; river-passage about 6 hrs.; sea- 
passage 41/2 — O hrs.; fares 31 s. 3 d. and 33 s. 3 d., tickets [available for 
10 days. 

Calais (Hotels: Station Hotel, conveniently situated at the termi- 
nus; de France. — Sea- Bathing : to the Jf. of the Bassin de Ketenue. — 
Military Music in the Grande Place on Sundays and Thursdays from 2 to 
4 o'clock. — Diligence to Boulogne twice daily (in31/2 nrs -) from the Grande 
Place, N. side — English Churches: in Calais and in the Basse Ville) 
is an important military point and is surrounded by strong for- 
tifications (24,018 inhab.). Its form is an oblong square, the N. 
side of which is bounded by the Bassin a Plot, the Port de 
Vechouage and the Bassin du Paradis. Courgain, a suburb con- 
tiguous to the latter, is inhabited exclusively by sailors and fisher- 
men. The Quai de Marie, which extends into the sea for a con- 
siderable distance, forms an agreeable promenade. 

In front of the Hotel de Ville, in the Grande Place, stand two 
small obelisks, adorned with busts of the Due de Guise and Car- 
dinal Richelieu. The former retook the town from the English 
in 1558, after it had been held by them for two centuries; the lat- 



to Paris. 40. ARRAS. 209 

ter was the founder of the citadel and arsenal. When the mili- 
tary band plays (see above), the Grande Place is a favourite re- 
sort of the townspeople. — The Church, in the early Gothic style, 
was erected whilst the town was in the possession of the English. 
Calais, together with the Basse-Ville, contains a greater num- 
ber of English residents than Boulogne ; most of them, however, 
are laee-manufacturers and persons in humble life. 



Quitting Calais, the train skirts a portion of the fortifications, 
follows the bank of the Aa, and crosses the Canal d'Ardres. The 
district traversed is flat and marshy, and being below the high 
tide level is protected by embankments. 

Near the station of Ardres, to the right of the line, the cele- 
brated meeting of Henry VIII. and Francis I. on the "Field of 
the Cloth of Gold" took place in 1520. 

St. Omer (Ancienne Poste ; Hotel de France ; Hotel d'Angleterre), 
a fortified town with a population of 25,706, is situated on the 
Aa in a marshy, uninteresting district. The Cathedral is a fine 
edifice in the transition style. The Abbey of St. Bertin, of 
which a few scanty fragments only remain, once afforded an asylum 
to Thomas a Becket, whilst an exile in France. St. Omer also 
contains a Seminary for English and Irish Roman Catholics, the 
attendance at which is very small. English Church in the Rue du 
Bon Pasteur; number of English residents about 450. 

Hazebrouck ( Trois Chevaux ; St. George) is the next station of 
importance, being the junction of the lines from Calais, Dunkirk and 
Lille. The direct line to Paris is by Arras (Griffon; St. Paul; Hotel 
de VEurope ; Hotel du Commerce), a fortified town of considerable 
importance, with a population of 25,905, situated on the Scarpe. 
It is the seat of the bishop and contains three important schools 
for officers of the engineers. The Grande Place and the Place 
de I'Hotel de Ville present an interesting aspect, many of the 
houses dating from the 15th and 16th centuries. Their mediaeval 
exterior, by a decree of the town-council, may not be altered. — 
Robespierre was born here. — When in 1640 the French captured 
the town, at that time occupied by a Spanish garrison, they found 
the following inscription over one of the gates: 

"Quand les Francois prendront Arras, 
Les souris mangeront les chats". 

Instead of removing this couplet they contented themselves with 
erasing the first letter of the fourth word, thus exactly reversing 
the meaning. 

After passing several stations of no great importance, the train 
stops at Longueau (Rail, restaurant), where passengers for Amiens 
(10 min. by rail) change trains. From Longueau to Paris by Creil 
(R. 39) see p. 207. 

Btedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 14 



210 



41. By Newhaven, Dieppe and Rouen. 



By Express Tidal Train (during the season) from London Bridge, 
Victoria and Kensington stations in 12 — 15 hrs. (see advertisements in 
the "Times" or "Bradshaw"); single tickets, available for 7 days, 30 s. and 
22 s., return-tickets, available for one month, 50 s. and 26 s.; sea-passage 
about 6 hours. Luggage should be registered. This route is one of the 
least expensive and in favourable weather most agreeable, but not re- 
commended in winter. 
Dieppe. (Hotels: Royal, Bristol, des Bains, all facing the 
shore; Victoria and de Londres opposite the harbour; Chariot 
d'Or, *du Commerce and Armes de France, more moderate. — 
Restaurants: Lafosse, Grand' Rue 90, and adjoining the bath establish- 
ment; Restaurant de la Place d' Armes, Grand' Rue 56; Cafi Suisse on the 
quay. — Omnibus to the station 40 c, luggage 20 c. — English Church 
Service every Sunday). 

Dieppe (20,187 inhab.J is situated in a valley formed by two 
ranges of lofty, white chalk-cliffs, at the mouth of the Arques 
which forms a harbour capable of containing vessels of consider- 
able size. As a sea-port and commercial town, the vicinity of 
Havre has deprived it of its former importance. The trade of 
Dieppe is now principally confined to its traffic in fish. As a 
watering-place, however, it is in a flourishing condition, being 
patronized by the present emperor and annually visited by a large 
number of English, as well as French families. 

The principal attraction for visitors is the *Etablissement de 
Bains, the paradise of loungers during the bathing season and 
replete with every convenience. In front are placed about 
200 small tents, which serve as dressing-rooms, whence the 
bathers descend into the water, accompanied by a guide-baigneur, 
if necessary. In favourable weather the scene is very animated 
and novel withal to the English visitor. 

Soon after 2 o'clock the band begins to play, and towards 3 
the promenades in front of the bath establishment and along the 
beach are crowded. The gardens in the rear of the establishment 
afford sheltered walks, and contain gymnastic apparatus and a 
riding-course. At the entrance, bathing-tickets may be purchased. 

On the way from the bathing-place to the town is situated 
the Bazaar, occupying a circular space, in the centre of which is 
a mast with a red flag, hoisted when the tide is favourable for 
bathing. Here the beautiful carved ivory ornaments manu- 
factured at Dieppe may be purchased. 

In the immediate vicinity of the bazaar rises the handsome 
and extensive Castle, with its massive walls, towers and bastions, 
erected in 1433 as a defence against the English. In 1694, how- 
ever, it was unable to prevent the wanton cannonade of the 
English fleet, then returning from an unsuccessful attack on Brest; 
the result of which unequal contest was the total destruction of 
the town. The view from the summit, and especially from the 



41. DIEPPE. 211 

lofty bridge, is very extensive, but beyond this the castle possesses 
nothing to attract visitors. 

The church of St. Jacques (the patron saint of fishermen), 
in the Place Nationale, dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. 
The interior is, however, sadly disfigured. Near the church is 
the Statue of Duquesne, a celebrated admiral and native of 
Dieppe (d. 1687), who conquered the redoubtable De Ruyter off 
the Sicilian coast in 1676. The Dutch hero soon after died of 
his wounds at Syracuse. Duquesne, who was a Calvinist, was 
interred in the church of Aubonne on the Lake of Geneva. 

On market-days, Wednesdays and Saturdays, an opportunity is 
afforded to the stranger of observing some of the 'singular head- 
dresses of the Norman country-women. 

The Jetee de 1'Ouest, situated at the N.W. extremity of the 
town, forms an agreeable evening promenade, and with the oppo- 
site Jetee de VEst constitutes the entrance to the harbour. Towards 
the S.E. the harbour terminates in the Bassin de Retenue , flanked 
by the Cours Bourbon, an avenue 3 / 4 M. in length , and affording 
a retired and sheltered walk. 

This basin contains an extensive Oyster Park, formerly one 
of the principal sources from which Paris derived its supplies. 
The oysters are first brought from the inexhaustible beds of Cancale 
and Granville to St. Vaast near Cherbourg, whence they are after- 
wards removed to Dieppe. Here they are "travaillees"; or dieted, 
so as materially to improve their flavour and render them fit for 
exportation. It has been observed that the oyster, when in a na- 
tural state, frequently opens its shell to eject the sea-water from 
which it derives its nourishment and to take in a fresh supply. 
In the "park" they open their shells less frequently, and after a 
treatment of a month it is found that they remain closed for ten 
or twelve days together, an interval which admits of their being trans- 
ported in a perfectly fresh state to all parts of the continent. Since 
the completion of the railway from Paris to Cherbourg the oyster- 
park of Dieppe has lost much of its importance, and the metropolis 
now derives its chief supplies from a more convenient source. 

Contiguous to the oyster-park is a restaurant of humble pre- 
tension, where the delicious bivalve (75 c. per dozen), fresh from 
its native element, may be enjoyed in the highest perfection. 

le Pollet, a suburb of Dieppe inhabited exclusively by sailors 
and fishermen, adjoins the Bassin de Retenue on the N. side. The 
population differs externally but little from that of Dieppe. It is, 
however, alleged that they are the descendants of an ancient 
Venetian colony , and it is certain that to this day they possess 
a primitive simplicity of character unknown among their neigh- 
bours. On the coast, l'/j M. to the N.E. of this point, is situated 
the so-called Camp de CSsar, more probably of Gallic origin. 

14» 



212 41. DIEPPE. From London 

Near it is another Bathing-place, with a restaurant, affording 
greater retirement than the establishment at Dieppe. 

By far the most interesting point in the environs of Dieppe 
is the ruined castle of Arques, situated at the confluence of the 
Bethune and Arques, about 4 M. to the S.E. of the town It is 
memorable in history as the scene of the victory gained by Henry IV. 
with his army of 4000 men over 30,000 men of the League under 
the Due de Mayenne, Sept. 21st. 1589. The issue of the con- 
test, as Sully records in his memoirs, was mainly due to the 
execution done by four cannons which were fired from the castle 
walls. The spot where the fiercest struggle took place is denoted 
by an obelisk. 

The best route from Dieppe to Arques is by St. Pierre, di- 
verging to the left from the Rouen road immediately outside of 
the town. Those who prefer to drive may proceed by carriage 
(in IV2 hr.) as far as the auberge of Arques, whence the castle 
must be visited on foot. The view from the summit repays the 
ascent, and comprises the valleys of the Arques, the Bethune and 
the Eaulne. 

The excursion may also be made by water (ascent l 1 /.^ re- 
turn 3 / 4 hr.). Boatmen may be engaged at the Bassin de Re- 
tenue, into which the Arques flows. 

From Dieppe diligence twice daily (office on the quay) to Abbe- 
ville (p. 206) in 8 hrs. , coupe" 8 fr. ; to St. Valtry three times 
daily Passengers usually breakfast or dine at Ville d'Eu (*H6tel 
du Cygne), where these two routes diverge. 



Soon after quitting Dieppe the train passes through a tunnel, 
upwards of 1 M. "in length , and enters the valley of the Scie, 
which it crosses 22 times. After passing several stations of mi- 
nor importance , the train reaches Malaunay, where the Rouen- 
Havre and Dieppe lines unite. From this point to Rouen the 
district traversed is picturesque and animated, abounding in cot- 
ton and other factories. 

Rouen. (Hotels: d'Albion and d'Angleterre, both on the quay, 
R. 2Va—5 fr., B. II/21 D. 3 fr. ; Hotel de France, Rue Grand-Pont, 
less expensive: Hotel Fromentin, Rue de rimperatrice ; Hotel du 
Commerce, Rue duBec; de Normandie, Rue duBecl3; du Grand 
Vat el, Rue des Carmes70. — Restaurants : *Heurt event andJacquinot, 
both in the Petite Provence on the quay. — Cafes: Hugnot, on the quay, 
near the Exchange; Cafe" de la Place de Notre Dame, near the 
Cathedral, etc. — Omnibus: from the station to the town 40 c, luggage 
20 c; several different lines traverse the city. — Voilures: 1 fr. 25 c. per 
drive, luggage 50 c; per hour l'/ 2 fr. — The "Confitures", for which Rouen 
is celebrated, may be purchased of Ci'lestin Magni, Rue des Carmes. — 
English Church Service in the chapel at Sotteville at 11, a. m., and in the 
French Protestant Church, Place St. Eloi.) 

Rouen, formerly the capital of ancient Normandy, now of the 
Department of the Seine Infe'rieure, with a population of 102,649 



QJXOt ' 




ibtuii' 




to Paris. 41. ROUEN. 213 

exclusive of the suburbs, is of all the cities of France the richest 
in mediaeval architecture. The ancient houses (Maisons Nor- 
mandes) with their quaint wooden fagades are however unfortu- 
nately rapidly disappearing , and the picturesque aspect of the 
city has been considerably marred by modern improvements. It 
is, moreover, of great importance on account of its cotton fac- 
tories , and has not inaptly been termed the Manchester of 
France. Rouen is likewise one of the principal depots of the 
wines of Bordeaux, which are conveyed hither by small sea ves- 
sels on the Seine. As in ancient times, this city and its envi- 
rons are still renowned for their superior breed of horses, as 
well as for the robust stature of the inhabitants, who furnish the 
French army with some of its finest troops 

The city is bounded on the S. by the Seine, which is here 
upwards of 300 yds. in breadth and separates Rouen from the 
suburb of St. Sever (20,000 inhab.). By the windings of the 
river Havre is about 100 M. distant. (Steamboats descend in 
8 hrs., a picturesque though somewhat tedious journey.) 

The other sides of the city are bounded by the boulevards, 
which resemble those of Paris, though of course less animated. The 
ancient ramparts and fortifications successfully resisted the attacks 
of Henry V. of England (1415) and Henry IV. of France (1591). 
The suburbs without the boulevards are occupied principally by 
the manufacturing portion of the population. The following walk 
will be found to comprise the most interesting points of the city, 
arranged in a convenient order, commencing with the river on 
the S. side. 

The Seine is here crossed by two bridges which unite Rouen 
with St. Sever. The Pont d'Orleans, the upper of these bridges, 
constructed of stone (1829), crosses from St. Sever to the lower 
extremity of the Re Lacroix , where the statue of Corneille (by 
David d'Angers) , a native of Rouen (d. 1684), is situated, and 
thence to Rouen. The street opposite to the bridge, recently 
constructed by the demolition of a labyrinth of old houses, leads 
to the Place St. Ouen. 

Farther down the river is situated the Grand Pont or Pont 
Suspendu (toll 1 c, carriage 15 c), a suspension bridge (1836), 
which affords an admirable survey of the river with its forest of 
masts, the streets flanking the quays, behind which rises the 
cathedra], and the numerous manufactories of St. Sever. 

The "Petite Provence", an avenue of trees opposite to the 
suspension bridge, is adorned with a statue of the eminent com- 
poser Boieldieu (d. 1834), who was a native of Rouen. Farther 
W. is the Bourse, which a small public garden adjoins, and beyond 
it the Quai du Havre, the Douane and Post-office. This is one 
of the pleasantest and most animated portions of the town. 



214 41. ROUEN. From London 

From the suspension-bridge a line of streets (Rue Orandpont, 
Rue des Carmes, Rue Beauvoisine) leads to the Boulevard Beau- 
voisine, intersecting the entire city from S. to N. Here the bpst 
shops are situated. The new and important Rue de V Imperatriee, 
to make room for which many of the ancient and narrow lanes 
have been demolished, extends from the quay below the sus- 
pension-bridge, passing the church of St. Vincent, the Marchi 
Neuf with the adjacent Palais de Justice, the Jardin de Solferino 
and the Tour du Donjon or de Jeanne d'Arc, to the Boulevards 
near the railway-station. 

At the extremity of the Rue Grandpont the traveller arrives 
at the Cathedral; thence to the right by the Rue des Bonnetiers 
to the church of Si. Maclou, and by the Rue Imperiale to St. Ouen. 
which may be regarded as the architectural gem of Rouen. The 
Hotel de Ville is contiguous to St. Ouen, after a glance at which 
the traveller should visit the Musee des Antiquites in the Rue 
Beauvoisine, near the boulevards. 

Thence to the Palais de Justice, Tour de la Grosse Horloyc, 

Place de la Pucelle, Hotel du Bourgtheroulde and back to the quay. 

The entire walk may be accomplished in the course of one 

morning; the evening may be devoted to the ascent of Mont 

Ste. Catherine or Bon Secours (p. 219). 

The *Cathedral (Notre Dame, Plan 1), the principal portions 
of which date from 1207—80, is one of the grandest Gothic edi- 
fices in Normandy. The central portal of the W. facade, towards 
the Place du Parois Notre Dame, was erected by Cardinal d'Am- 
boise, the favourite minister of Louis XII., at the commencement 
of the 16th cent., and profusely decorated in the florid style. 
The sculptures above the entrance represent the genealogy of 
Christ; to the left the beheading of John the Baptist, to the 
right the Virgin and saints. 

The two towers of the facade are of unequal height. The 
Tour de Beurre, the loftier and more beautiful, derives its ap- 
pellation from having been erected with the money paid for in- 
dulgences to eat butter during Lent. It once contained one of 
the largest bells in the world , melted down during the first re- 
volution. A few fragments were sent to the Mint at Paris, where 
they were employed in striking medals with the inscription: 
"Monument de vanite", detruit pour I'utilite, Van II. de Vegalite". 
The central spire, over the transept, was burned down in 1822, 
having been ignited by lightning, and is replaced by a most un- 
sightly tower of cast iron, 460 ft. in height, which sadly mars the 
exterior of the church. A spiral staircase ascends to the summit. 
The portals by which the transept is entered, dating from the 
15th cent., are more chaste in style than the above mentioned. 
The Portail des Libraires, to the N., so termed from the book- 
sellers' stalls which formerly occupied the court in front of it, 



to Paris. 41. ROUEN. 215 

is the more beautiful and deserves particular attention. The 
sculptures represent the Last Judgment. The Portail de la Ca- 
lendre, by which the church is entered on the S., is adorned with 
sculptures from the history of Joseph. The hanging figure is 
popularly believed to be that of a usurer, put to death in this 
manner for having employed false weights and measures, and 
whose property was confiscated and expended in the construction 
of this portal. The figure is, however, doubtless intended to re- 
present Pharaoh's baker. 

The interior of the church (440 ft. in length and 90 ft. in height) is 
in the early pointed style, and possesses three fine rose windows in the 
navp and transepts. A tier of small arches, placed between the columns 
which separate the nave from the aisles, is intended to give stability to 
the structure, but somewhat detracts from the grandeur of the effect. 

The last chapel on the S. side of the nave contains the tomb of Rollo 
(d. 927), first duke of Normandy, the corresponding chapel on the N side 
that of his son William, a Longue Epte" (d. 943); the figures, however, are 
probably not earlier than the 13th. cent. A modern screen separates the 
choir from the nave. The carving of the stalls dates from 14(37," the stained 
glass from the 13th cent. 

The Chapelle du Christ, contiguous to the high altar, contains an an- 
cient mutilated figure in limestone, 6I/2 ft in height, of Richard Coeur de 
Lion (d. 1199), discovered in 1838. His heart, which was interred in the 
choir, was found at the same time, and is now preserved in the museum. 
Its original resting-place in the choir is indicated by a small marble tablet 
with a Latin inscription. 

To the right in the Chapelle de la Vierge is the magnificent ^Monument 
of Cardinal George d'Amboise and his nephew, who was likewise a cardinal. 
It was executed in 1525 in black and white marble; under a richly de- 
corated canopy are the figures of the cardinals in a kneeling posture; in 
niches are placed figures of the 12 Apostles and beneath are the car- 
dinal virtues. 

To the left is the handsome *Monument of the Due de Brtze' (d. 1530), 
grand seneschal of Normandy, erected by his wife, the celebrated Diana 
of Poitiers (d. 1566), mistress of Henry II. Above is an equestrian statue 
of the duke; beneath, on a sarcophagus of black marble, he is represented 
as an emaciated corpse. At his head kneels his disconsolate widow in 
an attitude of prayer, at his feet stand the Virgin and Child. The inscription: 
^Indivulsa tibi quondam, et fidissima conjux, 
Ut fuit in thalamo, sic erit in tumulo n 
contains a deviation from the truth, for the "most faithful wife" was in- 
terred in the chateau of Anet, where she died. The monument is attri- 
buted to the celebrated Huguenot sculptor Jean Ooujon (p. 55). The altar- 
piece, representing the Adoration of the shepherds, is by Ph. de Champaigne. 

*St. Maclou (Plan 2), "un diminutif de St. Oueri", as it has 
not inaptly been termed, is a fine specimen of the florid style of 
the 15th cent. The central tower over the transept is a graceful 
structure, although incomplete. The sculptures which adorn the 
three portals are admirably executed. The wooden doors are re- 
markable for their exquisitely carved reliefs from biblical subjects, 
ascribed to Jean Goujon. The beautiful spiral staircase near the 
W. entrance is also deserving of inspection. 
**St. Ouen (Abbaye de St. Ouen; PI. 3), one of the most 'ex- 
quisite Gothic edifices in the world, far surpasses the cathedral 
in extent and in chasteness of style. It was founded in 1318; 



216 41. RODEN. From London 

the choir, chapels and transept were completed 21 years later, 
and the nave and tower towards the close of the 15th cent. The 
original plan having been followed throughout, the entire edifice 
exhibits a rare harmony of design. The tower over the transept, 
270 ft. in height, is surmounted by an octagonal superstructure 
with flying buttresses and turrets at the angles, a remarkably ele- 
gant specimen of open-work. The whole is terminated by a 
crown of fleurs-de-lis, the so-called "Couronne de la Normandie". 
The summit commands a fine prospect. — The towers of the 
W. facade have recently been judiciously completed, although not 
in strict harmony with the rest of the edifice. The sacrilegious 
outrages committed by the Huguenots (1562) and the republicans 
(1793) have also been carefully repaired, and the church is now 
one of the few perfect Gothic structures on the continent. 

The S. "Portail des Marmousets" , so called from the figures 
of the animals with which it is adorned, merits the most minute 
inspection. The reliefs above the door represent the death and 
assumption of the Virgin. 

The proportions of the interior (445 ft. in length, 83 ft. in 
breadth and 110 ft. in height) are distinguished by their graceful 
elegance. The walls appear to be almost superseded by the nu- 
merous (120) windows, all of which are filled with stained glass. 
The unusually lofty triforium is exceedingly beautiful. In the 
nave and transepts are three fine rose-windows , also filled with 
stained glass. 

Around the choir are situated eleven chapels, which the 
verger (IV2 fr.) opens, and whence several fine views of the 
interior of the edifice are enjoyed. 

Alexander Berneval, the architect of this noble church, is in- 
terred in the Chapel of St. Agnes, the second on the N. side (to 
the left) in the choir. Tradition alleges that in a fit of jealousy 
he killed his apprentice who in the execution of the rose-window 
of the N. transept had surpassed his master in skill. 

In the rear of the church and the adjoining Hotel de Ville a 
pleasant garden is situated, to which the public have access. The 
Chambre aux Clercs, a Norman tower of the 11th cent., is con- 
tiguous to the church on this side, and probably formed a portion 
of an earlier edifice which once occupied the same site. St. Ouen 
(d. 678), to whom the church is dedicated, was archbishop 
of Rouen. 

The H6tel de Ville (PI. 4), on the N. side of the church, 
was formerly within the precincts of the monastery of St. Ouen. 
The building is in the Italian style , with a row of Corinthian 
columns. The Picture Gallery (entrance to the r. at the end of 
the gallery on the second floor; open to the public on Sundays 
and Thursdays, to artists and strangers daily at the same hours; 



to Paris. 41. ROUEN. 217 

on the staircase the recumbent statue of the painter Guencault, 
who was born here and died in 1824) contains little to interest 
the visitor. No. 301. The Virgin with saints and angels, in the 
great gallery, deserves mention as a fine picture of the old Ger- 
man school, ascribed to Memling. Adjoining the museum is the 
Library, open daily fro,m 11 to 4 and from 6 to 9 o'clock, 
Sundays and Thursdays excepted , which contains upwards of 
110,000 vols, and a collection of MSS., among which are several 
valuable miniatures. In front of the Town Hall rises the Eques- 
trian Statue of Napoleon I. by Vital-Dubray. The metal consists 
of cannons captured at Austerlitz. A relief at the back repre- 
sents Napoleon visiting the workmen in the suburb St. Sever 
in 1802. 

The *Musee des Antiquites (PI. 5), situated in the cloisters 
of an ancient convent, in the Rue Beauvoisine, is an extremely 
interesting collection. Admission daily from 12 to 4; at other 
times for a fee of 1 fr. 

It contains numerous interesting relics found in Normandy. Of the 
Roman period: sarcophagi and a large, freely restored mosaic representing 
Orpheus. The collection of mediaeval curiosities is especially valuable. 
Documents of Richard Cceur de Lion with his seals, model of St. Maclou; 
a small glass box containing the relics of Richard's "lion" heart; shrine 
of St. Sever in the form of a Gothic chapel, adorned with silver statuettes, 
dating from the 12th cent., formerly in the cathedral ; five reliefs in marble 
representing the Final Judgment; a number of coins. Casts of the reliefs 
in the Hotel du Bourgtheroulde (p. 218); weapons; documents with signa- 
tures of celebrated persons, among which is one bearing the sign (a cross) 
of William the Conqueror; the door of Corneille's house etc. Then a col- 
lection of fayence-articles manufactured at Rouen, where the art formerly 
flourished. The museum contains such a vast number of interesting ob- 
jects which cannot here be enumerated, that a catalogue is almost indis- 
pensable. The fifteen windows are filled with stained glass from different 
secularized monasteries. The Cabinet of Natural History, in an adjoining 
building, is also a creditable collection. 

The Tour du Donjon, or de Jeanne d , Arc, in the Rue de 
l'linpe'ratrice, is the last remnant of a citadel erected by Philip 
Augustus in 1205, where Joan of Arc was afterwards imprisoned. 

St. Godard (PI. 6), between the Rue de I'lmperatrice and the 
Rue Beauvoisine, contains two fine stained glass windows of the 
16th cent. 

St. Patrice, situated to the W. of the Rue de l'linpe'ratrice, 
erected in 1535, merits a visit on account of the rich stained 
glass it contains. 

The *Palais de Justice (PI. 7), in the late florid style, re- 
sembles the handsome council halls of Belgian towns, although 
less lofty. The central portion of the edifice and the projecting 
pavilions form an entrance-court, enclosed by a railing. The left 
wing, the Salle des Procureurs, erected in 1493, is a spacious 
and lofty hall with an open roof, and once served as an exchange. 
The central part was erected under Louis XII., six years later, for 
the Cour de I'Echiquier of Normandy, the supreme tribunal in 



218 41. ROUEN. From London 

ancient times, subsequently under Francis I. termed "parliament". 
Here the assizes are now held. The residence of the former pre- 
sidents of the parliament, situated in the rear of the Palais, has 
been converted into another court of justice. The portress (50 c.) 
conducts visitors through the different apartments. 

In the vicinity rises the Tour de la Grosse Horloge or 
Beffroi (belfry), contiguous to and deriving its name from the 
clock-gateway erected in 1527. Several of the houses in this 
narrow, but extremely picturesque street (Grand' Rue) merit in- 
spection. 

Farther to the W., near the Theatre (PL 9), is the Place de 
la Pucelle, where Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in 1431. 
About 24 years later she was declared innocent of the crime of 
witchcraft by a papal bull, and the French, who it is well known 
had been her betrayers, being now masters of Rouen, erected a 
cross to her memory on the spot where she suffered. The place 
is now occupied by a paltry figure over a fountain. 

The adjoining Hdtel du Bourgtheroulde (PI. 10), which is 
here entered by a gateway, was erected by a M. de Bourgthe- 
roulde at the close of the 15th. cent, in the style of the Palais 
de Justice. The court contains a number of reliefs in marble, 
one of which represents the interview of the rival monarchs on 
the "Field of the Cloth of Gold". The graceful hexagonal tower 
is decorated with sculptures from biblical subjects. 

Descending hence to the quay of the Havre steamboats, and 
skirting the entire length of the wharf towards the E , the traveller 
will reach *Mont Ste. Catherine (380 ft.), which rises at the 
extremity of the city, immediately beyond the Champ de Mars. 
The summit is occupied by a few fragments of the fortress which 
Henry IV. captured from the troops of the League under Marshal 
Villars, and caused to be demolished. The ascent occupies 
V2 nr - The view is extensive and embraces the city with its 
numerous towers and chimneys, the course of the river, the rail- 
way and the animated and industrial environs. 

A still finer prospect may be enjoyed from the recently con- 
structed pilgrimage church of Notre Dame de Bon Secours, or 
*Bon Secours as it is usually termed, situated on the lofty bank 
of the river, 2 M. from Rouen. The view comprises the entire 
city, the course of the river for many miles above and below 
Rouen, and in the distance the rich and verdant pastures of 
Normandy. 

A delightful excursion may be taken to La Bouille, 15 M. 
below Rouen, by the local steamboat starting at 6 a. m. and return- 
ing at 2 p. m. The right bank of the Seine is bounded by pre- 
cipitous chalkrhills and studded with picturesque country residences 
and parks, whilst the left bank consists of rich meadows and 
pasturage. 



to Paris. 41. ROUEN. 219 

La Bouille (Hotel de la Renaissance) is a small but animated 
town, where several important high roads unite. The Ch&teau 
de Robert le Diable, the scanty ruins of which occupy the sum- 
mit of a hill in the vicinity, affords a charming prospect of the 
wooded mountains, portions of the valley of the Seine with its 
white chalk-hills, and in the distance Rouen with the cathedral. 



Passing by means of three tunnels under the Boulevards 
St. Hilaire and Beauvoisine and Mont Ste. Catherine, the train 
crosses the Seine, affording a beautiful view of Rouen to the right. 
To the left, on the Cote, or hills which rise from the river, is 
situated the church of Bon Secours. At Sotteville, the first station, 
the English church is situated. Tourville is the station for 
Elbeuf, 6 M. distant, a cloth-manufactuiing town of considerable 
importance. 

Near Oissel the Seine is again crossed, and is recrossed beyond 
Pont de VArche above the influx of the Eure. Between St. Pierre 
de Vauvray and Villers (Louviers in the vicinity is a town with 
extensive cloth-factories) the train penetrates the chalk hills by 
means of two tunnels. 

Near Les Andelys, 3 M. distant from the line, rise the ruins 
of the castle of Oaillard, erected by Richard Cceur de Lion to 
protect the Duchy of Normandy against the incursions of the French 
kings. It was afterwards employed as a state-prison. Here in 
1314 the infamous Margaret of Burgundy, consort of Louis X., 
was strangled by order of her husband. The castle was demo- 
lished by Henry IV. at the same time with other castles of Norman 
barons who were disaffected to the French supremacy. 

The station of Oaillon is situated opposite to the village of 
Courcelles. The chateau of Gaillon , erected in 1500, was one 
of the finest in Normandy and the favourite residence of Francis I. 
The lofty facade has been transferred to the court of the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts in Paris. The castle is now employed as a 
prison. 

The conspicuous tower of Vernon, once a strongly fortified 
town, was erected in 1123 by Henry I. of England. Here in 
1198 Philip Augustus of France sought refuge when conquered 
by Richard Cceur de Lion. The chateau of Bity in the vicinity was 
once the property of Louis Philippe. 

The tunnel between Bonnibres and Rolleboise cuts off the wide 
circuit which the river here describes. 

Romy possesses a chateau where Sully (d 1641), the cele- 
brated minister of Henry IV., was born in 1559. It was sub- 
sequently the property of the Duchess of Berry who resided in it 
from 1818 to 1830. 

The picturesque town of Mantes is memorable in history as 
the place where "William the Conqueror was so severely injured 



220 41. POISSY. From London 

by a fall from his horse that he soon afterwards died at Rouen. 
The lofty towers of the Gothic church of Notre Dame and 
of St Maclou are conspicuous objects in the town. The line 
continues to skirt the banks of the Seine and frequently commands 
fine views. 

Poissy, the next station of importance, was the birthplace of 
St. Louis, who frequently styled himself "Louis de Poissy". Here 
in 1561 a conference was assembled by order of the States General, 
with a view to adjust the differences between the Roman Catholic 
and Protestant parties. The former was represented by 6 cardi- 
nals, 36 bishops and numerous doctors of theology, the latter by 
Theodore Beza, the friend of Calvin, Peter Vermigli of Florence, 
professor of theology at Strasbourg, and other reformers. Their 
deliberations, however, led to no result owing to the intervention 
of the Sorbonne, the celebrated theological faculty of Paris, by 
whose influence and strong condemnation of the Calvinists the 
proceedings were terminated. — The cattle-market of Poissy is 
the most important in France, and together with Sceaux supplies 
the whole of Paris. It will, however, probably soon be transferred 
to the metropolis. 

Conflans, at the confluence of the Seine and Oise, lies to the 
left. The train now traverses the forest of St. Germain (p. 189). 
At Maisons-Laffitte the Seine is again crossed. The chateau was 
formerly the property of the Comte d'Artois (Charles X.). It was 
afterwards presented to Marshal Lannes by Napoleon, and finally 
purchased by M. Laffitte the financier. 

Near Bezons the line recrosses the Seine and at Colombes 
unites with the St. Germain railway. St. Germain with its palace 
is a conspicuous object on an eminence to the right. 

The Seine is crossed for the last time at Asnieres, near which 
the lines to Argenteuil and Versailles diverge. The train now 
passes Clichy and intersects the fortification of Paris; on emer- 
ging from a short tunnel under the Place de l'Europe it reaches 
the station in the Rue St. Lazare. Conveyances, see p. 1. 

42. By Southampton, Havre and Rouen. 

By Railway to Southampton in 3 hours; by Steamboat to Havre 
daily, generally at 11. 45 p. m. (see advertisements in the "Times'' or 
"Bradshaw") in 9Vl'— lOhrs. ; by Express from Havre to Paris in 5 hrs. ; 
by ordinary trains in 71/2 hrs.; omnibus from the quay to the station at 
Havre not incl. in the fare. Single tickets, available for i days 28 s. 
and 20 s.; return-tickets available for one month, 50 s. and 36 s. Luggage 
may be registered direct to Paris. — This "cheap and picturesque" route 
as it is styled in the advertisements, is one of the pleasantest in summer. 

By Steamboat from London to Havre direct twice a week (see 
advertisements of General Steam Navigation Company), average passage, 
incl. 5— 6 hrs. in the Thames, 16 hrs.; fares the same as above. 

Le Havre. Hotels: Frascati, opposite the beach, bathing-place; 
*de rAmiraute", Grand Quai 43; Hotel du Louvre and des 




'* ■MIL 



to Paris. 42. LE HAVRE. 221 

I n d e 8 , both in the Grand Quai ; de l'Europe, Rue de Paris ; d e 
Normandie, Rue de Paris, moderate. — Caf^s: *Reinart, Place du 
Spectacle ; Ouichard, Place Napoleon III. ; du Steele, well supplied with 
newspapers \ Alcazar, Chaussee d'lngouville, a concert every evening. — 
Omnibus to the station 30 c. — Voiture 1 fr. 25 c. per drive. — 
English Church, Rue d'Orleans; American, Rue de la Paix), formerly 
termed Havre de Grace from the chapel of Notre Dame de Grace 
founded by Louis XII. in 1509, was fortified by Francis I. in 
1516, and is now the harbour for Paris and one of the most 
important sea-ports of France (80,130 inhab.J. The buildings, 
as well as the commercial prosperity of the town, are of very 
recent origin. Its situation at the mouth of the Seine is ex- 
tremely advantageous. 

The Rue de Paris, intersecting the town from N. to S., is the 
centre of traffic. The handsome Hotel de Ville is a modern edifice, 
situated in the Place Napoleon III. with its Jardin Public. 

The original fortifications have been demolished, but the town 
and harbour are commanded by new forts erected on the heights 
of Jnaouville and Ste. Adresse (p. 222). 

The extensive docks are capable of containing 500 — 600 vessels 
of considerable tonnage, which can enter the harbour during 
3 — 4 hrs. every tide. The Retenue de la Floride is a large basin, 
by means of which, with the aid of a series of sluices, the accu- 
mulation of the deposits of the Seine at the mouth of the har- 
bour is prevented. This basin is connected with the spacious 
Bassin de I'Eure, constructed in 1846 — 1856, where the huge 
Transatlantic steamers lie. Extensive operations are still in 
progress for the improvement and fortification of the harbour. 

Next to Marseilles Havre is the most important sea-port of 
France, and is frequented annually by about 6829 vessels of an 
aggregate tonnage of 1,269,000. The average annual value of 
the exports is 729 million fr., that of the imports 541 million. 
The import duties amount to about 50, the export to 60 million fr. 

Opposite the Bassin de Commerce is situated the Theatre, 
erected in 1825, and considerably enlarged since a fire by which 
it was greatly damaged in 1843. 

Here, in 1796, Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, in an unsuccessful 
attempt to capture a French vessel, was stranded on the shallows 
of the estuary of the Seine and taken prisoner by the French. 

Opposite to the harbour rises the Muse"e, in front of which 
are statues by David d'Angers of Bernardin de St. Pierre (author 
of "Paul et Virginie" to which the reliefs refer) and Casimir 
de la Vigne , the dramatist , both natives of Havre. 

The *Museum (open on Thursdays and Sundays 10—4 o'clock, 
at other times for a gratuity) contains several saloons with stuffed 
animals, among which is a whale stranded near Havre , a room 
with casts, a collection of pictures, and the Casimir Delavigne 



222 42. LE HAVRE. From London 

Gallery, dedicated to coins, statuettes and antiquities. The same 
building also contains a Library. 

The *Jetee, or pier, near the Hotel Frascati, commands a 
fine view ; to the right rises the precipitous Cote d'Ingouville 
with its two lighthouses, to the left in the distance the coast of 
Honfleur, on the opposite side of the estuary. Numerous boats 
here afford the visitor an opportunity of enjoying an excursion 
by water. 

As Havre itself contains little to interest the traveller, those 
who have a few hours at their disposal are recommended to as- 
cend the eminence on which Ingouville, a town with 12,000 inhab., 
is situated. Since the removal of the ramparts of Havre, Ingou- 
ville and Oraville, another contiguous town, are now united with 
Havre, and contain numerous and handsome villas and gardens. 
The *view from the lighthouse which occupies the summit of the 
hill, l , /. i M. distant from the harbour of Havre, comprises the 
town with its forest of masts , the estuary of the Seine , to the 
S.W. in the distance the Rochers de Calvados, celebrated for their 
oyster-beds, and to the N. the promontory of La Heve with its 
two lighthouses. 

Havre being a convenient point of embarcation for the New 
World, shoals of emigrants are here periodically encountered. 

Honfleur (Cheval Blanc; Dauphin), a remarkably picturesque 
fishing-town, situated on the opposite bank of the estuary of the 
Seine (by steamboat in 40 min.), with a population of 9553, 
affords a delightful summer residence. (Railway in 6 — 8 hrs. to 
Paris by Lisieux , a station on the Paris and Cherbourg line.) 
The *C6te de Grace commands a magnificent prospect. The church 
of Ste. Catherine contains two pictures of some merit by Quellyn 
and Jordaens. 

Ste. Adresse (Hotel des Bains, concerts during the season; 
Hotel a la descente des Phares), delightfully situated a short dis- 
tance to the N.E. of Havre, and sheltered from the N. winds, 
annually attracts a considerable number of visitors. 

Trouville-SUr-Mer (Hotels: delaMer; deParis; d'Angleterre; 
de la Plage; *duBras d'Or et de la Poste, In the Rue des Bains. 
pens. 6 fr. per diem, excl. of breakfast and wine ; attendance 10 fr. per month), 
situated about 10 M. to the S.W. of Honfleur (by railway in 30 
min. ; by steamboat from Havre in 1 hr.), is now a fashionable 
watering-place , frequented by Parisians of the highest class 
(5200 inhab.). The Salon de Trouville (subscription 6 fr. per week) 
contains apartments devoted to balls, concerts, reading and play. 



The railway station at Havre is near the Cours Napoleon, not 
far from the Bassin Vauban. On quitting the station the traveller 
will observe Oraville, with its interesting church of the 11th cent., 
on the high ground to the left. 



to Paris. 42. HARFLEUR. 223 

Harflenr, once an important sea-port, is now entirely super- 
seded by Havre. Its harbour has, moreover, been completely 
filled up by the deposits of the Lezarde, which here falls into 
the Seine. In 1405 the town was taken by Henry V. of England, 
to whom the foundation of the church is attributed. It is a fine 
Gothic edifice, although in a sadly dilapidated condition. 

Nointot is the station for Bolbec, a flourishing industrial town 
with a population of 10,000. 

Yvetot is another manufacturing place with 9000 inhabitants, 
the ancient counts or soi - disants kings of which , are thus des- 
cribed by Beranger (d. 1857) in his usual playful manner : 

"II e'tait un roi d'Yvetot, 
Peu connu dans l'histoire, 
Se levant tard, se couchant tot, 
Dormant fort bien sans gloire , 
Et couronne par Jeanneton 
D'un simple bonnet de coton". 

Passing several unimportant stations, the train now quits the 
undulating and fertile table land (400 ft. above Rouen) of the 
Pays de Caux, as this district is termed, and descends to the 
lofty viaduct of Barentin, 1600 ft. in length, the highest arch of 
which is upwards of 100 ft. above the level of the valley. Shortly 
afterwards a tunnel, l*/ 2 M. in length, is entered, on emerging 
from which the train soon reaches Malaunay , where the Dieppe 
line diverges. From this point to Rouen, and Paris, see pp. 212 — 221. 



B. NORTH-WESTERN FRANCE. 



43. From Paris to Orleans and Tours. 

Chemin de Fer d'Orle'ans. Express to OrUans in 21/2, ordinary trains 
in 41/4 hrs. (fares 13 fr. 55, 10 fr. 15, 7 fr. 45 c); to Tours in 41/2— 93/ 4 hrs. 
(fares 26 fr. 20, 19 fr. 65, 14 fr. 40 c). Station in the Boulevard de THopital, 

comp. p. 24. 

' The line ascends the 1. bank of the Seine, which is occasio- 
nally visible on the 1. On the r. Jvry, a manufacturing place 
with 12,000 inhab. Stat. Athis-Mons lies at the confluence of 
the Orge and the Seine. 

From stat. Juvisy a branch-line diverges to the 1., following 
the course of the Seine , to the small manufacturing town of 
Corbeil and Maisse. 

The animated valley of the Orge is now traversed. After 
crossing the river, the train commands an extensive view to 
the r. The ruined castle of Montlhery, with its lofty tower 
(98 ft.), is a conspicuous object in the landscape. It was once 
a place of great strength and was often unsuccessfully besieged 



224 43. ORLEANS. From Paris 

before it came into the possession of the French kings. A battle 
took place here in 1465 between Louis and Charles the Bold, 
the leader of the French nobility (the "Ligue du bien public"), 
which although indecisive compelled the king to make conces- 
sions. The castle was destroyed in the wars of the Huguenots. 

At Bretigny a line diverges to the r. to Dourdan, Chateaudun 
and Vendome (110 M. from Paris), which will be prolonged to 
Tours and will then be the most direct route between Paris 
and Tours.- 

Stat. Chamarande possesses a chateau, erected by Mansard in 
the 17th cent. To the r. of stat. Etrechy the huge, ruined tower 
of Guinette becomes visible. It appertained to the citadel of the 
ancient town and rises immediately to the r. above the station. 

Etampes (Grand Courrier ; Bois de Vincennes), with 10,000 inhab., 
consists of a long street with many architecturally interesting 
buildings. The cathedral of Notre-Dame, in the round-arch and 
pointed style combined, possesses a very graceful tower. St. Martin 
was erected in the first half of the 12th cent. ; the foundations 
of the tower (15th cent.) have settled, so that it is considerably 
out of the perpendicular. St. Gilles, the Hotel de Ville and several 
other old buildings deserve inspection. 

Beyond Etampes the line ascends rapidly (1 : 125). The 
district is monotonous and uninteresting, but becomes more 
attractive as the vine-clad valley of the Loire is approached. 

Stat. Les Aubrais. Those who arrive by express here, change 
carriages in order to be conveyed to the town, 1 M. distant, the 
station of which is entered by the ordinary trains only. 

Orleans. *H6tel d'Orl<5ans, Rue Bannier 118, E. 2, B. 1, D. 31/o, 
A. l/2fi\ Hotel Lorret and Trois Empereurs, Rue Bannier 18. 
Hotel Boule d'Or. Near the station the Hotel St. Aignan, much 
frequented. — Cafe" Foy, Rue Bannier. — Bookseller A. Oatineau, 
corner of the Rue Royale and the Rue Jeanne d'Arc. — Omnibus 30, 
with luggage 60c. — Voiture 1V2 f r - P er course, 2fr. per hour. 

Orleans, the ancient Aurelianum, founded by the emperor 
M. Aurelius (according to others by Aurelian) on the site of 
Genabum which was destroyed by Caesar B. C. 52, lies on the 
r. bank of the Loire. It is the capital of the Department of the 
Loiret, with a population of 50,798. Its situation formerly rendered 
it a place of great military importance. It is now a quiet town, 
the ancient monuments of which have gradually given way to 
modern improvements. Its prosperity was materially injured by 
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. A handsome bridge con- 
nects the town with the suburb St. Marceau. From the bridge 
the principal street, the Rue Royale, leads to the Place du Martroy 
with the statue (see below) and is prolonged by the Rue Bannier 
to the Boulevards near the railway station. Below the Place the 
broad Rue Jeanne d'Arc diverges to the cathedral towards the E. 



to Orleans. 43. ORLEANS. 225 

The *Equestrian Statue of Joan of Are, by Foyatier, was erected 
by the town in 1855, "at>ec le conrours de la France entiere". 
The statue is 13 ft., the granite pedestal 14 ft. in height. The 
intention of the artist was to represent the Maid in the attitude 
of returning thanks to God for a victory, but the execution is 
somewhat unsatisfactory. The reliefs on the pedestal represent 
the principal events in the life of the heroine, beginning at the 
:>ack on the 1. : 1. Joan (born at the village of Domremy in 1412) 
with her flock summoned by saints to the succour of her distressed 
countrymen; 2. Her departure from Vaucouleurs ; 3. Interview 
at Chinon with Charles VII., whom she convinces of her divine 
mission ; 4. Entrance into the besieged town of Orleans, Apr. 29, 
1429: "Messire m'a envoye" pour secourir la bonne ville d'Orle"ans": 
(to the 1. above) Capture on May 7th of Tourelles, the tete- 
de-pont on the 1. bank of the Loire, in consequence of which 
the siege was raised (the Maid was wounded on this occasion); 

6. (to the r. above) Coronation of Charles VII. at Rheims, July 17th ; 

7. Joan wounded in the attack on Paris; 8. Her capture at Com- 
piegne in 1430 (comp. p. 245) ; 9. Her captivity at Rouen ; 
10. Her death (p. 218). 

The Cathedral, partially destroyed by the Huguenots in 1468 
was gradually restored in the 17th cent. The principal facade with its 
two truncated towers (268 ft. in height), was completed in 1766, 
the towers themselves in 1829. The vast dimensions of the 
exterior, as well as of the interior with its nave and double 
aisles, produce an imposing effect. The chapels of the choir are 
a fine specimen of late Gothic o/ the 14th cent. ; the stained 
glass is modern. 

On a marble basement adjacent to the cathedral rises the 
bronze statue of Robert Joseph Pothier, the eminent jurist (d. 1762), 
erected in 1859. 

In the same Place is situated the *H6tel de Ville, erected in 
the florid Renaissance style in 1530, restored in 1850 — 54. The 
Caryatides at the side-entrances are attributed to Jean Goujon. 
The interior (concierge 1 fr.) deserves inspection, especially the 
Salle des Manages and the Salle des Conferences with fine 
wainscoting and chimney-piece. One of the rooms contains a 
cast of a beautiful statuette of Joan of Arc on horseback, over 
a mortally wounded English soldier, executed by the Princess 
Mary of Orleans. 

To the S. of the Rue Jeanne d'Arc is situated the old Town 
Hall, erected in the 15th cent. It contains the Museum (open 
to the public on Sundays and Thursdays , 12 — 4 o'clock , to 
strangers at any time for a gratuity). 

Among the pictures may be mentioned Nos. 12—15 in the first saloon, 
painted for Richelieu by Claude Derret of Xamy, allegorically representing 
Bsedeker. Paris. ^mLEdttioa, 15 



226 43. BLOTS. From Paris 

the four elements and remarkable for their quaint style; 500. Statue of 
Venus, by J'radier; .496. Hebe with the eagle, by Vilain. In the room to 
the r. several modern pictures and a statue of Venus by Mollknecht ; on 
the 1. portraits. Then a room with casts and two others with sculpture, 
carving etc. The upper story contains a nat. history collection which 
comprises the Collection Departementale, exhibiting the Fauna of the environs. 

In the immediate vicinity is the so-called *House of Diana 
of Poitiers, a charming specimen of the Renaissance style, the 
side towards the court particularly well preserved. It contains 
the Musee Historique, a collection of local antiquities. 

No. 15 Rue de Tabourg, to the E. of the Rue Royale, is the 
so-called *House of Agnes Sorel (mistress of Charles VII.). No. 45 
in the same street is the House of Joan of Arc, in which she 
resided during her stay in the town. No. 28. Rue de la Recou- 
vrance is the House of Francis I. Several other ancient houses 
also merit inspection. 

The train from Orleans to Tours returns to Les Aubrais (p. 224). 
The express trains do not enter the station of Orleans, passen- 
gers for which by these trains change carriages. The best seats 
are now on the 1. 

The line traverses the broad and sunny valley of the Loire, 
on the N. side of the river. The district is well cultivated and 
abounds in vineyards. The river is rarely visible, but ancient 
towns and castles render the journey interesting. 

Stat. Meung possesses a Romanesque church and a half ruined 
castle peeping forth from the trees. The small and antiquated 
town of Beaugency is picturesquely situated between two hills. 
It is commanded by a venerable and massive square tower (10th 
or 11th cent.) which adjoins the castle. Town Hall of the 
16th cent. Then stat. Mer. 

An excursion may be made hence to the celebrated chateau of Cham- 
bord (near it the *H6tel St. Michael), situated to the S. of the Loire It 
was founded by Francis I., but not finished till the reign of Louis XV. 
The latter presented it to Marshal Saxe, who died here in 1750. It was 
subsequently occupied by Stanislaus Lescinsky, the exiled king of Poland. 
Napoleon presented it to Marshal Berthier, from whose widow it wa9 
purchased by the now exiled proprietor in 1821. 

Stat. Suevres, then Menars with a handsome chateau, once 
occupied by Madame de Pompadour. 

Blois (Hotel d'Angleterre), an ancient town with 20,331 inhab., 
situated on an eminence on the Loire, over which a bridge leads 
to the Faubourg Vienne, is the capital of the Department Loir-et- 
Cher. The chateau, once a residence of the French kings, is rich 
in historical reminiscences of Louis XII., Francis I., Henry III., 
and Catharine and Mary de Medicis. The church of St. Nicolas 
is a fine Gothic structure of the 12th cent. The Cathedral or 
Church of the Jesuits is by Mansard. The pleasant situation of 
the town attracts frequent visitors. Omnibus in 2 hrs. to Cham- 
bord (see above). 



toOrle'ans. 43. TOURS. 227 

The line now skirts the river, the bank of which is protected 
by a bulwark. Traces of the destructive inundation of 1866 
are still everywhere visible. S. of the Loire, beyond stat- Onzain, 
rises the handsome chateau of Chaumont, once the residence of 
Catharine de Medicis. 

Amboise (Lion d'Or), a town with 4570 inhab., possesses a 
chateau of the 15th cent., the interior of which however was 
entirely modernized by Louis Philippe, who kept Abdel Kader 
in confinement here. The latter was indebted for his liberation 
to the present emperor. The conspiracy of Amboise against the 
Guises in 1560 terminated in a fearful massacre of the Hugue- 
nots implicated. Leonardo da Vinci died at Amboise in 1519. 

The chateau of Chenonceaux on the Cher, erected by Francis I., 
exterior and interior in admirable preservation, is situated 9'/2 M. 
to the S. 

' Three stations in a fertile district. The train then crosses 
the Loire. To the 1. a number of cavities in the rocks, employed 
as dwellings, are visible, a somewhat strange apparition in the 
19th cent., which however is encountered in other localities in 
France. Stat. Montlouis. Then over the Cher to St. Pierre des 
Corps, where the express trains stop. Passengers by these trains 
change carriages for Tours. The ordinary trains only go as far 
as the town. 

Tours. *H6tel de l'Univers in the Boulevard, B. 4, D. 4, A. 
and L. U/2 ft 1 .; Hotel de Bordeaux and Victoria in the Boulevard; 
Hotel de l'Kurope, Rue de Paris 10; Hotel du Faisan, Rue 
Royale 9, all with similar charges and frequently occupied by families 
making a prolonged "stay. *Hotel du Croissant, less pretending, a 
commercial inn. — Cafes de la Ville and du Commerce in the Rue 
Royale. — Omnibus with luggage 60 c. — English Church Service. 

Tours, the Roman Caesarodunum, capital of the Turones, the 
central point of the Department of the Indre and Loire, formerly 
of the county of Touraine , with 41,061 inhab., is situated in a 
fertile plain on the 1. bank of the Loire. The river is crossed 
by a handsome bridge of 15 arches, from which the Rue Royale, 
the principal street, extends to the Boulevards, bisecting the town. 

In the Place in front of the bridge stands the statue of the 
celebrated philosopher Rene Descartes or Cartesius ; on the pedestal 
is inscribed the fundamental maxim of his philosophy: "Cogito, 
ergo sum". At the entrance of the Rue Royale, on the r., is 
situated the Hotel de Ville, on the 1. the Museum (open on Sun- 
days 12 — 4 o'clock). The latter contains pictures and casts on 
the first floor and on the second nat. historical and archEeological 
collections. 

To the 1. in the Rue Royale is the church of St. Julien, a 
fine Gothic edifice of 1224, parts of which are of still earlier 
date, restored in 1847. The interior is plain. 

15* 



228 43. TOURS. 

No. 35 Rue du Commerce (the second to the r. from the 
bridge) is a handsome *Renaissance edifice of 1400, recently 
restored. The same street contains several other interesting 
houses, e. g. the corner-house in the Vieux Marche. 

In the Rue Martin in the vicinity rise on opposite sides of 
the street two towers, the Tour de St. Martin and the Tour' de 
Charlemagne , which once pertained to the great cathedral of 
St. Martin. From the 7th cent, downwards this church was 
regarded as a most sacred shrine and was visited by vast num- 
bers of pilgrims , but was plundered by the Huguenots and 
totally destroyed in the revolution. The corn- hall was formerly 
a church of St. Clement, dating from the 16th cent. 

E. of the Rue Royale stands the *Cathedral of St. Gatien. 
The richly decorated principal facade, with its three lofty portals, 
dates from 1510. The towers were roofed in at a later period 
and consequently do not harmonize with the rest of the structure. 
The interior (12th — 15th cent.) is in the purest Gothic style. 
The wheel-windows and those of the chapels of the choir merit 
examination. The first chapel in the choir to the r. contains a 
Renaissance monument to the two children of Charles VIII., 
after whose death Louis XII., of the younger branch of the 
House of Valois, acceded to the throne in 1498. 

In proceeding hence to the river the traveller observes in 
the barracks to the r. an ancient tower, the last fragment of a 
castle erected in the l'2th cent. A chain-bridge (5 c.) crosses 
by an island to the other side of the river, on which there is 
a pleasant promenade. 

Tours attracts a number of foreign residents, especially English 
families, on account of the mildness of its climate. 

From Tours to Angers (651/2 M.) railway in 21/2— 3Vs nr8 -i fares 
12 fr., 9 fr. 25, 6 fr. 50 c. The line returns at station Cinq-Mars to the r. 
bank of the Loire, on which it remains. Station Saumnr, with 14,079 
inhabitants, is remarkable for its handsome Hotel de Ville and numerous 
windmills. Celtic antiquities in the vicinity. Angers see p. 232. 

From Tours to Le Mans (62 M.) by railway in 3 hrs.; fares 11 fr. 10, 
8 fr. 30, 6 fr. 10 c: Le Manx see p. 230. 

44. From Paris to Nantes by Chartres, Le Mans 
and Angers. 

247)/' M. Bv express in 9, ordinary trains in 15 hrs.; fares 44 fr. 35, 
33 fi\ 25, 24 "fr. 35 c. To Chartres (55 M.) express in 1^/3, ordinary trains 
in 2l/> hrs. •, fares 9 fr. 85, 7 fr. 40, 5 fr. 40 c. ; from Chartres to Le Mans 
(77 M~) express in 21/2, ordinary trains in 3l/« hrs. ; fares 13 fr. 90, 10 fr. 
30, 7 fr. 60 c. ; from Le Mans to Angers (6OV2 M -) by express in 2, ordinary 
trains in 3 hrs. ; fares 10 fr. 85, 8 fr. 15, 5 fr. 15 c. ; from Angers to Nantes 
(55 M.) express in 2, ordinary trains in 4 hrs.; fares 9 fr. 85, 7 fr. 40, 
5 fr. 40 c. — Railway station in the Boulevard Montparnasse (comp. p. 25) 



44. CHARTRES. 229 

Journey to Versailles see p. 168. No stoppages at the minor 
stations, except sometimes at Bellevue. 

Stat. St. Cyr possesses a celebrated military school , founded 
in 1806, where 350 pupils, who are received from their 16th 
to their 20th year, are prepared for the army. About 140 stu- 
dents annually obtain their commissions An establishment for 
girls originally occupied this spot, founded by Madame de Main- 
tenon, who died and was interred here in 1719. At St. 6yr a 
branch-line diverges to Dreux and Laigle. 

Rambouillet possesses an ancient chateau of the kings of 
France, where Charles X. signed his abdication in 1830. 

Stat. Maintenon, with its old castle, gives its name to Fran- 
chise d'Aubigne", widow of the author Scarron, who in 1685, 
when in her 50th year, was married to Louis XIV. The ruins of 
the huge aqueduct, which that monarch purposed constructing for 
his gardens in Versailles, are observed in the vicinity. From 1685 
to 1688 about 30,000 men, principally soldiers, were employed in 
this undertaking : but it was "never completed and Louis for the 
future avoided this locality. His successor employed part of 
the materials in erecting the chateau of Crecy for Madame 
de Pompadour. 

The valley is crossed by a long viaduct. The train crosses 
the Eure and reaches 

Chartres. *H6tel du Due de Chartres; Hotel duMonarqu e; 
Hotel de France, all in the Place des Epars and very unpretending. 
In the same Place Caf^s de France and du Monarque. 

Chartres, the loftily situated capital of. the Department Eure- 
et-Loire, with 19,531 inhab. , is one of the most ancient towns 
in France. 

The **Cathedral of Notre Dame is one of the finest Gothic 
edifices in France. The crypt dates from the beginning of the 
11th cent.; the upper part of the church was not completed till 
1260. The towers are not uniform; that on the S. side, 324 ft. 
high, belongs to the older structure; that on the N., 350 ft. high 
and of graceful open-work, was added in 1506 — 1514. 

The W. Facade, between the two towers, has three portals: in the 
centre the Porte Koyale, decorated with royal saints ; over the door Christ 
with prophets and elders. The entire facade is in the chaste style of the 
12th cent., the figures however somewhat approaching Byzantine stiffness. 
The N. and S. entrances, both much richer, roofed in and approached by 
steps , are of the 14th cent. The profuseness of ornamentation for which 
both exterior and interior are remarkable is very striking; upwards of 
1800 separate figures have been counted. 

The Interior produces a most imposing impression owing to the purity 
and vigour of its proportions. Length 403 ft., breadth 141 ft., height of 
nave 131 ft. Magnificent stained glass, principally of the 13th cent., repre- 
senting events in Scripture history and legends of saints ; the three wheel- 
windows merit special attention. 

The Choir possesses a double passage and seven chapels. The interior, 
of the last cent., harmonizes badly with the remainder of the church The 
outer screen is adorned with "reliefs in the late Gothic style (begun in 1514, 



230 44. LE MANS. From Paris 

not completed till 1706) , representing events from the lives of Christ and 
the Virgin; the detail remarkably elegant. In the first chapel on the 1. is 
the Vierge Noire, a miraculous image of the Virgin, which since the middle 
ages has been an object of profound veneration ; the surrounding walls are 
covered with votive offerings. 

The Lower Church (Durand, S. of the church, keeps the keys), pertain- 
ing to an ancient edifice of the 11th cent., extends under the entire upper 
church and contains a number of chapels, which are now undergoing res- 
toration. The ascent of the roof and the towers is recommended, more 
for the thorough inspection of the church itself than for the sake of 
the view. 

St. Pierre, in the lower part of the town, near a hussar-bar- 
rack, dating from the 12th to the 14th cent., exhibits the transition 
from the round-arch to the pointed style. 

At Chartres a much frequented corn-market is held on Satur- 
days. In the market-place, Place Marceau, between the old and 
new parts of the town on the side towards the railway station, 
stands an obelisk commemorative of General Marceau, a native of the 
town, "soldat a 16 ans, general a 23, il mourut a 27." Another statue 
of the general in bronze was erected in the Place des Epars in 
1851. Several ancient structures, such as the Porte Guillaume 
(14th cent.), deserve inspection. 

The railway from Chartres to Le Mans conveys the traveller 
past several small stations to Nogent-le-Rotrou, with an ancient 
chateau, once the property of Sully. The Hotel Dieu founded by 
him contains his monument and that of his wife ,in a kneeling 
posture, by Boduin (1642); his remains were disinterred and dis- 
persed in 1793. 

Stat. La Ferte Bernard possesses a late Gothic church of great 
merit. The town-hall is established in an old gateway. 

Le Mans. Hotel du Dauphin; Boule d'Or, commercial; Hotel 
de France, all in the Place des Halles. Cafes de FUnivers and de 
l'Europe etc. in the same Place. — Omnibus 30 c., with luggage 60 c. 

Le Mans, with 37,209 inhab., situated on an eminence on 
the 1. bank of the Sarthe , and the capital of the Department 
of that name, formerly of the province of Maine, is an ancient 
town of considerable importance and boasts of several attractive 
edifices. 

The *Cathedral of St. Julien, occupying the loftiest site in 
the town, is one of the most interesting churches in France. It 
owes its origin to different periods , the various styles of which 
present a most striking contrast. 

The simple W Facade dates from the 11th cent ; that on the S. con- 
tains a rich Portal in the Romanesque style of the 12th cent. At the 
S.W. corner a high block of sandstone built into the wall is believed to 
be of Druidical origin. The entire nave in the Romanesque style with 
pointed arches exhibits the transition state of the two styles and belongs 
to the 11th and 12th centuries. Certain portions bear manifest marks of 
great antiquity, and the construction of the external walls recals the 
Roman opus reticulatum (i. e. small stones with a superabundance of 
mortar, in contradistinction to the solid slabs of Gothic masonry). It is 



to Nantes. 44. LE MANS. 231 

therefore probable that remnants of the earliest structure, dating from the 
8th or 9th cent., still exist. 

The Choir on the other hand is constructed in the matured pointed 
style of the 13th cent., and the nave, especially in the interior, appears 
low and depressed when compared with the noble proportions of the for- 
mer. It possesses a double passage with 13 chapels and beautiful stained 
glass. The wheel-windows are of later date (beginning of 15th cent.). 

The r. transept contains the monument of Berengaria, consort of 
Richard Creur de Lion, placed here in 1821. The first chapel of the Choir 
to the 1. contains the monuments of Charles IV. of Anjou (d. 1492) and 
Guillaume de Bellay-Langey, a distinguished statesman and author under 
Francis I. 

Adjoining the cathedral is a handsome building in the Re- 
naissance style , termed Le Orabatoir. The house opposite the 
tower is said to have once belonged to Scarron (p. 229). Below 
the cathedral extend regular avenues, where the Theatre is situ- 
ated. The lower apartments contain a Musee Historique with nu- 
merous antiquities (open on Sundays 12 — 4 o'clock). 

The abbey-church of *Notre Dame de la Couture, at present 
undergoing restoration, possesses a fine portal of the 13th cent. 
The choir and crypt date from the commencement of the 11th cent. ; 
the nave and aisles are less ancient. 

The adjacent monastery has been converted into the Pre- 
fecture. The building also comprises a Library and Museum 
(Sundays, Thursdays, Fridays 10 — 3 o'clock). The pictures are 
mediocre. An *enamelled slab of the 12th cent., representing 
Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou and Maine, formerly de- 
corating his tomb in the cathedral, but removed during the Revo- 
lution, is an object of interest. There is also a Nat. Hist. Col- 
lection and several relics of antiquity. 

The town is connected with the quarter on the r. bank by 
several bridges. The bank affords a pleasant promenade, passing- 
several old-fashioned wood-mills, the motive power of which is 
the stream of the river. A good survey is obtained hence of the 
narrow and crooked streets of the older quarters of the town 
Near the river, on the r. bank, is situated *Notre Dame du Pre, 
an antique church of the 11th cent, with a crypt, now under- 
going renovation. Le Mans was occupied by the partisans of the 
Vendue in 1793, but was again wrested from them by Marceau 
(p. 230), who sanctioned a fearful massacre among the women 
and children who accompanied them. 

From Le Mans to Rennes and Brest see p. 240. From Le 
Mans to Tours see p. 228. 

The line now follows the valley of the Sarthe, which it fre- 
quently crosses. Stat. La Sute possesses a bridge of the time 
of Henry IV. and an ancient chateau, now the town-hall, once 
occupied by Gilles de Retz, better known as Barbe-bleue, who 
after having committed many enormities was burned at Nantes 
in 1440. 



232 44. ANGERS. From Paris 

At stat. Sable is a chateau of the last cent. ; black marble is 
extensively quarried in the vicinity, and several coal-mines are 
encountered. The Benedictine abbey of Solesmes, containing some 
celebrated sculpture in the late Gothic style, is situated l 1 / 2 M. 
from Sable. 

Several small stations ; then the junction of this line with 
that from Tours. As Angers is approached numerous slate-quarries 
are observed, which yield upwards of 150 million slabs annually, 
supplying a considerable part of France and of the neighbouring 
countries. 

Angers. *H6tel d'Anjou, agreeably situated in the Boulevard 
and the Champ de Mars; *Cheval Blanc, Rue St. Aubin. — Faisan; 
Londres on the quay etc. unpretending. — Cafe Serin, Rue St. Au- 
bin 41. — Omnibus 30 c, with luggage 50 c. — Steamboats to Nantes daily; 
fares 3 ir. 20, 2 fr. 20 c. 

Angers, capital of the Department Maine-et-Loire, formerly 
of the Duchy of Anjou, with 56,797 inhab., is situated on both 
sides of the Maine, which is formed by the union of the Mayenne 
and Sarthe a short distance above the town and empties itself 
into the Loire 5 M. below. Thus favourably situated in the 
vicinity of three navigable rivers, the town has always been a 
place of considerable importance. Its exterior has recently been 
extensively modernized, and its former sobriquet of "la ville noire" 
is no longer applicable. It still, however, contains a great number 
of interesting relics. 

The principal quarter of the town lies on the 1. bank of the 
river. The ramparts have been converted into boulevards. To 
the E. of these is an open space, the Champ de Mars; adjacent 
are the limited grounds and shady avenue of the Jardin du Mail; 
farther N. a small Botanic Garden. Descending the Boulevard 
to the W. the visitor reaches the *Castle, close to the river, a 
massive structure of the 13th cent, with moats and 17 round 
towers (70 ft. high). The interior now serves as a magazine 
and, with the exception of a late Gothic chapel, contains nothing 
worthy of special mention. 

In front of the castle stands the bronze Statue of King Rene 
of Anjou, a work of David, 1853 ; on the base are represented 
12 princes of Anjou, from Dumnacus, the opponent of Csesar, and 
Roland downwards; also lists of the dukes and counts of Anjou. 

The loftily situated *Cathedral of St. Maurice was commenced 
in the 11th, but not completed till the 13th cent. It is sur- 
mounted by two slender towers, the effect of which is somewhat 
marred by the Renaissance erection subsequently introduced bet- 
ween them. The principal facade exhibits the simple style of 
the 12th cent, and is adorned with sculptures, Christ and saints; 
higher up are statues of seven dukes of Anjou of a more re- 
cent period. 



to Nantes. 44. ANGERS. 233 

The interior consists of a long nave without aisles. To the 
1. of the entrance a basin for holy water of green marble, said 
to be of Byzantine workmanship and a gift of king Rene. The 
church is also remarkable for its rich stained glass of the 13th cent. 

The *Museum, in the Rue Courte, a short distance S. of the 
cathedral, occupies a most attractive edifice, partly Gothic and 
partly Renaissance, erected abcut 1500 (Sundays and Thursdays 
12 — 4 o'clock; at other times for a fee). The ground-floor con- 
tains casts; one hall and two rooms here contain the principal 
works of the sculptor David (d. 1856), a native of Angers, most of 
them presented by himself. There are altogether about 150 works, 
forming an instructive series. Five rooms on the first floor con- 
tain pictures by ancient and modem masters; a small "Holy 
Family" is attributed to Raphael. The mineralogical department 
in the Nat. Hist Cabinet is especially valuable. Also a collection 
of Antiquities and a Library. 

In the Rue Courte the traveller will also perceive the tower 
of St Aubin (12th cent.), belonging to a former monastery, now 
the prefecture. The neighbouring church of St. Martin (12th cent.) 
lias been converted into a magazine. 

At the N. extremity of the town, near the seminary and the 
Jardin des Plantes, stands St. Serge, an edifice of different pe- 
riods, portions of it very old. The simple nave, without tran- 
septs or aisles, is entered from the vestibule The choir of the 
llth cent, is borne by 6 very slender columns. 

The Maine is crossed at the N. end of the town by a chain- 
bridge, the Pont de la Haute Chaine (5 c). Beyond it, on the r., 
appears the extensive modern Hospice Ste. Marie, capable of ac- 
commodating upwards of 1000 patients and indigent persons. To 
the 1. the Hospice St. Jean, founded in the 12th cent. Below 
the bridge the ruins of the old Pont des Treilles are observed; 
farther on, the Orand Pont, or principal bridge A third bridge, 
the Pont de la Basse Chaine, crosses the river by the castle. 
A suspension-bridge formerly occupied this position, but fell in 
1850 as a batallion of light infantry were passing over it, 223 of 
whom were drowned 

On the r. bank of the Maine (not far from the Grand Pont) 
is the church de la Trinite, in the transition style of the llth 
and 12th centuries. The contiguous church du Ronceray, of the 
llth cent., is within the precincts of the Ecole des Arts et Metiers 
and in a very dilapidated condition. Both of these churches are 
undergoing restoration. St. Jacques, without the Boulevards, is 
also of very early origin. 

Several other mediaeval houses are encountered in the narrow 
streets of the old town. 

A visit to the slate-quarries, of which the most extensive are 
Des Grands Carreaux (omnibus in the Boulevard, corner of the 



234 44. NANTES. From Paris 

Rue St. Aubin, every even hour 40 c), is interesting. Another 
excursion (omnibus from the same point every half-hour, 25 c.) 
is to the Ponts_de Ce on the Loire, 2 M. distant. 

The line to Nantes crosses the Maine near stat. La Pointe 
and then follows the r. bank of the Loire. At stat. Champtoce 
are the ruins of the chateau of Gilles de Retz (p. 231), the veri- 
table French Bluebeard, who is said to have murdered upwards 
of 100 girls and children, whose blood he drank in order to 
restore himself to youth. To the 1. , on the opposite bank of 
the river, rises Montjean with a ruined monastery. 

Beyond stat. Ingrandes and Varades, St. Florent-le-Vieil is 
perceived on the opposite bank of the Loire, a place frequently 
mentioned in the wars of the Vendee, a district which commences 
at this point. 

At stat. Ancenis a suspension-bridge, at Oudon a lofty and 
ancient church-tower. Several tunnels and small stations are 
passed, and the train reaches 

Nantes. Hotels: Hotel de France, in the Place Graslin; Hotel 
du Commerce, Rue Santeuil; Hotel de Brgtagne, Place du Port 
Communeau 6, a quiet situation; Hotel de la Fleur, Place Neptune 4 ; 
Hotel de l'Europe, Place Neptune 7; Hotel de Paris, Rue Boileau, 
not far from the Passage; Hotel des Voyageurs, Rue Moliere. 

Restaurants and Cafes : several in the Place Graslin. Principal news- 
paper: Phare de la Loire. 

Omnibus with luggage 60 c. — Fiacre per drive 1 fr. 25 c, per hr. il/2 fr. 

Post-Office in the Passage Pommeraye. 

Consuls. English: Mr. P. Barrow, Rue Heronniere 6; N American: 
31. de la Montagnie, Quai Fosse 78. 

English Church Service, every Sunday. 

Steamboats to Angers, St. Nazaire, Bordeaux and other French seaports. 
A regular line of communication has also recently been established be- 
tween St. Nazaire and America (comp. p. 236). 

Nantes (popul. 113,625) is situated on the r. bank of the 
Loire, at the point where it receives the Erdre, coming from 
the N., which flows through the centre of the town, and the 
Sivre from the S. It lies 32 M. from the sea, so that vessels 
of small tonnage (200) only ascend as far as the town; it is 
however regarded as the fourth seaport of France (after Mar- 
seilles, Havre and Bordeaux). It is now the most important 
sugar-mart of France; in 1863 upwards of 60,000 tons were 
imported and here manufactured. The import-dues amounted to 
29,549,024 fr. An extensive ship-building traffic is also here 
carried on. 

Nantes was founded prior to the Roman period. It was subsequently 
one of the chief towns of Brittany. In the Revolution it was remarkable 
for its republican bias, and in 1793 strenuously and successfully opposed 
the partisans of the Vende'e. The town has acquired a melancholy cele- 
brity from the "Noyades" of Carrier, a brutal, ignorant miscreant, who had 
been an advocate in Auvergne, and was sent by the "committee for the 
public welfare" to Nantes Oct. 8th, 1793, but recalled on Feb. 1st 1794. 
He is said to have put to death within 4 months (the data of the different 
accounts vary) 6—9000 persons, a large proportion of whom were women 
and children. Not satisfied with the execution done by the guillotine and 




vilwmMS^ - 







Nantes. 

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6. Chateau G3.I- 

7. Couvent J r# Dame$£lanckeK B.3. : 

8 . « (2ftf £ 'rstttines G.I. 

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20 StSVnilien 

21. Sf Vincent- . 
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25 «>•« </<■ RH,- 
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28 ^Wusee cwcheolotf iaue 

29 •' d'hiettnre natlLT. E 2 

30 de peintiire T* 3 

31 Palais dc Justice D.2. 

32 Prefecture 12 
33. Science C 4- 
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to Nantes. 44. NANTES. 235 

the fusil, he caused many of his victims (as many as 600 in one day) to 
be thrown into the Loire. Persons of different sex were bound together 
in a state of nudity and committed to the waters : such were the "manages 
republicans" invented by this ruffian. In 1789 Nantes had a population 
of 81,000, but in 1800, notwithstanding a vast influx of new citizens from 
the Vendee, it numbered 75,000 only. It is estimated that in Nantes and 
the environs not fewer than 30,000 persons fell victims to the Revolution. 

Nantes is now a handsome town of modern construction. The 
numerous bridges which cross the different arms of the river impart 
to it a somewhat novel aspect. The central point of traffic are the 
Place Oraslin, with the theatre, and the Place Royale. The Rue 
Crebillon descends from the former to the latter, and from it 
the Passage Pommeraye, constructed in 1843, leads to the Rue 
de la Fosse. This animated arcade is remarkable for its three 
different stories, connected by stairs and thus accommodating itself 
the level of different streets. In the PLace Royale rises a large 
and sumptuous *Fountain; the principal figure in marble is the 
Loire, around which are a number of small bronze figures, re- 
presenting the tributaries Sevre, Erdre, Cher, Loiret etc. 

In the vicinity is St. Nicholas (PI. 18), a handsome modern church 
in the Gothic style, commenced in 1844; tower still unfinished. 

At the back of the church is situated the *Musee de Peinture 
(PI. 30), in a building restored in 1861. The five saloons, lighted 
from above, are admirably arranged, and the collection is one of 
the finest in the provinces (Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays 12 to 
4 o'clock; at other times fee 1 fr. ; generally closed in September)! 

1st Room. Most modern pictures, among which, on the r.: Hamon, 
Young mother and juggler. — 2nd Room. Older pictures: Two land- 
scapes, by Poussin; Adoration, by Honthorst (Gherardo delle Nolti). The 
most valuable addition to the museum, consisting of a series of fine pain- 
tings of the modern French school, is due to the bequests of two private 
collections. In the Collection Urvoy de St. Bedan: r. Ingres, Por- 
trait ; Giricault, Hussar ; Brascassat, several animal-pieces , the principal 
of which are *Bulls fighting; Horace Vernet, The nocturnal ride; De Curzon, 
Spinner; *P. Baudry, Charlotte Corday ; by the same, Repentant Magdalene; 
Destouches , Parting; "Grinier , Children attacked by a wolf; Ary Scheffer, 
Dying nun. — Collection Clarke de Feltre: r. Portrait of Frederick 
the Great; a number of heads, studies by P. Delaroche; H. Vernet, Abra- 
ham and Hagar; *Delaroche, Sketch of the mural painting in the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts (p. 151) ; Verboeckhoven, Sheep ; Grcuze , Boy reading ; Leo- 
pold Robert, Monk, Fisherboys, Girl of the neighbourhood of Naples; P. De- 
laroche, Mother and child; Flandrin, Young girl; Delaroche, Girl swinging; 
Fabre, Portrait of the Due de Feltre when minister of war in 1810; A. Hesse, 
Reaper; R. Fleury, Cuirassiers; Nattier, Girl with flowers. — In the Last 
Room, *Cleopatra, statue in marble over life-size, by Daniel Ducommun 
du Lode, presented by the artist who was a native of Nantes. 

The Natural History Museum (PI. 29) , Rue St. Leonard 3 
(Tuesdays , Thursdays and Sundays 11 — 3 o'clock) , contains a 
mineralogical collection formed within the Department, a mummy 
etc. The principal curiosity is the tanned skin of one of the 
soldiers who fell in 1793 whilst fighting against the army of the 
Vendue: before his death he had said to his comrades: "J'ai 
fait peur aux brigands (i. e. the Royalists) pendant ma vie, je 



236 44. NANTES. 

veux lew faire peur encore apres ma moit. Promettcz-moi de 
vous faive un tambour avec ma peau". This whimsical request 
was, however, only partially complied with. 

The Archaeoloyical Museum (PI. 28) , comprising Egyptian, 
Roman and mediaeval antiquities, is situated in the Rue Felix 14 
(Thursdays and Sundays 12 — 4 o'clock). — The public Library 
(PI. 3), Rue de l'Aigle 1 (daily , except Sundays and Mondays, 
11 — 4 o'clock) is a collection of considerable value. 

The *Palace (PI. 6) on the Loire was entirely renewed in 
the 16th cent.; some portions only are of earlier date. Part of 
it is employed as an arsenal (access permitted). 

The *Cathedral of St. Pierre (PI. 19), with unfinished towers, 
dates from different periods. A thorough restoration was com- 
menced in the 15th cent. , but has never been entirely carried 
out. The three portals of the W. Facade are remarkable for 
their profuse decoration with sculpture. The nave, 160 ft. iri 
height, is very impressive. Its loftiness and late Gothic con- 
struction present a marked contrast to the Romanesque choir of 
the 11th cent. 

Since the Revolution the S. transept has contained the *Mo- 
nument of Francis II., the last Duke of Bretagne, and his wife 
Margaret de Foix , a sumptuous work with numerous figures, 
saints and allegories in the Renaissance style, by Michael Colomb 
(d. 1514). 

The Cours St. Pierre and St. Andre, a broad promenade, 
separating the old town from the Faubourg St. Clement, is ad- 
orned with mediocre statues of Anna of Bretagne, Arthur III., 
Duguesclin and Clisson. In the centre is the Place Louis XVI., 
with a column (86 ft. high) surmounted by a statue of the king. 
Here on July 30th, 1830, a skirmish took place between the military 
and a band of enterprising youths who desired to uphold the charter. 
Ten of the latter, however, fell victims to their temerity. 

The Cours Napoleon, near the Place Graslin, is adorned with 
a statue of General Cambronne (PI. 34), a native of Nantes, 
erected by the town and the army in 1848. The words on the 
pedestal: "La garde meurt, mais ne se rend pas" are erroneously 
attributed to him. 

His grave, like that of General de Brea and the victims 
of the July Revolution, is in the principal burial-ground, the 
Cimetiere de la Misericorde. 

The seaport of Nantes is Saint Nazaire, at the mouth of the 
Loire, with 10,849 inhab., rapidly rising in importance. By 
railway (5 trains daily) in l 3 / 4 — 2 i / 2 hrs., fares 5 fr., 4 fr., 2V2 fr. 

From St. Nazaire Steamboat (Comp. Generate Transatlantique) on the 
8th of every month to St. Vincent, Cayenne and Panama (in 21 days, 1st 
cl. 1100, 2nd cl. 965 fr.); on the 16th of every month to <S(. Thomas, Havanna 
and Veracruz (in 24 days, 1st cl 1240, 2nd cl. 1100 fr.); every ten days to 
Lisbon, Cadiz, Gibraltar and Malaga (to Lisbon 1st cj. 220, 2nd cl. 150 fr.). 



237 



45. From Nantes to Brest. 



The Direct Railway , skirting the coast of Brittany, is open as far as 
Chdteaulin, a distance of 1771/.; M.-, one train daily in 8I/2 hrs., fares 
30 fr. 60, 22 fr. 70, 15 fr. 65 c. "Omnibus from the station at Chateaulin 
to the harbour (1 fr.), whence Steamboat to Brest in 4—5 hrs., fares 4 
or 3 fr. The last portion of the route is however expected to be com- 
pleted during the present year. 

Branch-line from Redon to Rennes. From Nantes to Rennes in 5, 
thence to Brest in 8 hrs. (p. 239) 

The peninsula of Brittany, 13,640 sq. M. in area, is intersected by 
chains of hills which rise to the height of 1200 ft. The rock-formation is 
principally granite ; the soil is poor, the climate stormy and rainy. The 
inhabitants, who are of Celtic origin , still cling to their ancient language 
and customs, and are the least advanced in civilisation of all the inhabitants 
of France. Rude Celtic antiquities (Menhir, stones placed on one end, sometimes 
upwards of 40 ft. high ; Dolms, or tables of stone, both probably employed 
as monuments to the dead) are still encountered in great numbers, but 
are gradually disappearing as cultivation advances. 

On leaving the principal station the train skirts the harbour 
on the Loire and passes the Palace and the Exchange (station). 
It then follows the hank of the river for some distance and 
finally proceeds inland. The S. coast of Brittany is flat and 
marshy and the sea is seldom visible, so that the journey is 
uninteresting. 

At stat. Savenay the branch-line to St. Nazaire (p. 236) di- 
verges, at Redon (Rail. Restaurant) the line to Rennes (p. 239). 

Several minor stations, then 

Vannes (*H6tel du Commerce; Hotel de France), capital of 
the Departement du Morbihan, with 14,564 inhab., a small har- 
bour and no gas, although a place of considerable importance. 

At Carnac near stat. Auray (Poste) the Celtic monuments of 
Brittany are most abundant. Branch-line from Auray to Napoleon- 
ville, formerly PonUvy (the former name, given to it by Napo- 
leon I., after having long been in abeyance, was revived under 
the second empire). 

Lorient (Hdtel de France), with 35,462 inhab., is an important 
military and commercial place of modern origin, strongly fortified 
and situated in a marshy plain. The next important place is 

Quimper (Hotel deVKpee), with 11,438 inhab., capital of the 
Department of Finisterre, possessing a handsome cathedral, 
pleasantly situated. 

A bleak stony district is next traversed and the train then 
descends to stat. Chateaulin (Grande Maison), charmingly situated 
in the valley of the Aulne, the continuation of which forms one 
of the branches of the harbour at Brest. The train crosses the 
river by an imposing viaduct. The steamboat journey to Brest 
is beautiful. The diligence accommodates a limited number of 
passengers only. 

Brest. Hotel de Provence (PI. a) , in the Champ de Bataille; 
Hotel du Grand Mnnarque (PI. b); Hotel des Voy aeeurs (PI. c), 



238 45. BREST. 

Rue de Siam 16; Hotel de la Marque, or de Nantes (PI. d), a com- 
mercial inn; Hotel de France. 

Omnibus from the station or the quay, with luggage 60c. 

Steamboats daily to Chdteaulin and Landerneau (see p. 239); to 
New York every fortnight (every other Saturday) in 10 days, 1st cl. 825, 
2nd cl. 500 fr. (the express from Paris at 8 p. m. on Fridays corresponds 
with these vessels which start on Saturday afternoon). 

Brest, situated near Cape Finisterre, the most W. point of 
France, with 67,833 inhab., possesses an admirable harbour, the 
best in France and one of the best in Europe. It extends 
between two promontories and is extremely capacious, being 
about 13 M. long and 2 i / i M. broad. The narrow (1 M.) entrance, 
Le Ooulet, is blockaded by a rocky island, which renders it almost 
impregnable, and commanded by powerful batteries, numbering 
about 400 guns. An extensive system of fortifications protects 
these batteries and the various forts towards the land-side and 
at the same time commands the inner roadstead. The latter is 
divided into two main arms, which with numerous creeks and 
inlets at last terminate in rivers. The N. arm, that of Landerneau, 
is the estuary of the Elorn; the S., that of Chateaulin, is formed 
by the influx of the Aulne. 

At the mouth of a deep, ravine-like creek, on the N. side 
of the roadstead, the town of Brest is situated. The principal 
part of the town lies on the 1. bank, connected with the suburb 
Recouvrance by a massive iron bridge, capable of being opened 
to admit of the passage of the vessels of war from the docks 
situated within it. The Naval Harbour is established in this 
creek, which is 30 ft. in depth. At the issue stands an ancient 
castle of the Dukes of Brittany, modernized by Vauban and in- 
corporated with the other fortifications. The improvement of the 
harbour was commenced by Richelieu in 1631, and subsequent 
governments have prosecuted the works down to the present 
time. These operations have been conducted on a gigantic scale, 
and in many places vast excavations in the solid granit have been 
necessary. The entire establishment comprises three docks, a 
number of workshops for the manufacture of cables , sails, 
machines, cannon etc., extensive magazines, sailors' barracks ac- 
commodating 3500 men, a large hospital etc. (permission to visit 
the dockyard obtained at the office of the "Etat Major" on ex- 
hibiting a passport or visiting-card). 

To this vast naval station, the workshops of which employ 
8 — 9000 hands , Brest is indebted for its importance and busy 
traffic. In other respects it is a place of modern aspect and 
destitute of attraction. The Cours Ajot, a charming promenade, 
affording an extensive survey of the roads, is however deserving 
of mention. 

At the foot of the latter, near Portztrein, to the 1. of the 
entrance to the inner government-harbour, the commercial haTbour 



Ho tela. 

b.dtUh'tuutMonarqueMTiW^ 
v.clee Vo&ageurw . C 4-. 
d.dc JVcuUes . B3. 



PONJp'ANIOr 





ZiA.Anst.ton J.lr. BclA itt, Zeipzia, 



46. RENNES. 239 

in pursuance of a decree of 1859, is in course of construction 
and is enclosed by protecting bulwarks. It is, however, questionable 
whether this harbour will attain to great importance, Brest being 
so far removed from the main arteries of traffic. 

A number of vessels of war generally lie in the roads. A 
visit to these, or by a local steamer to Landerneau or Chateaulin 
(272 nrs -> returning by railway, p. 237), is recommended as the 
pleasantest occupation for a few leisure hours. 

Brest is also strongly fortified on the land-side and even in 
former centuries has frequently been unsuccessfully attacked by 
the English. 

46. From Brest to Paris ,by Rennes and Le Mans. 

3891/2 M. Railway in 17 hrs. •, fares 69 fr. 80 , 52 fr. 35 , 38 fr. 40 c. — 
As far as Rennes (1551/2 M.) two ordinary trains only daily, thence to 
Le Mans there are also two express trains, from Le Mans to Paris five express 
Endeavours are made to attract to this channel a large proportion of the 
stream of emigrants bound for America, the sea -voyage between Brest 
and the W. hemisphere being the shortest of all those from the French 
coast (9 — 11 days). Express trains will probably soon run between Rennes 
and Brest, so as to diminish the journey by 2 hrs. 

The train passes stat. Kerhuon, on the Landerneau arm of 
the harbour; pleasing scenery (views on the r.). Beyond stat. 
Landerneau (Hotel de l'Univers), a small manufacturing town 
with a popul. of 7000, the Elorn is crossed. To the r. the 
church and picturesque ruined castle of La Roche Maurice are 
next passed. 

Stat. Morlaix (Hotel de Provence), a town with 14,000 inhab., 
is picturesquely situated in a ravine, which the train crosses by 
an imposing viaduct (290 yds. long, 195 ft. high). Then several 
unimportant stations , of which Ouingamp possesses a handsome 
church. 

The train now ascends to stat. Chatelaudren and crosses the 
valley of the Oouet by a viaduct 540 ft. in height. Stat. St. Brieuc, 
a town with 15,341 inhab. will be the junction of this line with 
that from Auray and Napoleonville (p. 237). Eight insignificant 
stations are next passed, and the train reaches 

Rennes. Grand Hotel Julien; *H6tel de France. — Cafe 1 
de France. — Omnibus 40 c, with luggage 60 c. Fiacres per drive 
1 fr. 25 c, for 1 hr. 1 fr. 75 c, each subsequent hr. 1 fr. 50 c. 

Rennes, situated at the confluence of the Vilaine and Ille, 
capital of the Department of these rivers, formerly of Brittany, 
with a popul. of 45,485, was almost totally destroyed by fire in 
1720 and is now a pleasant modern town. 

The handsome Palais de Justice, dating from 1670, is situated 
in the Place du Palais. The Cathedral is modern, with vaulted 
ceiling and Corinthian columns. Opposite to it the ancient Porte 



240 46. LAVAL. 

Mordelaise is still standing, by which the Dukes of Bretagne 
formerly entered to celebrate their coronation. 

On the quay rise the handsome, recently erected University 
Buildings. They contain a *Museum (Sundays and Thursdays 
12 — 4 o'clock; entrance at the back), a very creditable collection 
which is worthy of a visit. 

It contains a large saloon with sculptures and casts; a natural history 
collection; a corridor with drawings of the French school; 5 saloons with 
pictures (Lion Hunt by Rubens, Andromeda by 1' Veronese, Horses by 
Wovvermann etc. ; also a quaint picture representing death in the different 
grades of life, attributed by the inscription, which was subsequently added, 
to Reni a" Anjou, Roy de Sicile); another room with engravings. 

Beautiful walks to the Mont Thabor, in the Botanical Gardens, 
Le Mail, the confluence of the Hie and the Vilaine etc. 

Branch -line from Rennes in 21/2 brs. to St. Malo (Hotel de France, 
the house in which Chauteaubriand was born; Hotel de la I'aix), a forti- 
fied seaport with 10,88G inhab., situated on a rocky islet which is connected 
with the mainland by an embankment. 

Laval (Hotel de Paris), on the Mayenne, capital of this De- 
partment, with 22,892 inhab., is the next stat. of importance. 
Several ancient structures still exist, such as the castle, now 
prison , of the 12th cent, and the Romanesque church of Ave- 
nieres, erected in 1040. The town possesses extensive manufac- 
tories of linen and cotton. 

The line then crosses the Mayenne and passes eleven unim- 
portant villages, most of which lie to the r. of the line 

Le Mans, and thence to Paris, see pp. 231 — 229. 

47. From Paris to Caen and Cherbourg. 

To Cherbourg (232 M.) in 10-11 hrs. ; fares 41 fr. 55, 31 fr. 15, 22 fr. 85 c. 

— To Caen (1491/ 2 M.) in 5V 2 -7l/2 hrs ; fares 20 fr. 75, 20 fr. 10, 14 fr. 70 c. 

— Station in the Rue St. Lazare (p. 23). 

As far as Mantes (36V4M.), where the Cherbourg line diverges 
from that to Rouen and Havre, the journey has been described 
at p. 220. The valley of the Seine is quitted and the scenery is 
uninteresting. Beyond stat. Bueil on the Eure, the river is crossed. 
Stat. Evreux (Qrand Cerf), capital of the Departement de l'Eure 
(12,265 inhab.), boasts of an interesting cathedral, a museum etc. 
and an animated traffic in cotton manufactures. The town lies 
on the Itou, an affluent of the Eure, which the railway now 
follows. Beyond stat. La Bonneville the train enters a tunnel 
beneath Conches, a village on an eminence, possessing a fine 
church (St. Foy) and a ruined castle. 

A branch-line here diverges to the 1. to Laigle (p. 229). 
From stat. Serquigny a line runs to stat. Oissel, affording the 
most direct communication between Caen and Rouen. 

Stat. Bernay is a manufacturing place; so also stat. Lisieux, 
a town with 13,121 inhab., boasting of a handsome Gothic church 



47. CAEN. 241 

(St. Pierre). Branch-line hence by Pont I'Eveque to Ronfleur and 
Trouville (p. 222). The train then passes through a tunnel, 
nearly 2 M. in length. Stat. Mizidon is the junction of a line 
which runs to Argentan, Aiencon and he Mans (p. 230). 

Caen. Hotel d'Angleterre, Rue St. Jean 79; *Sainte Barbe, 
Rue Ecuyere 13, not expensive; Hotel Hum by on the quay, an English 
house. — Omnibus with luggage 15 c. (low fare owing to great competition). 
— Fiacre per drive 1, per hr. 2 l'r., luggage 2o c. 

English Church Service, Rue de la Geole. 

Caen , capital of the Department of Calvados , with a popul. 
of 43,740, on the Orne, 9 M. distant from the sea, is indebted 
for its extent and importance to William the Conqueror. It 
finally became subject to France in 1450. The town suffered 
severely during the wars of the Huguenots, and still more in 
consequence of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). 
"Cette ville au jugement de chacun qui la voit et contemple, 
est l'une des plus belles, spacieuses et delectables, qu'on puisse 
regarder", is the opinion pronounced respecting Caen by an his- 
torian of the town. The traveller will not fail to find this 
opinion confirmed by a visit to Caen , the principal attraction 
of which however consists rather of its relics of antiquity than 
of its modern "improvements". 

*St. Etienne or L'Abbaye aux Hommes was commenced by 
William the Conqueror in 1 066 and completed in ;07.. This 
work was undertaken b"y him and the Allaye aux Dames (p. '242) 
was at the same time founded by his consort Matil a on expiation 
of their offence of intermarriage within the prohibited degrees. 
The principal facade towards the W is strikingly simple. The 
interior is also remarkatde for its vigour and severity. The nave 
is foiuied by means of two series of round arches, one above the 
other. A contrast to this Romanesque ror^triiction is afforded 
by the Gothic choir of the J 2th cent, to which period the upper 
portions of the towers also belong. The choir is flanked by 
16 chapels. A black marble slab marks the tomb of the founder 
(il. 1087), who by his own wish was here interred. His bones 
however were dispersed by the Huguenots. A portrait of the 
Conqueror is preserved in the Sacristy. 

The adjacent monastery has been converted into a Lycee 
Imperial. 

To the N. of St. Etienne stands the former church of St Ni- 
colas (1083), now employed as a hay-magazine. To the S.E. 
La Gloriette, a Gothic edifice of the 15th cent., recently judi- 
ciously restored. 

In the centre of the town stands *St. Pierre, which possesses 
one of the most beautiful Gothic towers in existence (215 ft high), 
erected in 1308. Its central story contains long, narrow windows, 
a perfect model of vigour combined with gracefulness. The 

Baedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 16 



242 47. CAEN. 

summit consists of elegant open-work in stone. The decorated 
portals, as well as the nave, date from the 14th cent., whilst 
the ceiling, the choir and its chapels, with their overladen and 
fantastic decorations, belong to the 16th cent. The capitals of 
the columns of the nave have been decorated with a variety of 
the most whimsical devices, such as Lancelot riding across the 
sea on his sword, Aristotle with bridle and bit employed as a 
steed by the mistress of Alexander. 

In the main street, which runs hence to the quay and railway 
station and derives its appellation from the church, is situated 
St. Jean, with two unfinished towers of the 14th cent. Resto- 
ration begun but far from complete. 

A Palace, rising on the eminence to the N. above St. Pierre, 
was also erected by William the Conqueror, but the sole rem- 
nants of it still extant are the chapel of St. Georges, restored in 
the 1 5th cent., and an ancient hall, both now employed as ar- 
tillery-magazines. 

On an eminence to the E., without the town, rises *Ste. Tri- 
nite, or VAbbaye aux Dames, consecrated in 1066, but not com- 
pleted until a later date. It is smaller and far more attractive 
than St. Etienne, to which it forms a most pleasing counterpart. 
"With the exception of the upper parts of the towers, it is a 
perfect specimen of the pure Romanesque style. In the choir, 
which is reserved for the nuns of the contiguous convent, the re- 
mains of the foundress Matilda repose. Beneath the choir is a 
crypt, supported by 36 buttresses. The buildings of the cloister 
are modern and comprise a hospital, conducted by sisters of the 
Augustine order. 

The Place Royale is a handsome modern square, but destitute 
of animation. The centre is adorned with a very mediocre 
bionze Slatue of Louis XIV. by Petitot. The handsome Hotel 
de Ville contains a *Picture Gallery (^entrance in the court on the 
1., 1st door to the 1. on the 1st floor; open to the public on 
Sundays and Thursdays 11 — 4 o'clock), of considerably greater 
merit than the collections usually encountered in the provinces. 

1st Room: Jlodern pictures. 2nd Room: *Peruyino, Sposalizio 
(Nuptials of the Virgin) from the cathedral of Perugia, carried off by the 
French during the Revolution and not restored ; this is the identical model 
on which Raphael based his celebrated and far more highly perfected pic- 
ture of the same subject in the Brera at Milan, an engraving of which may 
be here inspected for the sake of comparison. 3rd Room: Rubens, Mel- 
chisedek ottering bread and wine to Abraham; several pictures by 
/'. Veronese, Judith, Temptation of St. Antony, Exodus of the Jews, Christ 
gives Peter the keys of Heaven; Jordaens, Beggar. 4th Room: Modern 
pictures. 5th Room: Animal pieces; Van der Meulen, Passage of the 
Rhine by Louis XIV. 

There is also a Collection of Antiquities, opposite to which is 
a Library oi considerable extent . 




7,it/, ymq/.JnjL c XcJ TKumrn Darmstadt 



47. CHERBOURG. 243 

The University Buildings, Rue de la Chaine, contain an ex- 
tensive Natural history Museum, which at the same time com- 
prises the collection made in the Pacific by Admiral Dumont 
d'Urville (p. 166). 

Caen and its environs afford abundant materials for architec- 
tural research. The Departement du Calvados boasts of no fewer 
than 70 churches of the 11th and 12th centuries. The bank of 
the Orne affords a pleasant walk. 

From Caen to Havre. Steamboat daily in 3—4 hrs. ; fare 6 fr. ; the 
hour of departure varies with the tide. The voyage is a very pleasant 
one in favourable weather: for 11/4 hr. the narrow Orne is traversed, 
skirted at first with villas and promenades; near its mouth are the quar- 
ries which have yielded the excellent stone of which Caen is principally 
constructed. The steamer then skirts the broad and open bay on the 
coast of Normandy into which the Seine empties itself, and where Trou- 
ville and Honflmr (p. 222) are situated. The heights of Havre, its houses 
and embankments now soon become visible. The vessels stop at the 
Grand Quai in the Avant Port. 

As the train proceeds towards Cherbourg, it crosses the Orne 
and the Odon; to the 1. the handsome church-tower of Norrey. 
Several chateaux are also passed. Bayeux (Hotel du Luxembourg) 
possesses an admirable Cathedral, dating from several different 
epochs, and a very celebrated piece of Embroidery by Queen 
Matilda (215 ft. long, l 1 /? ft- high), representing in 58 sections 
the conquest of England by her husband. This curiosity is ex- 
hibited in the library of the Hotel de Ville. When Napoleon 
contemplated a descent on England , he caused this embroidery 
to be sent from town to town , with a view more effectually to 
stimulate the patriotism of the French. 

From stat. Lison a branch-line diverges to St. Lo. Stat. Isigny 
is a small seaport; Carentan possesses a handsome church (15th 
cent.) and a dilapidated castle. A flat district is now traversed. 
Vulognes is one of the most important stations. To the 1. of 
Sottevast stands a chateau of the time of Louis XIV. The line 
ascends as far as Couville, then descends in wide curves by 
Murtinvast to 

Cherbourg (Hotel de VUnivers; Hotel de France; Hotel de 
V Europe; Hotel de V Amirautl) , with 41,812 inhab., situated on the 
N. side of the peninsula La Manche which here extends into 
the English Channel. It is the principal naval harbour of France, 
to which circumstance the town is indebted for its importance. 
The remarkable advantages of the situation, which would be highly 
favourable for offensive as well as defensive operations against 
England , were fully appreciated by Vauban. At the same time 
insurmountable obstacles to the construction of a harbour appeared 
to have been thrown in the way by nature. The works were 
commenced by Louis XIV., prosecuted by Louis XVI., Napoleon 
and Louis Philippe, notwithstanding frequent failures, and finally 

1C* 



244 47. CHERBOURG. 

completed in 1858, on which occasion Queen Victoria visited the 
Emperor of the French and was present at the inauguration- 
festival. 

The Roads of Cherbourg are exposed to violent storms from 
the N., but are protected by the Digue, a vast breakwater, the 
construction of which did not succeed until the labour of 50 years 
and a sum of 67 million fr. had been expended on it. 

Under Louis XIV. large wooden cones filled with stones were sunk, 
but were soon washed away. Masses of irregularly shaped stones were 
then submerged and on this foundation a fortified breakwater erected, but 
these works were totally destroyed by a storm in 1808. Under Louis 
Philippe the plan of cementing the stones with mortar ("beton") was 
adopted. Notwithstanding these precautions, however, doubts are justly 
entertained with regard to the durability of the Digue. It is 3880 yds. in 
length and consists of two parts, the foundation fjete'e) sloping outwards, 
increasing from 180 ft. to 600 ft. in breadth , and the upper wall , 280 ft. 
in thickness , which at low tide is above the surface of the water. The 
depth of the water by the side of the breakwater is 30—40 ft. At the 
sides are the entrances to the harbour. Three forts have been erected on 
the Digue. 

The Naval Harbour, entirely hewn out of the solid rock 
(cards of admission, from 8 — 11 o'clock, are obtained at the 
"Majorite"", or office of the commandant, on exhibiting a passport 
or visiting-card), consists of three portions , the Avant-Port, the 
Bassin h Flot and within these the Bassin Napoleon III. (the 
latter was commenced in 1836 and completed in Aug. 1858). 
At the lowest ebb-tide 40 ships of the linec an easily be accom- 
modated here. The various workshops, magazines and arsenals 
are of vast and imposing dimensions. The aggregate expenses 
of the entire establishment have amounted to upwards of 400 
million fr. An extensive system of Forts command the roads 
and at the same time protect them from attack from the land side. 

The Commercial Harbour, now in process of being extended, 
is of little importance. The town is of recent origin and con- 
tains no objects of interest, except perhaps the Picture Gallery 
in the Hotel de Ville (Sundays 12 — 4), termed the Musee Henri 
after its founder. 

The Fort du Roule (accessible on payment of a fee), ascended 
in 15 min., commands a good survey of the town and roads. 



245 



C. ROUTES FROM PARIS TO THE RHINE 
AND SWITZERLAND. 

48. From Paris to Cologne. 
a. Direct Route by Namur and Liege. 

By Express (via Compiegne, St. Quentin and Haumont) from the 
Station du Nord in 12 hrs., by ordinary trains in 15 — 18 hrs.; fares 58 fr. 
95 c. and 43 fr. 90 c. The luggage of passengers provided with through- 
tickets is examined on their arrival at Cologne. First-class passengers only 
are conveyed by the express trains. The second-class carriages of the French 
and Belgian lines are far inferior in comfort to those of the German 
railways. 

At Creil (p. 208) the trains for Boulogne, Calais and Brussels 
diverge from the direct line from Paris to Cologne. 

Compiegne (*La Cloche; Hotel de France; Soleil d'Or) has 
for centuries been a favourite residence of the monarchs of France. 
The Chateau (accessible on Sundays during the absence of the 
imperial family), erected by Louis XV., was considerably enlarged 
by Napoleon I., who here received his bride Marie Louise. The 
extensive forest, which covers an area of 40,000 acres, was a fa- 
vourite resort of Charles X. and is annually visited by the present 
emperor, whose partiality for field-sports is well known. The 
town itself (12,137 inhab ) contains little to interest the traveller, 
with the exception of the handsome Hotel de Ville, a late Gothic 
edifice, and the churches of St. Jacques and St. Antoine. Near 
the bridge is an ancient, dilapidated tower, where 1 , May 25th, 
1430, Joan of Arc was taken prisoner by the Burgundians. She 
had conducted a sally from the town, which was besieged by the 
duke, but as she was about to re-enter it, the portcullis was 
dropped by the commandant who was jealous of her reputation, 
and she was thus betrayed to her enemies. 

Noyon, the next station of importance , possesses an interes- 
ting church of the 12th or 13th cent. Birthplace of Calvin (1509); 
the house still exists. 

Chauny , a small but ancient town , is partly situated on an 
island in the Oise, which is here connected with St. Quentin by 
means of a canal. (St. Oobain , 12 M. to the E., - contains the 
most extensive manufactory of mirrors in France.) At Tergnier is a 
vast establishment for the construction of locomotives and railway 
carriages. A branch line here diverges to Rheims and Epernay 
(p. 253). — About 12 M. to the W. of Montescourt stands the 
castle of Ham, where the ministers of Charles X. were confined 
during 6 years after the revolution of July, 1830. Louis Napo- 
leon was also imprisoned here after the unsuccessful descent upon 



246 48. NAMUR. From Paris 

Boulogne in 1840, as were the generals Changarnier, Lamoriciere, 
Cavaignac and others, after the coup d'etat of Dec. 2nd, 1851. 

St. Quentin (*H6tel du Cygne), a fortified town on the Somme, 
with a population of 31,790, the Augusta Veromanduorum of the 
Romans , is one of the most important linen and cotton manu- 
facturing towns in France. It is connected with the Scheldt by 
means of a canal, and derives its supplies of coal from the ex- 
tensive mines of Hainault. The Church is a pure Gothic struc- 
ture and well merits attention. The Hotel de Ville, dating from 
the 15th cent., is in the same style as the beautiful Belgian 
town-halls of the same period. Here, in 1557, the great battle 
between the Spaniards with their English, German and Flemish 
auxiliaries, under the Duke of Savoy, and the French, under 
Coligny and the Constable Montmorency, was fought, in which 
the latter were signally defeated. 

At stat. Haumont the most direct line from Paris to Brussels 
diverges. The preceding stat. Landrecies and the following stat. 
Maubeuge are two small French fortresses. 

Jeumont is the last French and Erquelines the first Belgian 
station. Thuin is picturesquely situated on an eminence. A more 
interesting district, through which the Sarnbre winds, is now 
entered. 

Charleroi (Pays Bas, Grand Monarque), the most modern 
town in Belgium was founded by Charles II. of Spain about the 
middle of the 17th cent. It is connected with Brussels by means 
of a canal, an important means of communication in this animated 
and industrial district. The railway to Brussels also diverges here. 

The train now passes several stations with extensive foundries 
and frequently crosses the Sambre. 

Namur (*H6tel de Harscamp ; *Hotel de Hollande ; *Bellevue) 
the strongly fortified capital of this province of Belgium , with a 
population of 24,716, is beautifully situated at the confluence of 
the Meuse and Sambre. The town contains nothing particularly 
worthy of mention. In the vicinity a sanguinary conflict took 
place in 1815, a few days after the battle of Waterloo, between 
French and Prussian troops. The cemetery contains a monument 
to the memory of the Prussians who fell on the occasion. 

Huy (Aigle Noir), which possesses a strong citadel and a fine 
Gothic church, is in a remarkably picturesque situation. On an 
eminence near Flemalle rises the castle of Chokier, and beyond it 
that of Aigremont. Seraing is celebrated for its iron foundries, 
coal mines etc. The train continues to follow the course of the 
Meuse and soon reaches 

liege (Hotels: *de Suede, R. 21/ 2 fr. and upwards, D. 3 fr. ; Belle- 
vue; de l'Europe; d" A ngle terr e; Schiller; railway restaurant 
at the station), the picturesquely situated capital (89,411 inhab.) 



to Cologne. 48. LIEGE. 247 

of the Walloon district, gradually rising to a considerable height 
above the river. The extensive manufactories nf weapons, cutlery, 
machines etc. consume a large proportion of the coal yielded by 
the mines in the vicinity. The forest of lofty chimneys on the 
height near the citadel afford abundant proof of the industrial 
character of the district. 

Travellers whose time is limited should confine their attention 
to the Palais de Justice and the churches of St. Jacques and 
St. Paul. 

The Palais de Justice (PI. 24), erected in 1523 in the Re- 
naissance style, possesses a remarkably peculiar, half Moorish co- 
lonnade. Till 1792 it was the residence of the archbishops, 
whose see had hitherto belonged to the German empire. The 
N. wing, added in 1852 in the original style, is the Hotel du 
Gouvernement. 

The Church of St. Paul (CatheMrale, PI. 5) contains several 
fine pictures and an admirably carved modern pulpit by Geefs. 
The choir dates from the close of the 13th cent., the nave and 
other parts were completed in 1557. 

The Church of St. Jacques (PI. 18) is a splendid example of 
late Gothic, erected 1522 — 1538, and gorgeously decorated. 

Soon after quitting Lieges the train passes the extensive 
zinc-foundry of the Vieille Montagne company. To the right, the 
picturesque watering-place Chaudfontaine; to the left, the chateau 
of La Rochette; r. Le Trooz, the chateau of Fraipont on an emi- 
nence, Nessonvaux, the "Chateau des Masures" and Pepinster, 
junction for Spa (7 2 hr.). 

Verviers (Hotel du Chemin de Fer; Pays Pas) with a popu- 
lation of nearly 30,000, consists almost exclusively of manufactories, 
the residences of their owners and the habitations of the oper- 
atives, and contains nothing to interest the traveller. — Carriages 
changed here. 

Near Dolhain, picturesquely situated in the valley of the 
Vesdre, the ancient ruined fortress of Limburg is seen on an 
eminence, the sole remnant of the once flourishing capital of the 
duchy of that name. 

Herbesthal is the Prussian frontier-station. Beyond it the 
train passes through two tunnels and then descends to the ancient 
imperial city of 

Aix-la-Chapelle (Hotels: *Dremel; *Nuellens; de l'Empe- 
rcur; Hoyer, moderate; at the station, Royal, Chemin de Fer and 
Paris. — English Church in the Anna Strasse), with a population of 
P8,000. The Town-hall, erected in 1358, has been judiciously 
restored and adorned with beautiful modern frescoes. — The 



+ For a more detailed account of this route see "Baedeker's Belgique el 
Hollande" or "Baedeker's Rhine." 



248 48. DOUAI. From Paris 

Cathedral, a portion of which was erected hy Charlemagne in 
796 — 804, is a most interesting monument of early Christian 
architecture, but unfortunately disfigured by modern additions. 
The tomb of Charlemagne (d. 814), indicated by the inscription 
"Carolo Magna", situated in the centre of the octagonal portion 
of the church, was opened by Otto II. in the year 1000. The 
body of the great emperor was found seated on a marble throne, 
which was afterwards employed for the coronation ceremonies, and 
is still to be seen in the "Hochmiinster" or gallery. The church 
also contains many interesting relics and valuable ecclesiastical 
vessels (fee 1 thlr. for 1—8 pers ). — The Sulphur-baths of Aix. 
and the contiguous town of Burtscheid (or Borcette) are much 
frequented. 

Beyond Aix-la-Chapelle the district traversed is picturesque 
and continues to present the same animated and industrial aspect. 
After emerging from the long tunnel of Kanigsdorf, the train 
reaches the rich and fertile plain which extends from this point 
to Cologne (see "Baedeker's iJftine"). 

b. From Paris to Cologne by Brussels. 

The two principal lines connecting Paris and Brussels are: (1) Via Hau- 

mont, Maubeuge and Mens; express in 6I/2 hrs.; fares 32 fr. 50, 24 fr. 35, 

17 fr. 60 c; (2) Via Amiens, Arras, Douai and Valenciennes; express in 

9 hrs.; fares 37 fr. 55, 28 fr. 20, 19 fr. 45 c. 

(1). As far as Haumont the line has been already described 
in the previous route (a.). Feignies is the last French and Query 
the first Belgian station. Stat. Mons is the next place of im- 
portance ; thence to Brussels see below. 

(2). From Paris to Arras see R. 40. 

1. Douai (Hotel de Fiandre), on the Scarpe, with 24,486 inhab., 
an ancient fortified town, is the first important station. The 
Town Hall, with its Beffroi or belfry of five towers, is a fine 
example of a Flemish civic edifice of the 15th cent The vane 
on the summit of the central tower is wielded by the lion of 
Flanders. Douai is the seat of an important school of artillery 
and possesses a foundry which furnishes a large proportion of 
the guns employed by the French army. 

At Douai the line to Courtrai, Lille and Ghent diverges. 

After several minor stations the train passes near the valuable 
coal-mine.* of Anzin, situated to the r. of the line, crosses the 
Scheldt and reaches 

r. Valenciennes (Poste; *Hotel des Princes; "'Railway Restau- 
rant) , a very ancient fortified town, with 24,966 inhab., on the 
Esraut, or Scheldt. The streets are narrow and dirty. The 
Town Hall, in the Gothic, combined with subsequent styles, is 
perhaps the only edifice worthy of note. The Museum contains 



to Cologne. 48. MONS. 249 

several pictures by Rubens, the church of St. Oery a Descent 
from the Cross by the same master. 

Valenciennes formerly belonged to Hainault. It was unsuccess- 
fully besieged by Turenne in 1656. By the peace of Nymwegen 
it was adjudged to France and newly fortified by Vauban. In 
1793 the fortress succumbed to the united Austrian, English and 
Hanoverian forces under the Prince of Coburg, but was recovered 
by the French the following year. 

r. Blanc-Misseron is the last French, Quievravn the first Bel- 
gian station. 

1. St. Ohislain, the point of divergence of a line to Ghent, 
is situated on the canal which conveys the valuable products of 
the neighbouring coal-mines from Mons to Conde. 

Near stat. Jemappes (3 M. to the W. of the line) General 
Dumouriez and the Due de Chartres (afterwards King Louis 
Philippe) with 50,000 French defeated 22,000 Austrians under 
the Duke of Coburg, Nov. 6th, 1792. 

At Malplaquet (3 M. to the S.E. of Mons) Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene, with a loss of 20,000 men, defeated the French 
in 1700. In the vicinity, on May 18th, 1794, Pichegru defeated 
the Duke of York and captured 60 guns and 1500 prisoners. 

r. Mons (Hdtel Oarin ; Hotel Royal), capital of Hainault, with 
26,061 inhab., is indebted for its origin to a fort erected here 
by Caesar during his Gallic campaign. The emperor Joseph II. 
caused the fortifications to be demolished, but the town was 
strongly re-fortified in 1818. In 1861 — 62, however, the works 
were again levelled and the materials conveyed to Antwerp. 
Valuable coal-minss in the vicinity. 

The Cathidrale de Ste. Waudru (St. "Waltrudis) is the most 
considerable edifice in Mons, situated to the 1. as the town is 
entered from the station. It was commenced in 1460 and com- 
pleted in 1589. It possesses a small , pointed Gothic spire, but 
the principal tower was never completed. The exterior is some- 
what disfigured by modern additions, but the interior is a model 
of boldness and elegance. Several reliefs in marble and taber- 
nacle deserve inspection. One of the lateral chapels contains a 
quaint Resurrection; Christ is represented as stepping forward 
from the picture. On the W. wall a new picture by Isendyk: 
St. Waltrudis healing a sick man. 

To the 1. in the vicinity rises the Beffroi, on the highest site 
in the town. The castle to which it belongs is now a lunatic 
asylum, occupying the ground on which Caesar's Castrum once stood. 

The Town Hall, dating from the 15th cent, with a tower 
subsequently added, is inferior in elegance of design to the si- 
milar structures at Brussels, Louvain etc. — A large statue, 
erected in 1853, perpetuates the memory of Orlando di Lasso 



250 48. BRUSSELS. From Paris 

(Roland de Lattre), the celebrated composer, who was horn at 
Mons in 1530. 

From stat. Jurbise a branch line diverges to Tournai and Cotirtrai. 

1. Stat. Soignies, a town with 6500 inhab. possesses a monastery 
(of St. Vincent) founded in the 7th cent, and erected in its pre- 
sent form by St. Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, in 965, probably 
the most ancient edifice in Belgium. 

1. Braine-le-Comte, a small town of very ancient origin, at 
some distance from the station, is the junction for Namur. Car- 
riages are sometimes changed here. 

1. Hal (Hotel des Pays Bas), a small town on the Serine and 
the canal from Charleroi, is resorted to by pilgrims who revere 
a picture of the Virgin in the Church of St. Mary, a fine Gothic 
edifice. The high-altar, completed in 1583, is an admirable 
specimen of the Renaissance style, executed in alabaster, adorned 
with numerous reliefs. The bronze font of 1446 also merits 
inspection. A monument in black marble, with a sleeping child. 
is sacred to the memory of the Dauphin Joachim (d. 1460) son 
of Louis XI. 

A hilly district is now traversed and for some distance the 
line skirts the canal to Charleroi. Near Forest the line crosses 
the Senne and intersects a rich pastoral district, through which 
the stream meanders. The ramparts of Brussels are soon crossed 
near the Porte de Hal and the Station du Midi entered, situated 
upwards of 1 M. from the Station du Nord. 

Brussels. Hotels in the Place Royale in the upper part' of the town : 
de Bellevue, *de Flandre, de l'Europe, all expensive. *H6tel de 
Suede, Rue de l'Eveque, R. 21/2, D.31/2 fr - *deSaxe and *de TUni- 
vers in the Rue Neuve , leading from the station into the town. — 
Hotel de Brabant, Marche aux Charbons, at the back of the Hotel 
de Ville. 

Restaurants: *Allard, Rue Fosse aux Loups, near the theatre; 
*Dubost, Rue de la Putterie, and many others. 

Caf^s: several in the Place de la Monnaie. Ices at Marutjg's, Rue 
Treurenberg, and Marchaf, next door to the Theatre du Pare. 

Estaminets or beer-houses are very numerous. One of the best 
is the H6tel de la Monnaie, opposite the theatre. "Faro" is weak and acid, 
"Louvain" similar, but sweeter. Bavarian beer at Path's, Rue du Tir 20, 
outside the gate of Namur; at the Prince Charles, Rue d'Aremberg 10, in 
the rear of the Passage, etc. 

Shops: the most attractive are in the Rue de la Madeleine and Mon- 
tagne de la Cour. 

English Church Service at the Chapel Royal, Rue du Musee 
|9 a. m. and 2 30 p. m.), at the Chapel in the Boulevard de l'Observatoire, 
and at the Evangelical Chapel, Rue Belliard. 

Brussels, the capital of Belgium and residence of the King, 
contains a population of 236,000, including the suburbs, '"7 3 rds 
of whom speak Flemish, V3 r cl French. Like Paris it possesses 
its Cafe" des Mille Colonnes, a counterpart of the Champs Elise'es 
and the Garden of the Tnileries in the All<?e Verte and the Park, 
its Boulevards, Cafe-chantants etc. This Paris in miniature should 



to Cologne. 48. BRUSSELS. 251 

be seen before the great French metropolis by those who desire 
to avoid disappointment. 

The passing visitor is recommended to take the following 
walk: Adjacent to the Rue Neuve, which leads from the station 
into, the city, rises the *M arty rs' Monument (PI. 25 J, designed 
by Geefs and erected in 1838 to the memory of those who fell in 
the war with Holland in 1830. The marble figure represents 
"Belgium Delivered" ; marble tablets in an open vault record the 
names (445) of the slain. 

Then past the Theatre Royal to the "Hotel de Ville 
(PI. 20). resembling that of Lonvain ; the magnificent facade 
was completed in 1442; the statues of Dukes of Brabant, erected 
in 1853. replace those mutilated by the sans-cnlottes in 1793. 
The graceful tower, 364 ft. in height, is from some unknown 
cause not in the centre of the edifice. The interior contains 
nothing remarkable. 

The entire square, or Grande Place, is adorned with handsome 
mediaeval buildings ; on the "W. side the various guild-houses, 
erected at the beginning of last century. Here, on June 5th, 
1568. Duke Alva witnessed the execution of the counts Egmont 
and Hoorne from the Halle au Pain, or Maison du Roi as it is 
commonly termed, opposite the Hotel de Ville. 

In the rear of the Hotel de Ville , at the corner of the Rue 
dn Chene and the Rue de l'Ktnve, is the Manneken fountain 
(PI. 24), an object of veneration amongst the populace. 

The *Passage, or Galerie St. Hubert, an arcade near 
the Hotel de Ville, diverging from the Rue de la Madeleine, is 
a very favourite promenade. It is a handsome structure, 650 ft. 
long, 60 ft. high and 25 ft. broad, and contains some of the 
most tempting shops in the city. 

The Rue de la Madeleine and its continuation, the Montagne 
de la Cour, which ascend hence, present a succession of attractive 
windows. 

The latter terminates in the Place Royale, adorned with the 
equestrian *Statue of Godfrey de Bouillon, in bronze, 
executed by Simonis in 1848. It is said to stand on the spot 
where the great crusader stood when he summoned a numerous 
assembly of knights to aid him in the liberation of the Holy 
Sepulchre. 

The fresco in the tympanum of the opposite church of St. 
Jacques svr Caudenberg (PI. 11), painted by Portaels in 1852, 
represents the Virgin as the consoler of the sorrowful. 

The adjoining *Park, in Sept. 1830 a spot of great importance, 
having been successfully maintained by the Dutch ajrainst the 
Belgians who occupied the Place Royale, is the favourite prome- 
nade of the citizens. On the S. side rises the Royal Palace 



252 48. BRUSSELS. 

(PI. 33), on the N. side the Palais de la Nation (PI. 31), the 
vestibuie of which contains 6 modern statues of Belgian princes. 

On the "W. side of the park is the marble statue of the French 
general Belliard (p. 117), by Geefs. 

Hence to the *Cathedral (Ste. Oudule, PI. 10), the finest 
church in Brussels, with its two truncated Gothic towers. The 
choir and transept are of the 13th, towers and nave of the 14th, 
aisles of the 15th, the large S. Chapelle du St. Sacrament of the 
15th cent. 

The latter contains a *Monument in marble of Count F. de 
Merode, who fell in a skirmish with the Dutch in 1830, executed 
by Geefs. 

The Stained Glass in the N. chapel, executed in 1546, re- 
presenting the emp. Charles V. and his relations, is remarkably 
fine. That in other parts of the church, including the newest 
at the back of the high altar, is of little artistic value. 

The Pulpit is a curious specimen of wood-carving, executed 
by Verbruggen in 1699, representing the expulsion from Paradise 
and a number of different animals. 

The walk thus indicated would occupy about half a day and 
embrace the most interesting points in Brussels. Those whose 
time permits may also visit the Picture Gallery (Musee, PI. 26), 
open to the public on Sundays, Mondays and Thursdays, 10 — 3 
o'clock ; at other times admission 1 fr. It contains seven large 
pictures by Rubens (not his best works) , but little else worthy 
of mention. The church of *Notre Dame de la Chapelle 
(PI. 7) merits a visit on account of its fine frescoes and oil- 
paintings by Eykens (d. 1853). At the Porte de Hal (PI. 27), 
at the extremity of the same street (Rue Haute), is preserved a 
considerable collection (1 fr.) of Weapons and Antiquities. 
The Zoological Garden, 20 min. walk to the S. of the park, 
is extensive and well laid out, and may also be inspected by 
those who have leisure. 

From Brussels to Liege see Baedeker's Rhine, thence to Co- 
logne see R. 48 a. 

49. From Paris to Strasbourg by Chalons and Nancy. 

By Express in IOI/4— 111/4 hrs., by ordinary trains in 15— I6V2 hrs.; 

fares 56 fr. 20 c, 42 fr. 15 c. and 30 fr. 90 c. — Station in the Place de 

Strasbourg; special omnibuses, see p. 24. 

Soon after quitting the station the train crosses the canal of 
St. Denis and the high-road from Paris to Lille. Beyond the 
fortifications it skirts Pantin, where on March 14th, 1814, the most 
sanguinary encounters took place between French and Russian 
troops. Stat. Noisy-le-Sec. Several of the villages beyond the 
Foret de Bondy , especially Lagny and Damard, annually send 
a vast quantity of fruit to Paris, of an average value of 50,000 L, 



49. MEAUX. 253 

The line now reaches the Marne and continues on or near 
the bank of the river as far as Vitry-le-Francois (p. 255). The 
valley of the Marne presents a succession of picturesque land- 
scapes. Near Chalifert the river is crossed and a tunnel entered. 
The Canal de Chalifert also penetrates the hill by means of an- 
other tunnel, navigated by small steamboats. The country is here 
remarkably pretty. 

Heaux (Sirlne; Hotel Qrignan; Palais Royal) is a small town of 
great antiquity, on the Marne (10,762 inhab. I. Here in 1240 the 
council sat which sentenced the emperor Frederick II. to excommu- 
nication. Five centuries later Meaux was the episcopal residence 
of the celebrated Bossuet (d. 1704), whose study and favourite 
walks are still pointed out. The Gothic Cathedral, erected at 
various periods between the 12th and 16th. centuries, is situated 
on an eminence. It contains a monument to Bossuet of very in- 
ferior workmanship. The vaulted roof is remarkable for its lofti- 
ness, and the triforium merits inspection. 

The small town of Laferte-sous-Jouarre, birthplace of Madame 
de Pompadour, was in the 16th cent, a flourishing Protestant com- 
munity, whose liberty, however, was but of short duration. It is 
situated in a fertile and highly cultivated valley and surrounded 
by numerous country-residences. To the left, the river is bounded 
by richly wooded hills. 

Chateau-Thierry (Hdtel d'Angleterre), on the Marne, is ren- 
dered conspicuous by the massive tower of the ancient Gothic 
church of St. Crispin, and the scanty ruins of a castle said to 
have been erected by Charles Martel in 720 for the young king 
Thierry. Lafontaine, the eminent fabulist, was born here, and a 
monument has been erected to his memory. The Russians suf- 
fered severe losses in the vicinity of the town in Feb., 1814. 

The champagne-growing district is now entered. Between 
Port-a-Binson and Damery, on a wooded eminence to the right, 
rises the Chateau de Boursault, a handsome Gothic edifice erected 
by Madame Cliquot, a name dear to the bon-vivant, for her son- 
in-law M. de Mortemart. 

To the right and left rise rich, vine-clad hills, between which, 
in a broad, fertile valley, the Marne winds. 

Epernay (Hdtel de VEurope), the central point of the cham- 
pagne traffic, is picturesquely situated in the midst of the most 
prolific vineyards. The spacious cellars hewn in the chalk-rock 
are admirably suited for storing the wine, and contain millions of 
bottles. — The day-express allows passengers time for a hasty 
meal ("dejeuner-dlnatoire" ) at Epernay, 2*/2 fr. incl. wine; cham- 
pagne may be purchased by the glass. 

From Epernay to Rheima by a branch line in 50 min.; fares 3 fir. 
35, 2 fir. 50 and 1 fr. 25 c. 

Sheims (Lion d'Or, opp. the cathedral-, Arbre d'Or. — English Church 
Service), situated on tbe right bank of the Vesle and surrounded by vine- 



254 49. RHEIMS. From Paris 

clad hills, the Civitas Remorum of the Romans, is the ancient city (55,808 
inhab.) where for many centuries the coronation of the monarchs of France 
was wont to be celebrated. 

The most interesting monument which Rheims possesses of the late 
Roman period is the * forte de Mars , a triumphal arch sonsisting of three 
different archways. On the vaulting of the arch to the right (approached 
from the town) are represented Romulus and Remus with the wolf, bet- 
ween Faustulus and Acca Laurentia (?). On the central arch were repre- 
sented the 12 months in different compartments , five of which are totally 
destroyed.. A few fragments of the beautifully fluted Corinthian columns 
still exist. 

The *Cathedral is a magnificent structure in the early Gothic style, 
founded in 1212 and completed by Robert de Coucy of Rheims at the com- 
mencement of the 14th cent. The Facade, with its three receding portals, 
adorned with numerous statues, is unfortunately in a dilapidated state, 
but is now with the rest of the church undergoing a careful restoration. 
The central portal represents the Coronation of the Virgin, that to the r. 
the Final Judgment, and to the 1. the Passion. Of the seven Towers five 
were destroyed by fire in 1841. The two towers of the facade, which lost 
their spires on the same occasion, present a far more elegant aspect than 
is usually the case with unfinished Gothic towers , owing to the pointed 
character of the large windows and the remarkably graceful turrets at the 
angles. Many of the numerous sculptures with which the exterior is richly 
decorated are considered the finest specimens in France of the early 
Gothic period. 

The church is cruciform with an unusually projecting transept, an dcon- 
sists of a nave and two aisles; the choir is at first flanked with four 
aisles , of which however the two external beyond the second arch form 
a series of chapels. The entire length of the edifice is 450 ft. , breadth 
92 ft., length of transept 153 ft., height 110 ft. The tracery of the triforium 
gallery and the windows is rich and beautiful; generally, however, the in- 
terior of the church is far simpler than the exterior with the exception 
of the jambs of the door, which alone are adorned with 122 statues. On 
those of the principal entrance is represented the martyrdom of St. Nicaise. 
Most of the windows , including the magnificent rose between the towers 
of the facade, are filled with stained glass. 

To the r. in the nave is situated the ancient Sarcophagus of Jovinus, 
at a very remote period prefect of Rheims, removed to its present position 
in 1790 from the Gothic church of St. Nicaise, which was at that time 
destroyed. It consists of a single, solid block of white marble, 8V-2 tt s 
long and 41/ o ft. in thickness. The bas-relief which adorns it represents 
a lion-hunt, beautifully executed. 

The Clock with moveable figures in the N. transept is said to be the 
oldest existing piece of mechanism of this description. 

Rheims was probably selected for the coronation of the monarchs of 
France because here the SaMe Ampoule, or sacred oil-vessel, was preserved, 
which is said to have been brought down from heaven by a dove on the 
occasion of the baptism of Clovis by St. Remi Louis VII. and his son 
Philip Augustus elevated the archbishops to the rank of dukes and con- 
firmed their often disputed privilege of performing the coronation ceremony. 
Here in 1429 Charles VII. was crowned, after he had been conducted to 
Rheims by the intrepid Joan of Arc, who during the ceremony stood be- 
side him , the victorious banner in her hand. With the exception of 
Henry II. who was crowned at Chartres, Napoleon I., crowned at Paris, 
and Louis XVIII., Louis Philippe and Napoleon III. on whom the ceremony 
was never performed, all the monarchs of France since 1173 have been 
crowned at Rheims by the archbishop as primate of the entire kingdom. 
Of all the costly objects employed on these occasions none have escaped 
the Vandalism of the Revolution with the exception of the massive golden 
goblet of St. Remi, which during six centuries has been in the possession 
of the cathedral. 




HA.pu ! fKAtMa& nm Ed Wiupuir, Varmstadi 



to Strasbourg. 49. CHALONS. 255 

The S. tower, which contains the huge bell (24,000 lbs.) cast in 1750, 
should be ascended, as it affords an admirable survey of the rich deco- 
rations and architectural beauties of the exterior of the church. 

The Archiepiscopal Palace, contiguous to the cathedral on the S. side, 
contains a gorgeously decorated vestibule and a beautiful chapel. Here 
the sovereigns of France abode during the coronation festivities, and in 
1429 the Maid of Orleans. 

*St. Remi, founded in 1044, is the most ancient church in Rheims, and 
in its plan somewhat resembles the cathedral. The interior was originally 
Romanesque, the choir is a beautiful specimen of Gothic, the S. transept 
Flamboyant. The five semicircular chapels which flank the choir are sepa- 
rated from it by a graceful colonnade. The exterior displays a few 
symptoms of early Gothic; the two Romanesque towers of the facade are 
surmounted by lofty, pointed spires. The revolution has left the church 
enlirely destitute of its former costly and magnificent contents, save the 
12 statues representing the 6 temporal and 6 spiritual peers of France, and 
the group of the tomb of St. Remi. 

The Sainte Ampoule (see p. 254) was formerly kept in the church of 
St. Remi. The abbot, mounted on a white palfrey, conveyed this precious 
vessel, filled with the sacred oil, to the cathedral on the coronation-day, 
whilst a number of knights were detained at St. Remi as pledges for the 
safe return of the holy man. The Sainte Ampoule was destroyed during 
the devastation of the abbey in 17a3; a fragment, however, is said to have 
been preserved, and was afterwards employed at the coronation of Charles X. 
in 1826. 

The handsome Hdtel de Ville is Renaissance, erected under Louis XIII., 
an equestrian figure of whom is seen in the bas-relief above the entrance. 

The best-built street in Rheims leads from the Hotel de Ville to the 
Place Royale, ailorned with a statue of Louis XV. The houses surrounding 
the square are flanked with arcades of the Doric order. 

The tasteful fountain in the Place Goudinot was erected to the memory 
of a canon of that name who was instrumental in supplying the town 
with water. 

Over the door of the Hdtel de la Maison Rouge is the following in- 
scription: "■Van 1429, au sacre de Charles VII., dans cette hotellerie, alors 
nomme'e CAne Rouge, le pere et la mere de Jeanne d' 'Arc ont ete" log is et de"- 
frayes par le conseil de la ville." 

Beyond Epernay the country becomes flatter. The first 
station of importance is Chalons - sur - Marne (Cloche d'Or; 
Morisot) , capital of the Department of the Marne , with a 
population of 16,675 , and one of the principal depots of cham- 
pagne. The extensive buildings to the right of the station are 
the champagne manufactory of M. Jacquesson. — The Cathedral 
with its graceful, open-work towers is a conspicuous object in 
the town. Notre Dame, on the other side of the town, a fine 
example of the transition from the Romanesque to the Gothic, 
dates from 1157. Its towers are more massive than those of the 
cathedral, but by no means devoid of beauty. 

Near Chalons (by a branch line in 50 min.J is situated the 
camp of Le Mourmelon, destined by the present emperor for the 
great annual manceuvres of the army which take place every autumn. 

The train next traverses a far poorer district. To the left 
flows the Marne winding through picturesque meadows and fringed 
with trees 

Vitry-le-FraH90is, with its handsome Renaissance church, 
surrounded by vineyards and fruit-trees, is indebted to Francis I. 



256 49. TOUL. From Paris 

for its entire re-construction after it had been devastated by the 
emperor Charles V. — Here the Marne is crossed for the last 
time and the course of the Rhine-Marne Canal followed. The 
next station worthy of mention is 

Bar-le-Duc (Hotel "de Metz et du Commerce ; Cygne, moderate), 
a picturesque town on the Ornain, once the capital of the 
ancient Duche de Bar, now of the Department of the Meuse 
(population 14,922). The church of St. Pierre in the Haute Ville 
contains a well-executed monument in marble to the memory of 
the Due Re'ne' de Chalons, Prince of Orange, who fell in 1544 
at the siege of St. Dizier. The animated Ville Basse contains 
monuments of the marshals Oudinot and Excelmans, both natives 
of Bar-le-Duc. 

After traversing a somewhat monotonous district the train 
descends into the valley of the .Meuse, here an insignificant stream, 
which it twice crosses. 

Commercy possesses a chateau of considerable size, on the 
bank of the Meuse, which was once the residence of Cardinal 
Francis Paul de Retz (d. 1679), who here wrote his memoirs. It 
was subsequently occupied by Stanislaus Lesczinski , ex-king of 
Poland, in 1744, and is now employed as barracks. 

Toul (Hotel de VEurope), the Tullum Leworum of the Romans, 
a fortress situated on the Moselle at some distance to the right of 
the line, has during 1200 years been the seat of a bishop and 
is one of the most ancient towns of Lorraine (/687 inhab.). 
The beautiful Gothic towers of the Cathedral are conspicuous; it 
also possesses an admirable facade dating from 1340 — 1389. An- 
other Gothic tower which is also visible belongs to the abbey 
church of St. Oengoult. 

The Rhine-Marne Canal and Moselle here flow side by side 
and are crossed at Fontenoy, beyond which one of the most 
picturesque and in an engineering point of view , remarkable 
points of the whole line is reached. The valley of the Moselle 
here contracts, the banks become more precipitous, and vineyards 
begin to appear on the sunny heights. 

Liverdun. the Livodunum of the Romans, is picturesquely 
situated on an eminence, with the ruins of a castle destroyed in 
1467. For some distance the railway, high-road, river and canal 
are parallel to each other; the latter penetrates the hill, on which 
Liverdun lies, by means of a tunnel. Here, within a very short 
distance of each other, are two railway-bridges, a canal-bridge, 
a lock, a harbour, a canal-tunnel and railway-bridges over canal 
and road, works which have cost upwards of 140,000 L. 

At Frouard the Meurthe unites with the Moselle. The town 
is on the right, the railway-station on the left bank of the river. 
The line to Met* diverges here. 



to Strasbourg. 49. NANCY. 257 

Nancy. Hotels: *de TEurope; de France; de Paris; du Com- 
merce; 'd'Angleterre, moderate, and de Me tz both near the railway- 
stations. — Cafis: Stanislas; de l'Op^ra; de la Com^die etc. all in 
the Place Stanislas, formerly capital of Lorraine and seat of the dukes, 
of whom Stanislaus Lesczinsky, ex-king of Poland, was the last, 
is chiefly indebted for its prosperous aspect to his predecessor 
Leopold (d. 1729), father of the German emperor Francis I. It 
is now the principal town of the Department of the Meurthe, 
on which river it is situated, and has a population of 49,305. 
Nancy is one of the best-built towns in France and possesses 
many handsome edifices. The vineyards by which it is sur- 
rounded contribute greatly to the beauty of the situation. — 
It contains an Ecole Forestiere, or nursery for forest-trees, the only 
establishment of the kind in France. 

The town is entered by the Porte Stanislas, one of the seven 
handsome gates of Nancy, leading to the Place Dombasle, where 
a statue by David of the eminent agriculturist of that name stands. 
The first street which diverges from the Rue Stanislas to the left 
leads to the Cours Leopold, a handsome square adorned with a 
*Statue of Marshal Drouot, in bronze, by David. The pedestal 
is decorated with reliefs and inscribed with the names of battles 
at which the marshal (a native of Nancy) was present. 

Returning to the Rue Stanislas the traveller follows this street 
and will soon reach the *Place Stanislas, the finest point in the 
town. It is adorned with the Statue of Stanislaus (d. 1766), 
erected by the three departments (Meurthe, Meuse, Vosges) which 
formerly constituted the Duchy of Lorraine. The statue looks to- 
wards the Triumphal Arch which Stanislaus erected in honour of 
Louis XV. The Place is surrounded by five handsome edifices, 
the Hotel de Ville, the theatre, the episcopal palace (Eveche) 
and two private residences. 

The Hotel de Ville contains a small ""collection of pictures. 
1st Room (in a small box is preserved a lock of Napoleon's 
hair, his star of the Legion of Honour and a sabre worn by him 
in Egypt): 225 Delacroix, Battle of Nancy, Jan. 5th, 1477, fought 
by Charles le Te'me'raire, Duke of Burgundy, against Duke Re'ne' 
of Lorraine, in which the former fell; 184. Horace Vernet, Por- 
trait of General Drouot; 187. Vouet, Nymphs; 188. Vouet, Cupids 
playing with the arms of jEneas; 189. Ziegler , St. George and 
the dragon. 2nd Room: 14. Guido Reni, Cleopatra; 16. Copy 
of the celebrated "Marriage of Cana" of Paul Veronese in the 
Louvre (p. 62); 45. De Craeyer, The pestilence at Milan; 
46. Delmont, The Resurrection, covering the greater portion of 
the wall. — 3rd Room: 15. Leonardo da Vinci, Head of Christ; 
75. Teniers, Interior of a farm; 76. Teniers, Landscape; 163. A 
landscape by "Claude Lorrain" (properly Claude Gelee, d 1652) 

Bsedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 17 



258 49. NANCY. From Paris 

the most celebrated of French landscape-painters, born at Nancy 
in 1600; 170. Mignard, Virgin and Child. 

At the back of the Hotel de Ville, in the Rue d' Alliance 
(so called from the French and Austrian alliance of 1756 against 
Prussia), is the Prefecture. 

Passing through the Triumphal Arch, to the left, the visitor 
reaches the Place Carriere, another handsome square planted with 
trees, on the farther side of which is the former palace of King 
Stanislaus, now the residence of the commander of the 3rd corps 
of the French army (lately Marshal Forey). On either side, the 
Tribunal de Commerce and the Cour Imperiale. 

The Franciscan Eglise de Cordeliers, at the back of the palace, 
contains (1. side) the tomb of the talented painter and engraver 
Jacques Callot, and, in the richly decorated *Chapelle Bonde, 
burial-place of the Dukes of Lorraine, a number of interesting 
monuments from the 12th to the 18th cent. During the first 
revolution the coffins were conveyed to the. public cemetery and 
this chapel converted into a magazine. In 1822 it was restored 
at the expense of France and Austria. Mass is still performed 
here by an almoner of the Lorraine Hapsburg family. — Duke 
Francis of Lorraine by his marriage with the Archduchess 
Maria Theresa (1736), heiress of the lands of Hapsburg, became 
the founder of the present imperial house of Austria. 

The contiguous Palais Ducal, formerly a residence of the 
dukes, contains the Musee Lorrain, a collection of relics from the 
Lorraine period. In a small court, Roman antiquities found in 
the environs. The palace itself now serves as barracks. It was 
erected by Duke Rene II., conqueror of Charles le Temeraire, 
and possesses a fine late Gothic portal with an equestrian statue 
of Duke Leopold II. towards the Grand' Rue. The edifice was 
restored by Stanislaus. 

In the new part of the town, to the right of the Place Sta- 
nislas (when approached from the station) rises the Cathedral, 
in the Jesuitical style, completed in 1742, containing nothing to 
interest the traveller save some handsome altars in marble. 

The Pepiniere, extensive grounds with fine avenues, entered 
from the Place Stanislas and the Place Carriere, affords a pleasant 
promenade ; military music at 4 p. m. during the season. 

In the suburb of St. Pierre is the Eglise de Bon Secours, 
where Stanislaus (d. 1766) and his consort are interred. After 
his abdication as king of Poland (1735) he continued to be reign- 
ing duke of Lorraine and Bar until his death , when the duchy 
fell to the crown of France. 

In 1814, and again in 1815, the three allied monarchs (Prussia, 
Austria, Russia) had their head-quarters at Nancy, where the pro- 
posal of a "Holy Alliance" is said first to have been originated. 



to Strasbourg. 49. LUNF/VILLE. 259 

The railway-station of Nancy occupies a piece of marshy ground 
where, after the battle of Nancy, the body of the Duke of 
Burgundy was found. In a burial ground in the vicinity 4000 
of the duke's troops were interred, and the commemorative Croix 
de Bourgogne erected by the victorious Duke Rene (d. 1508), 
bearing the following inscription : 

En Tan de Tincamation Et en bataille ici transcy 

Mil quatre cent sept.ante six Ou croix fut mise pour memoire 

Veille de TApparition Rene Due de Loraine me(r)cy 

Fut le Due dc Bourgogne occis Rendant a Dieu pour la victoire. 

Quitting Nancy, the train crosses the Meurthe and the Rhine- 
Marne Canal. 

Yarangeville and St Nicolas are two small towns connected 
by a bridge over the Meurthe. The church of the former dates 
from the 15th cent., that of the latter from 1494—1544. 

Lnneville fl5,528. inhab.), at the confluence of the Meurthe 
arid Vezouse, was the birthplace of Francis I. of Austria, son 
of Leopold Duke of LorTaine , and founder of the present 
imperial house. In a house in the Rue d'AHemagne the 
peace of Luneville, between France and Austria, was signed, 
Feb. 9th, 1801. 

Sarrebonrg (*H6tel du Sauvage), on the Sarre which here 
becomes navigable, is the boundary between the French and Ger- 
man languages, the former being spoken in the upper, the latter 
in the lower part of the town (not to be confounded with Saar- 
burg near Treves, in the Prussian dominions). The place would 
become of the utmost importance in case of a Rhenish war, 
and has in consequence been provided with extensive provision 
magazines. 

The rich plains of Lorraine are now quitted, and a spur of 
the Vosges Mts. is penetrated by the tunnel of Archwiller, 1 [ / 2 M. 
in length, through which the Rhine-Marne Canal also passes. The 
train enters the valley of the Zorn. Opposite to Lutzelboura, the 
last station in the Department of the Meurthe, rise the picturesque 
ruins of an ancient fortress. 

Saverne (*Soleil). a small town with a population of 6400. 
The handsome Palace, erected in 1666 by a Bishop of Strasbourg, 
was afterwards occupied by Cardinal de Rohan (d. 1802), whose 
fatal influence on the destinies of the court of Louis XVI is well 
known. By an imperial decree of 1852 the edifice was appro- 
priated to the use of widows and daughters of deserving officials. 
Above the town rises the ancient castle of Qreifenstein. On the 
opposite side of the valley, the extensive and picturesque ruins 
of *Haut-Barr, scarcely distinguishable from the grotesquely shaped 
rocks on which it stands. 

Between Saverne and Strasbourg the country is uninteresting. 

17 * 



260 



50. Strasbourg. 



Hotels. *Vil]e de Paris (PI. al a handsome new building; R. from 
2 fr., L. 1 fr., B. IV? fr., D. exc. W. 3 fr., A. 1 fr. *Maison Rouge 
(PI b). Hotel d' A n gleterre near the stat., well spoken of. Vignette 
(PI. e, Grand'Rue 119); La Pomme d'or (PI. f) in the Kue d'Or; Ba- 
discher Hof. 

Cafes. *C afe Cade in theKleberplatz ; *Cafe'Adam, or duBroglie; 
Cafe" de 1 'Europe and Cafe de l'llnivers both near the Kleberplatz ; 
Cafe 1 Hauswald, not far from the Railway-station. 

Public Gardens. Jardin Lips and Jar din K am merer, both out- 
side the Porte des .Tuifs : music and other entertainments in the evening 
2 or 3 times a week. The Orangerie, a well-kept garden belonging to the 
town, situated in the Ruprechtsau, about 3 M. distant, affords an agreeable 
promenade. 

Cabs or Citadines 1 — 2 persons for 1/4 nr - 50 cent., 1/2 hr. 90 cent., 
from the Strasbourg station to the Rhine bridge 1 fr. : 

Railway Station on the N.W. side of the town for the Paris, Bale, 
Mayence and Kehl lines ; on the last-named line there is also a station 
at the Austerlitz Gate. 

Pates de foie gras at Henry's, Meisengasse , Doyen, Miinstergasse, 
or Hummel, Schlossergasse; prices from 5 to 40 fr. according to size. 
The geese's livers not unfrequently attain a weight of 2—3 lbs. each. 

Travellers whose time is limited should ascend the tower of the 
Cathedral (see below), inspect the cathedral itself, and visit the Church 
of St. Thomas (p. 262). 

English Church Service in the Hotel de Paris. 

Gates closed at 11. 

Strasbourg (Ger. Strassburg), the Argentoratum of the Romans, 
formerly capital of Lower Alsace and one of the most important 
towns on the Rhine, now the capital of the French Department 
of the Lower Rhine, lies on the III, about 2 1 / 2 M. from the Rhine 
with which it is connected by a small and a large canal. On 
the 30th of Sept., 1681, in a time of peace, Strasbourg was seized 
by Louis XIV., and France was confirmed in the possession of 
the city by the peace of Ryswyk in 1697. Since then the forti- 
fications have been greatly enlarged, so that it is now one of 
the strongest fortresses and the third largest arsenal in France. 
Garrison upwards of 6000; pop. 79,000, of whom nearly one 
half are Protestants. 

The Emperor Maximilian I., in writing of Strasbourg, describes 
it as the strong bulwark of the holy Roman kingdom, and praises 
it highly for the good old German honesty, constancy and bravery 
of its inhabitants. The town has to this day a German air, and 
although it has been under French dominion for 170 years, the 
ancient language and customs of the townspeople still prevail. 

The *Cathedral fPl. 1~) (always open except from 12 to 
2 o'clock") was first funded by Clovis in 510, but having been 
destroyed by lightning in 1007, the foundation of the present 
edifice was laid by Bishop "Werner of Hapsburg in 1015, and 
the interior completed in 1275. In 1277 the erection of the 
*Farade was commenced by Erwin of Steinbach and his daughter 
Sabina, to the latter of whom the church is indebted for the 




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Cathedral. 50. STRASBOURG. 261 

magnificent decorations of the * Portal. Above it in niches are 
the equestrian statues of ClovL-, Dagobert, Rudolph of Hapshurg, 
and (since 1823) Louis XIV. The sculptures above the portal 
belong chiefly to the 13th and 14th centuries. The upper part 
of the spire was erected by Johann Hiiltz of Cologne at the 
commencement of the loth cent, in the capricious and variegated 
modtrn Gothic style, and finally completed in 1439. The upper 
part of the S. tower is entirely wanting. Few cathedrals offer so 
good an opportunity for tracing the progress of the Gothic style 
from the time when it took its origin from the modern Roman- 
esque style (choir, crypt and part of transept) to its highest 
and purest perfection (the body of the church completed in 1275, 
and the facade of 127? — 1339), and to its decline (the platform 
between the towers of 1365, and the top of the spire of 1439). 

The entire length of the edifice is 17o yils., and the breadth 
6a yds. ; the nave is 95 ft. in height and 42 ft. in breadth. 
Some of the stained-glass windows are admirably executed; the 
Magi with the Virgin Mary in the north aisle are modern. The 
pillars and columns ol the interior are elegant and are embel- 
lished with statues, but on the whole the church is somewhat 
destitute of ornament. The Font in the N. transept dates from 
1453 and the *pulpit, richly decorated with sculpture, from 1486. 
The Chapel of St. John (to the 1. by the choir) contains a mo- 
nument to Bishop Conrad of Lichtenberg, under whose auspices 
the construction of the facade began. The Chapel of St. Mary 
(S. aisle) contains a sculpture representing the interment of the 
Virgin, executed in 1480. 

The celebrated astronomical *Clock, constructed by Schwilgue 
in 1838 — 1842 in the S. transept, is a highly curious and inge- 
nious piece of workmanship. Some paintings and portions of the 
old clock have been used in the erection of the new. 

The globe beneath shows the course of the stars, behind it is a per- 
petual almanac, on the 1. a piece of mechanism exhibiting ecclesiastical 
reckoning of time, and on the r. the geocentric opposition and conjunction 
of the sun and moon; above it is a dial determining the intervening time, 
and still higher is shown the course of the moon through the heavens. 
The exterior of the clock attracts spectators at all times, but especially 
at noon. On the first gallery an angel strikes the quarters on a bell 
which he holds in his hand; higher up is a skeleton, representing time, 
which strikes the hour of 12, and round it are figures which strike the 
quarters and represent man's progress through the various stages of boy- 
hood, youth, manhood and old age. Under the first gallery the symbolic 
deity of each day of the week steps out of a niche, Apollo on Sunday, 
Diana on Monday, and so on. In the highest niche the 12 apostles move 
round a figure of the Saviour, bowing as they pass. On the highest pin- 
nacle of the side-tower is perched a cock which flaps its wings, stretches 
its neck and crows, awakening the echoes of the remotest nooks of the 
cathedral. 

Two old inscriptions on a pillar near the clock commemorate 
the zeal and piety of Johann Geiler of Kaisersberg (d. 1510), one 
of the most learned men and undaunted preachers of his time. 



262 50. STRASBOURG. Cathedral -Tower. 

On the Romanesque S. : Portal were erected, in 1840, statues 
of the great architect Erwin and his talented daughter Sabina. 
The sculpturing on this portal by the latter has been skilfully 
renovated and deserves the minutest inspection. Above the doors 
are represented the death, interment, resurrection and coronation 
of the Virgin , and on the middle pillar the Saviour and king 
Solomon. Beneath is Solomon's Judgment, and on the r. and 1. 
figures emblematical of Christianity and Judaism. There are 
also several statues by Sabina on pillars in the S. aisle next to 
the transept. 

On the N. side is the Chapel of St. Laurentius with its beau- 
tiful gateway of the 15th cent., adorned with restored sculptures 
of the martyrdom of the saints. 

The *Cathedral-Tower rises in front of the structure to such 
a height that the spectator almost feels di/.zy as his eye attempts 
to reach the lofty summit. Near the r. hand Portal, round 
the corner , is a door leading to a staircase of easy ascent. A 
few steps up, the custodian dwells, from whom a ticket (15 cent.) 
must be procured. The visitor then ascends 330 steps to the 
platform, 230 ft. above the street, which commands a fine view 
of the old-fashioned town with its planted ramparts and prome- 
nades. To the 1. is seen the Black Forest from Baden to the 
Blauen ; on the W. and N. the entire chain of the Vosges, on 
the S. the insulated Kaiserstuhl , rising from the plain , and 
beyond it in the extreme distance the magnificent chain of the 
Jura. The services of the door-keeper are unnecessary in as- 
cending to the platform, though a fee is generally expected. 
From the platform another staircase leads to the summit of the 
spire, the so-called "Lantern". The entrance to it is closed by 
an iron grating, which is not opened to the visitor without a 
special permission from the mayor. 

The ancient residence of the Bishops, opposite to the S. 
Portal of the Cathedral, with terrace facing the 111, was pur- 
chased by the town at the period of the Revolution and presen- 
ted in 1806 to Napoleon. From 1814 — 1848 it served as a 
royal residence, and in 1853 was presented to Napoleon III. 

From the cathedral the attention of the traveller is next 
directed to the Church of St. Thomas. His way leads across 
the Place Gutenberg, where a handsome bronze Statue was erected 
in 1840 to the memory of the great printer who conducted his 
first experiments in the newly- discovered art al Strasbourg in 
1436. The, four bas-reliefs are emblematical of the power and 
blessing of the invention of printing in the four quarters of the 
globe, and comprise likenesses of many celebrated men. 

The *Church of St. Thomas (PI. 10; the sacristan lives at 
the back of the choirj was founded in 1031 ; the choir, of plain 
Gothic construction, was commenced in 1270, and the main-body 



St. Thomas. 50. STRASBOURG. 263 

of the church with its five aisles was erected in the Gothic style, 
in 1313 — 1330. It is now appropriated to the use of a Protes- 
tant congregation. The choir where the high -altar formerly 
stood, contains a magnificent monument in marble , erected by 
Louis XV. to Marshal Saie; it is the work of the sculptor Pigalle, 
and the result of twenty years' labour. The marshal is represen- 
ted descending into the tomb held open to receive him by Death, 
while a beautiful female figure personifying France strives to 
detain him; at the side Hercules is represented in a mournful 
attitude leaning upon his club; on the 1. side are the Austrian 
eagle, the Dutch lion and the English leopard, with broken flags 
beneath them, commemorating the victories gained by the mar- 
shal over the three united powers in the Flemish wars. The 
whole is an allegory in accordance with the questionable taste 
of the age, but as a work of art it is masterly and original. 

The church also contains busts and monuments of celebrated 
professors of the University of Strasbourg, among others of Schopflin, 
Koch and Oberlin, brother of the well-known pastor of that name. 
In a side -chape] may be seen two mummies, found in 1802, 
and said to be the bodies of a Count of Nassau-Saarbriicken 
and his daughter, who probably died in the 16th cent. 

The New Church {Temple Neuf , PI. 11. J, which belongs to 
the 16th cent., once the property of the. Dominicans, now appro- 
priated to the Protestant service, contains the tombstone of the 
celebrated Dominican Joh. Tauler (d. 1361) and some curious old 
frescoes of a death-dance, probably of the 14th or 15th cent. 

Near the New Church is the Town Library (Pi. 15), which 
possesses a rich collection of curious ancient works and documents. 
In the entrance -hall some Roman and other antiquities are to 
be seen. 

The square called the Broglie, after a marshal of that name, 
is bounded on the N.E. by the Theatre (PI. 37), completed in 
1821 , with a Portico adorned with statues of 6 of the Muses. 
Representations on Sund., Tues., Thurs. and Frid. 

Opposite to the theatre on the r. are the residences of the 
prefect of the town and the general of the troops garrisoned 
here. The Statue (PI. 38) of the Marquis de Lezay-Marnesia, 
by Grass, was erected in 1857. Farther on is the Town Hall 
(PI. 26, entrance from the Rue Brule"e) which contains a small 
collection of pictures open on Sund., Tues. and Thurs. from 
2 to 4 ; at other times on payment of a fee of 1 fr. 

The Rue Brulee, which runs in a S.E. direction parallel with 
the Broglie, has received its appellation from the circumstance 
of 2000 Jews, who refused to be baptized, having been burned, 
Feb. 14th, 1349, on the spot where the Hotel de la Pre'fecture 
now stands. 



264 50. STRASBOURG. 

The University, inaugurated in 1621 , once numbered Goethe 
among its students ; it was here that the great poet and scholar 
completed his law studies and took the degree of doctor in 1772. 
It is now converted into an Academy, and deserves a visit on 
account of its Museum of Natural History, a collection of more 
than ordinary value and interest. It is open to the public on 
Thurs. from 2 to 4, and on Sund. from 10 to 12 ; at other times 
adm. may be procured for a fee of 1 fr. 

In the Place d'Armes a bronze Statue has been erected 
to the memory of General Kleber, at the foot of which recline^ 
an Egyptian sphynx ; on the sides are two reliefs. The Cafe 
Cade is on the N.W. side of the Place , next door to the 
Guard-house. 

The Kehl railway - station is about 4 M. distant from Stras- 
bourg, and connected with it by a junction line lately completed. 
In the immediate vicinity of the Porte d'Austerlitz are the spa- 
cious Artillery Barracks (St. Nicholas) and near them the Arse- 
nal de construction, one of the largest depots of ammunition in 
France. 

A few minutes after leaving the town by this gate the tra- 
veller passes the Cemetery and catches a glimpse of the green 
ramparts of the Citadel, constructed by Vauban in 1682 — 1684, 
which lies to the 1. of the road. On the other side of the bridge 
over a branch of the Rhine stands a Monument erected by Na- 
poleon to the memory of General Desaix , who fell in the battle 
of Marengo in 1800. 

Junction- line to Kehl see p. 260; fares 1 fr., 70 and 50 c. 



51. From Paris to Mannheim or Coblenz (Bingen). 

Express to Forbach in 11, ordinary trains in 14 hrs.; fares to Forbach 

51 fr. 30 c, 38 fr. 45 c, 28 fr. 20 c. First-class tickets only issued for 

the express trains. 

From Forbach to Mannheim in 41/4 hrs.; fares 6 fl. 37 kr., 4 fl. 9 kr , 
2 fl. 51 kr. 

The railway-station for Strasbourg and Metz is at the N. extremity of 
the Boulevard de Strasbourg (PI., red 10). Special omnibus see p. 24. 
a. From Paris to Metz. 

Express in 8, ordinary trains in I21/2 hrs. ; tares 39 fr. 65, 29 fr. 80, 
21 fr. 25 c. 

From Paris to Frouard see R. 49. 

At Frouard the carriages for Metz are detached from the train 
to Nancy and Strasbourg, cross the canal and the Moselle near 
the station and follow the pleasant and populous valley of the 
latter, which here becomes navigable and is enclosed between 
gently sloping banks. 

Pont-a-Mousson, with the ruined fortress Muusson (fine view) 
on an eminence, its church (St. Martin) with two towers and its 
bridge over the Moselle, presents a pleasing picture. Cardinal 



51. METZ. 265 

Charles of Lorraine founded a university here in 1573, the chairs 
in which were occupied by Jesuits. Before the cession of Lor- 
raine to the French (1746) the town with its small territory 
was under the jurisdiction of a German Margrave. 

On a mountain on the 1., near stat. Pagny, are the ruins of 
the chateau of Preny, once appertaining to the Dukes of Lor- 
raine. Excellent wine is produced here. 

At stat. Noveant a suspension-bridge crosses the Moselle. On 
the r. bank of the river the extensive remains of a Roman 
*Aqueduct, constructed by Drusus, visible from a considerable 
distance, are perceived at intervals. It was 57 ft. in height and 
3420 ft. in length and conducted water from the hills of the r. bank 
to Divodurum, the modern Metz. At Jouy-aux- Arches 11 arches 
are still well preserved, and at Ars (or rather Arches-sur-Moselle), 
7 others, termed by the peasantry "Pont du Diable", rise close 
to the railway. The bridge by which the train crosses the 
Moselle affords a good final survey of this imposing Roman 
structure. 

The train then reaches Metz, which lies so buried amidst its 
green ramparts, that little of the town is perceived from the 
railway. 

b. Metz. 

Hotels. 'Grand Hotel de Metz (PI. a), R. 2, B. 1, D. inc. W. 3V-2, 
A. :>/ 4 t'r. ; Hotel de l'Europe (PI. b), B. and L. 3, D. 4, A. 1 fr. ; both 
in the Rue des Clercs. *Hutel de Paris (PI. c), adjoining the Terrace, 
of the second class. Hutel du Nord (PI. d) ; Hotel du Commerce 
(PI. e); Hotel du Porte Enseigne (PI. f) 

Cafes. Cafe Parisien, Place de la Comedie; Cafe du Grand 
Balcon, in the Esplanade near the station, affording a great variety of 
ices; Cafe" Francais and Cafe Fabert, in the Place Napoleon, near 
the cathedral. 

Metz , once the capital of the kingdom of Austrasia, after- 
wards appertaining to the German empire, and in 1556 ceded to 
France together with Toul and Verdun, is now one of the most 
important military stations in France, with a garrison of 14,000 
men and a great school of artillery. It is the capital of the 
Departement de la Moselle and contains a population of 56,888. 
The r^ver flows through the town in several branches, thus 
forming several islands. 

The most important edifice is the *Cathedral (PI. 7), a 
Gothic structure with numerous flying buttresses. The nave 
was completed in 1332, the choir in 1519 and the portal added 
in 1764. At the altar adjoining the sacristy is the kneeling 
figure of the architect Pierre Perrat (d. 1400J. All the ancient 
monuments and pictures were destroyed during the revolution, 
with the exception of a few venerable frescoes on the pillars, 
recently freed from their coating of whitewash. The choir con- 



266 51. METZ. From Paris 

tains some fine stained glass, dating principally from 1523, 
besides several windows of modern workmanship. 

The tower is 363 ft. in height; 110 steps ascend to the first 
(105 to the large bell La Muette), 78 more to the highest ter- 
race. The passage is very narrow at one point, but presents no 
real difficulty. The view from the summit amply repays the 
ascent and embraces the extremely fertile "Pays Messin", the 
town, the fortifications and the course of the Moselle. 

The open halls of the Marche Couvert (PI. 23), opposite 
the W. portal, are occupied by vendors of fruit, vegetables and 
flowers and afford a striking proof of the luxuriant fertility of 
the environs. Pine-apples of considerable size, as well as fine 
specimens of other fruits, are frequently observed. — Those who 
are interested in such establishments may visit the extensive 
Abattoir, or slaughter-house, situated without the Porte Chambiere. 

In the Place Napoleon, which adjoins the W. side of the 
cathedral, rises the Statue of Marshal Fabert (d. 1662), a 
contemporary of Turenne. The inscription records a declaration 
by the marshal of his willingness to sacrifice his life and pro- 
perty in the service of his king. 

The Library (PI. 2), near the cathedral, contains numerous 
Roman antiquities and a small collection of pictures. 

The Arsenal (PI. 1) contains specimens of modern, as well 
as ancient weapons, tastefully arranged , and in the court numerous 
cannons (gratuity 1 fr., closed on Sundays). Under a roof to the 
1. of the entrance is a long cannon carried off by the French 
with 189 others in 1799 from the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein, 
where it was known by the name of Vogel Greiff, having been 
constructed by order of the Elector of Treves, Richard von 
Greiffenelau. It is 15 ft. in length and weighs 1272 tons. 

The high road to Germany issues from the Porte des Alle- 
mauds and the Fort Belle Croix. The Rue des Allemands, leading 
to this gate, contains a considerable number of German shops. 
The gate exhibits bullet-marks dating from the unsuccessful siege 
of the town by the emperor Charles V. 

The contiguous church of St. Eucaire (St. Eucharius) (PI. 5) 
is a tasteful structure of the 12th cent., especially interesting to 
the professional observer. Interior destitute of ornament. 

The S. side of the town is bounded by the Esplanade, 
with its beautiful walks and imposing barracks. Military music 
here in the evening, three times weekly. 

On the Esplanade rises the Palais de Justice (PI. 25), 
an extensive building erected during the last century, and seat 
of the different courts of judicature. In the police and other 
courts the services of an interpreter are frequently required when 
the parties concerned are natives of the E. or N. portion of the 



to Mannheim. 51. SAARBRt'lOKEN. 267 

department, where in several of the villages German is still 
exclusively spoken. 

A tew leisure hours may advantageously be employed in 
making an excursion to Jouy-aux-Arches (p. 265). 

Railway from Metz to Treves by Thionville and Luxem- 
bourg, the most direct route, in 3S/ 4 hrs. ; fares 12 IV. 45, 9 fr. 25, 
6 fr. 65 c. 

c. From Metz to Mannheim and Mayence. 

By Railway in 7 1/ 2 hrs. ; fares from Metz to Forbach 11 fr. 65, 8 fr. 65, 
6 fr. 95 c; from Forbach to Ludwigshafen (Mannheim) 6 fl. 37, 4 11. 9, 
2 II. 51 kr. 

An undulating, agricultural district is traversed between Met/, 
and Forbach, and several unimportant stations are passed. 

At St. Avoid the line enters a forest; the red sandstone 
imparts greater variety to the landscape. 

Hombourg lies picturesquely on an isolated eminence, which 
has procured for the place the epithet of "la guerite du monde". 
The cuttings through the wooded mountains beyond Hombourg 
afford a survey of the strata of the red sandstone. 

Forbach is the last French station, where those entering 
France undergo the usual custom-house formalities. Carriages are 
changed here. Soon after the station is quitted several smelting 
furnaces are perceived on the r., and the coal-district is entered. 
The frontier is crossed, and the train descends to the Saar, which 
it crosses, and soon reaches 

Saarbrucken (Post), the first Prussian station, and seat of 
the custom-house officials. — Arnual, in the vicinity, possesses 
a fine Gothic church of 1315, containing an admirable font and 
very interesting ancient monuments of the princely family of 
Nassau-Saarbriicken. 

(Railway to Treves in 3 hrs. From Treves to Coblenz by 
steamboat in 10 — 12 hrs., comp. Baedeker's Rhine.) 

The long series of furnaces near Vuttweiler are situated in 
the midst of a most valuable coal-district, which in almost its 
entire extent belongs to the Prussian government, and is the 
seat of numerous industrial establishments in the vicinity of the 
following stations Sulzbach, Friedrichsthal and Neunkirchen. The 
cuttings through the rocky and wooded mountains frequently 
display the stratification of the coal. Between the two last 
stations a tunnel 500 yds. in length. 

At Neunkirchen the Rhine-Nahe Railway diverges to Creuznach 
and Biny en (Coblenz), see p. 269. 

At Bexbach, where the Bavarian Palatinate commences, the 
country becomes flat. To the r. a pleasing survey of the green 
dale watered by the Bexbach. 

Homburg is a small town with a handsome modern church. 
It was once fortified, but was dismantled in consequence of the 



268 51. KAISERSLAUTERN. From Paris 

Peace of Westphalia. In 1705 it was re-fortified by the French, 
but again destroyed in 1714 after the Peace of Baden. The 
castle of Carlsberg, situated on an eminence IV2 M. from the 
town, erected in 1780 by Duke Charles II. of Zweibriicken, 
was destroyed by the French in 1793. 

The line now skirts a chain of wooded hills and passes two 
small stations. 

Landstuhl was once the seat of the Sickingen family, whose 
ruined stronghold, with walls 24 ft. in thickness, rises above the 
village. Francis von Sickingen was here besieged by the electors 
of the Palatinate and Treves and killed, May 7th, 1523, by a 
falling beam. 

Kaiserslautern (Cygne) is one ol the most considerable towns 
of the Palatinate. The site of a magnificent palace erected here 
by the emp. Frederick I. (BarbarossaJ in 1153, destroyed in the 
Spanish War of Succession, is now occupied by a modern house 
of correction. The handsome corn-exchange was built in 184li. 
A monument in the churchyard is sacred to the memory of 
soldiers of Napoleon who were natives of Kaiserslautern. The 
ancient Protestant church, with its three towers, said to have 
been also founded by Frederick I., is one of the most conspicuous 
edifices. 

The line soon enters the Haardt Mountains and descends in 
the picturesque and wooded valley of the Speierbach to the 
plain of the Rhine, 100 ft. lower. Within a short distance 12 
tunnels here penetrate the variegated sandstone rock, the first 
of which (1500 yds. long) is the longest. Each tunnel is 
furnished with a species of portal. 

At Neustadt (Lowe, at the station ;. Schiff; Krone) the line 
reaches the plain of the Rhine. This is the principal town of 
the Haardt Mts., and was founded by the Counts Palatine, several 
monuments to whom are preserved in the handsome church, 
erected about the middle of the 14th cent. 

On an eminence about 1000 ft. in height, 3 M. to the S. 
of Neustadt, rises the Maxburg, a still unfinished castle erected 
by king Max II. of Bavaria when crown-prince, on the site of 
the former castle of Hambach. 

To the 1. near Neustadt, half-way up the hill, lies the Haardter 
Schlbsschen (the ancient castle of Winzingen), the ivy-clad ruins 
of which are converted into picturesque grounds. 

The line then traverses extensive vineyards and tobacco-fields. 
At Schifferstadt a line diverges to Speyer (15 min.). Then 
Ludwigshafen (Deutsches Haus) , a small well-built town of 
recent origin, connected with Mannheim {European Hotel on the 
Rhine ; Palatinate Hotel, German Hotel in the town) by a bridge 
of boats. 



to Coblenz. 51. BINGEN. 269 

Cab from the station at Ludwigshafen to that of Mannheim 
a drive of 20 min., 1 — 2 pers. 45 kr., 3 pers. 1 fl., 4 pers. 
1 fl. 12 kr. 

From Ludwigshafen in 2 hrs. to Mayence (Rhenish, Dutch 
and English Hotels), comp. Baedeker's Rhine. 

d. From Metz to Coblenz by Neunkirchen, Crenznach 
and Bingen. 

Railway to Bingen in 6V''. to Coblenz in 8 hrs. ; fares to Bingen 
22 fr. 60, 15 fr. 95, 16 fr. 85 c. ; "from Bingen to Coblenz 50, 371/2, 22 Sgr. 
Scenery and construction of railway very interesting between Neunkirchen 
and Bingerbriick. 

From Metz to Neunkirchen see p. 267. Hence by the 
Rhein-Nahe line to Ottweiler, St. Wendel and WaUhausen, the 
culminating point f 1200 ft.) between the Moselle and the Rhine. 
Then Birkenfeld (Medicus) capital of a small isolated territory 
belonging to Oldenburg. Next stat. Heimbach and Kronweiler, 
beyond which the construction of the line is less remarkable. 

Oberstein (*Heindl, on the r. bank ; Scriba, on the 1. bank), 
the most picturesque point of the Nahe Valley, with its church 
curiously inserted in the face of a cliff, is noted for its agates, 
in polishing whi6h most of the inhabitants are occupied. The 
stones themselves are now largely imported from America. Next 
stat. Fischbach and Kirn (Post) with the ruin of Kyrburg. To 
the 1. a valley' opens, in which the imposing ruins of the castle 
of Dhaun are situated. 

Then Monzingen, Sobernheim and Staudernheim f*Salmen). 
To the r. rises the Dissibodenberg, with the ruins of an abbey 
founded as early as 500 and deserted in 1560. Above Wald- 
bbckelheim rises the ruin of Bbckelheim. The next important 
station is 

Crenznach (Palatinate Hotel; Eagle), with 11,000 inhab., 
noted for its saline baths (6000 patients annually). The environs 
abound in beautiful walks (Miinster am Stein, Rheingrafenstein, 
Ebernburg, Gans, Rothenfels). 

At Bingerbriick the line unite* with the Rhenish Railway. 

Bingen (Hotel Victoria; White Horse; *Bellevue), a Hessian 
town with 6000 inhab., lies opposite Bingerbriick, on the r. bank 
of the Nahe, at a considerable distance from the terminus of the 
Nahe line, and is not entered by passengers proceeding down 
the Rhine. 

Then stat. Bacharach, Oberwesel, Boppard, St. Ooar, Capellen 
(Stolzenfels) and Coblenz, all interesting points (comp. Baedeker's 
Rhine). 



270 

52. From Paris to Bale by Troyes, Belfort 
and Mulhouse. 

Express in 121/ 2 , ordinary trains in 16 hrs.; fares 58 fr. 70 c., 44 fr., 
32 fr. 30 c. The station is on the 1., adjoining the Station de Strasbourg.' 

From Paris to Noisy-le-Sec. see p. 252. The Strasbourg line 
here diverges to the ]. At Nogent-sur-Marne (p. 127) the Marne 
is crossed. On the r. the park of Vincennes is visible. The 
line now enters the fertile, but monotonous plain of Brie. From 
stat. Gretz a branch-line to Armainvillers. Nangis with 2000 inhab., 
a busy little town, possesses an ancient castle and an interesting 
Gothic church (St. Martin). 

The line traverses several attractive valleys and a succession 
of viaducts and tunnels. Stat. Longueville. 

Branch-line in 15 min. to Proving, an ancient town (7500 inhab.) on 
the Vouz><\ with remnants of a castle of the former Counts of Champagne. 
The church of St. Qttiriace, with its dome, and the Tour du Roi (or de Cisar), 
an early mediaeval structure, are worthy of notice. 

At stat. Chalmaison the line quits the plain of Brie and 
enters the valley of the Seine. From stat. Flamboin a branch- 
line to Montereau (p. 273). At stat. Nogenl-sur-Seine, the line 
crosses the Seine. 

About 41/2 M. to the S. of Nogent once lay the Abbey of Faraclet, 
where during nearly seven centuries the remains of Abelard and Heloise 
reposed. In 1792 they were conveyed to the church of St. Laurent at 
Nogent, whence they were finally removed to the cemetery of Pere La- 
chaise at Paris (p. 115). The farm of a M. Walckenaer now occupies the 
site of the abbey. The empty vault, however, still exists. 

The district continues flat. Near stat. Pont-sur-Seine is situ- 
ated the chateau Le Muet, where Madame Letitia, Napoleon's 
mother once resided, afterwards the property of Casimir Perier. 
The remains of Voltaire once reposed in the church of stat. lto- 
milly, whither they were transported on the suppression of the 
neighbouring abbey of Scellieres, the great poet's first resting- 
place. They were subsequently conveyed to the Pantheon at 
Paris (p. 139), whence they were removed in 1814. Several 
small stations, then 

Troyes (Hotels de Paris, de France, du Mulet, du Commerce; 
Restaurants Pillost, Chaulin; *Rail. Restaurant) on the Seine, the 
ancient capital of Champagne, an animated and well-built town 
with 33,000 inhab. During the Roman period the town was 
named Augustobona, then Tricassis, and after the 5th cent. Trecae. 
Mention of it is frequently made in the wars of the middle ages. 

The cathedral of St. Pierre, commenced in 1208, completed 
in 1640, exhibits a combination of different styles of architecture. 
The choir has recently been restored in the early Gothic style. 
The richly decorated Portal dates from 1506. — *S<. Urbain was 
erected in 1262 — 67 by Pope Urban IV. (Jacques Pantaleon, 
son of a shoemaker), a native of this town. — The churches 



52. TROYES. 271 

of St. Jean of the 13th, St. Pantalion of the 16th, and Ste. Ma- 
deleine of the 12th century contain little to detain the traveller. 
The last named possesses a handsome rood-loft (jube") with rich 
sculpture. 

The * Hotel de Ville, erected 1624 — 70, contains a magnificent 
hall, adorned with the busts of seven celebrated natives of the 
town. On the E. side a medallion-figure in marble of Louis XIV., 
dating from 1680, with Latin inscription by Racine. 

The Museum, founded in 1831 contains pictures, sculptures 
and objects illustrative of natural history. Above it a *Library of 
100,000 vols, and upwards of 2000 MSS. (open daily 10—2 o'clock). 

Branch-line from Troyes to Bar-sur-Seine in 1 hr. 5 min. 

Leaving Troyes the train traverses meadow-land on the bank 
of the Seine, which it quits at stat. Rouilly. Beyond stat. Ven- 
deuvre the picturesque and partially wooded valley of the Aube 
is entered. This district between Troyes and Arcis, and as far 
as Langres, was the scene of the final desperate struggle of Na- 
poleon against the Allies under Schwarzenberg and Blucher in the 
winter of 1814. Stat. Jessains commands an extensive prospect. 

On the Aube is situated the village of La Pothiire, where on Feb. 1st, 
1814 Blucher obtained the first victory over Napoleon on French soil. 
Farther to the 1., on the height beyond the Aube, • rises the ancient town 
of Brienne (Brienne le Chdteau , now named Brienne Napolfon) , celebrated 
for the military school where Napoleon studied in 1779 — 84. A sanguinary 
conflict here took place between Blucher and Napoleon, Jan. 29th, 1814, 
when the town was bombarded and set on fire and Blucher narrowly 
escaped capture. Napoleon destined the sum of one million fr. to be em- 
ployed in rebuilding the town. In 1852 Napoleon III. presented the in- 
habitants with 400,000 fr., which has been expended in the construction 
of the new Mairie; in front of the latter a bronze Statue of Napgleon in 
his 15th year by Louis Rochet. 

The line now descends the pleasant valley of the Aube, crosses 
the stream near stat. Arsonval and reaches Bar-sur-Aube , an 
ancient town (4500 inhab.), with the churches of St. Maclou and 
St. Pierre, dating from the 11th and 12th centuries. Schwarzen- 
berg here gained a victory over Oudinot on Feb. 27th, 1814. 
Next stat. Clairvaux, which lies to the r. in the valley of the 
Aube. The celebrated Cistercian abbey (Clara Vallis) founded 
by St. Bernard in 1115 is now a workhouse. No traces of anti- 
quity are now perceptible. 

The line now enters the valley of the Aujon , and at stat. 
Maranville that of the Broze. Stat. Bricon is the junction of 
the branch- line to Chdtillon-sur-Seine and Nuits-sous-Ravieres 
(p. 274). Beyond Villiers-le-Sec a huge viaduct of 50 arches, 
150 ft. in height, crosses the valley of the Suize to Chaumont 
(en-Bassigny), a fortified town (6300 inhab.) on a barren ridge 
between the Suize and the Marne. The church of St. Jean Bap- 
tiste of the 13th, with choir of the 16th cent., deserves notice. 
La Tour Hautefeuille near the Palais de Justice, i« the remains 
of an ancient castle of the Counts of Champagne. 



272 52. LANGRES. 

Branch-line from Chaumont in 2V 2 hrs. to Blesme, a station on the 
Paris and Strasbourg line, traversing the valley of the Marne. 

The line descends through deep cuttings into the valley ot 
the Marne. The district is picturesque. Stat. Foulain, Rolam- 
pont, then Langres (Hotel de V Europe; Poste), the ancient An- 
domatunum, capital of the Lingones, now an episcopal residence 
loftily situated on a spur of the Plateau de Langres, with 
S300 inhab. The cathedral of *St. Mammls , with its two vast 
towers is a structure of the 11th and 12th centuries in the tran- 
sition style from Romanesque to Gothic, St. Martin, of the 
13th cent., is Gothic; tower of the 18th cent. At the Porte du 
Marche is an admirably preserved *Roman Gateway. The Museum 
(Place St Didier) contains altars, inscriptions and other antiquities. 
Diderot (d. at Paris in 1784) was born at Langres in 1713. — 
The three sources of the Marne are situated in a rocky ravine, 
to the S., near the farm La Marnotte. 

From stat. Chalindrey a line diverges to Gray and Auxonne 
(p. 275). Then a long tunnel. The line then enters the valley 
of the Amance, which it follows down to the Saone. Stat. Hortes, 
Charmoy, Laferte-sur-Amance. 

The celebrated baths of Bourbonne-les-Bains are situated 12 M. to 
the N. (diligence in 2 hrs.); sulphureous and saline waters, known to 
the Romans. 

The line soon crosses the Saone and ascends on its r. bank. 
At Port a" Atelier the line from Vesoul to Nancy by Epinal diverges, 
which unites with the Paris and Strasbourg line at stat. Blain- 
ville-la-Grande. 

At stat. Port-sur-Saone the valley of the Saone is quitted, 
and the line traverses wooded heights to Vaivre and Vesoul 
(6800 inhab.), the busy capital of the Departement Haute-Saone, 
picturesquely situated in the valley of the Burgeon. (Branch- 
line to Gray, see above.) 

Then three small stations, and several cuttings and tunnels. 
Towards the 1. (N.E.) the Vosges Mts. become visible. Stat. Lure 
in the valley of the Ognon, was once a considerable abbey. The 
Vosges continue to rise picturesquely on the 1. 

Belfort (6000 inhab.), a fortress on the Savoureuse, was con- 
structed by Vauban under Louis XIV. 

This is the junction of the line to Besanqon , which proceeds thence 
by Lons le Saulnier and Bourg to Lyons, being the most direct line of com- 
munication between Strasbourg and Lyons. 

Mulhouse, Ger. Midhausen (Ville de Paris; IAon Rouge; 
Hotel de France, at the station), once a free town of the Ger- 
manic Empire, belonging to Switzerland from 1515 to 1798, 
since then French, is an important manufacturing town on the 
Rhine -Rhone Canal, with upwards of 40,000 inhab. Several 
branches of the 111 traverse the town. The Societe Commerciale 
possesses nat. history and industrial collections. 



53. SENS. 273 

The line to $alp now traverses the broad plain of the Rhine ; 
to the r. vine-clafl hills ; to the 1. in the distance the mountains 
of the Black Forest, among which the Blanen is the most con- 
spicuous. St. Louis in the last French stat. To the 1. on the 
Rhine is situated the former fortress of Hiiningen, constructed 
by Vauban in 1679, dismantled by the Austrians in 1815. 

Bale (*Trois Rois, on the Rhine. At the central station: 
*Schweizerhof; *Sauvage; *Cicogne; *Couronne and Tete, on the 
Rhine; Poste; Cygne), see Baedeker's Switzerland. 

53. From Paris to Neuchatel by Dijon. 

Express to Dijon in 61/v, ordinary trains in 10 hrs. ; fares 35 fr. 30, 26 fr. 45, 

19 fr. 40. Express from Dijon to Xeuchdlel in 68/4, ordinary trains in 

8V:.. hr».; fares 15 fr. 20, li fr. 95, 8 fr. 75. Station in the Boulevard 

Mazas, comp. p. 24. 

As far as Fontainebleau see p. 196. Next stat. Thomery, ce- 
lebrated for its luscious grapes (Chasselas de Fontainebleau). Stat. 
Moret, a venerable town on the Loing, which here falls into the 
Seine, possesses a Gothic church of the 13th cent, and a ruined 
chateau once occupied by Sully. (Railway hence to Montargis, 
Xever*, Moulins and Vichy/) 

The line crosses the valley of the Loing by a viaduct of 
30 arches. Stat. St. Mammix ; then Montereau (Grand Monarque), 
picturesquely situated at the confluence of the Seine and Yonne. 
Here on Feb. 18th, 1814. Napoleon gained hU last victory over 
the Allies and the Prince of Wirtemberg. (Branch-line to Flatn- 
boin, p. 270, stat. on the Paris and Troyes line.) 

The train ascends the broad and well cultivated valley of the 
Yonne. Sens (Hotel de VEcu), the ancient capital of the Se- 
nones, who under Brennu< plundered Rome (B.C. 390), the Age- 
dincum of the Romans , is now a quiet and clean town with 
12,000 inhab. The early Gothic ^Cathedral (St. Etienne) dates 
from the 12th cent.; magnificent S. Portal in the Flamboyant 
style. Ancient stained glass and several monuments in the choir. 
The episcopal vestments and other relics of Thomas a, Becket, 
who sought an asylum at Sens in 1164, are shown. The cathe- 
dral bells are among the finest in France, one of them weighing 
upwards of 17 tons. 

Joigny (Due de Bourgogne) , the Joviniacutn of the Romans, 
is a picturesque and ancient town (6000 inhab.) on the Yonne. 
Next stat. La Roche. 

From La Roche by a branch-line in 52 min. to Auxerre (H6lel du 
Liopardj, capital (13,000 inhab.) of the Department of the Yonne, possessing 
several good churches, especially the late Gothic cathedral. Chablit, well 
known for its wines, lies between Auxerre and Tonnerre (see below). 
13Vi: M- to the E. of the former. 

Near La Roche the line crosses the Yonne, into which the 
Armancon here empties itself, and follows the latter river and 
the Canal de Bourgogne, connecting the Seine and Sa6ne. 

Bsedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 18 



274 53. DIJON. From Paris 

About 6 M. from St. Florentin is the Cistercian Abbey of 
Pontigny, where Thomas a Becket passed two years of his exile. 
Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, banished by John, and other 
English prelates have also sought a retreat within its walls. 

Tonnerref Lion d'Or; *Rail. Restaurant), picturesquely situated 
on the Armancon, a town with 5000 inhab., possesses a monument 
to the minister Louvois (d. 1691"). The church of St. Pierre, on 
an eminence above the town, commands a pleasing prospect. 

Stat. Tanlay possesses a fine chateau in the Renaissance 
style, founded by the brother of Admiral Coligny, the chief victim 
of St. Bartholomew's Night, who with the Prince de Conde and 
other Huguenot leaders held meetings in one of the apartments. 
Then a tunnel, 540 yds. in length; bridge over the Armancon; 
tunnel 1020 yds. long, and the canal and Armancon are again 
crossed. From stat. Nuits-sous-Ravilres a branch line to Chdtillon- 
sur-Seine and Bricon (p. 271). Montbard, birth-place (1707) of 
the naturalist Buffon (d. at Paris in 1788), contains his chateau 
and a monument to his memory. 

Beyond stat. Blaisy-Bas the line penetrates the culminating 
ridge, or watershed (1244 ft), between the Seine and the Rhone 
by a long tunnel (2 74 M.). Hence to Dijon a succession of 
viaducts, cuttings and tunnels. BeyOnd stat. Malum, with its 
ruined chateau, the line enters the picturesque valley of the Ouche, 
bounded on the r. by the slopes of the Cote d'Or. 

Dijon (Hotels de la Cloche, du Pare, du Jura; Rail. Restaurant), 
the ancient capital of Burgundy, now of the Department of the 
Cote d'Or (37,000 inhab.) , is situated at the confluence of the 
Ouche and the Souaon. During four centuries , until the death 
of Charles the Bold (1476) the dukes of Burgundy resided here. 
Their handsome and extensive palace, part of which was fitted 
up in the last century as an *H6tel de Ville, is still an object 
of interest. 

The * Museum, contiguous to the Hotel de Ville, contains 
mediseval relics, ornaments, carved ivory, paintings, engravings etc. 
The most interesting objects are the magnificent *monuments of 
the dukes Philippe le Hardi (d. 1404) and Jean sans Peur 
(d. 1419), and of Margaretha, wife of the latter, formerly in the 
Chartreuse, afterwards in the church of St. Benigne. They were 
seriously injured in 1793, but restored in 1828. — In the vicinity 
are the Theatre and the Palais de Justice, the latter with a facade 
in the Renaissance style. 

The cathedral of St. Benigne is a Gothic edifice of the 13th 
and 14th centuries. The church of *Notre Dame is a fine spe- 
cimen of pure Gothic of the 14th cent., the E. side especially 
worthy of attention. St. Michel, consecrated in 1529, is in the 
Renaissance style. 



to Neuehatel. 53. DOLE. 275 

The castle, now half in ruins, was constructed by Louis XL 
(1478 — 1512) after the union of Burgundy with France and was 
afterwards employed as a state-prison. The former Carthusian 
Monastery , of which a few fragments still remain , is now a 
lunatic asylum. 

The town possesses a number of handsome houses in the 
Renaissance style, especially interesting to the professional. The 
former ramparts have been converted into promenades. — Dijon 
is the nucleus of the wine-traffic of Upper Burgundy; the growths 
of Oevroy (which yields the delicious Chambertin), Vougeot, Nuits, 
and Beaune are the most celebrated (comp. p. 276). 

At Dijon the railway to Macon (p. 276) diverges to the r. 
The line now described follows the 1. bank of the Ouche. Near 
the small fortress of Auxonne the line crosses the Saone. After 
stat. Champvans a long tunnel (885 yds.) 

D61e (Ville de Lyon; Ville de Qeneve), with 11,000 inhab., 
formerly the capital of Franche Comte", is picturesquely situated 
on the Doubs and the Rhone-Rhine-Canal. The esplanade of 
St. Maurice commands a fine view of the Jura Mts. and Mont 
Blanc in the extreme distance to the r. Branch-line hence to 
Besanfon. 

The canal and the river are now crossed and the valley of 
the Loue entered, on the side of the wooded hills of Foret de 
Chaux. Stat. Arc-Senans, two villages with a saline-spring, is 
the junction for the Belfort, Besanfon and Lyons line (p. 276), 
which again diverges to the r. at the next stat. Mouchard. To 
the 1. a branch line to Salins. 

The line now penetrates the valleys of the Jura. Numerous 
viaducts and tunnels. Stat. Arbois (Pomme d'Or) , a pleasant 
town (6000 inhab.) on the Cuisance in a wine-growing district, 
was the birth-place (1761) of Pichegru. Mesnay, a large village 
on the opposite bank of the Cuisance, possesses an extensive 
paper-manufactory. Then several small stations. 

Pontarlier (Hdtel National; Croix Blanche), a small town 
(5000 inhab.), on the Doubs, is the last French station of im- 
portance. Custom-house formalities for those entering France. 

The line follows the 1. bank of the Doubs and crosses the 
river near the fortified pass of La Cluse. To the r., on a rock 
600 ft. in height, is situated the Fort de Jouz, where Mirabeau, 
Toussaint Louverture and several other well-known characters 
were once confined. To the 1., on a still loftier rock, rises a 
new fort. To the 1. the church of St. Pierre de la Cluse. Les 
Verrieres de Joux (2829 ft.) is the last French, and Les Verrilres 
Suisses the first Swiss station. 

Beyond Les Verrieres the line reaches the culminating point 
(Col des Verrilres, 2890 ft.) between the Doubs and the Reuse. 

18* 



276 53. NEUCHATEL. 

Then two tunnels; to the r. far below is St. Sulpice where the 
Reuse rises in considerable volume. Two viaducts and another 
tunnel (560 yds.}. 

Stat. Boveresse lies high above the village and commands a 
pleasant view of the animated Val de Travers. On the opposite 
bank of the Reuse lies Motiers (_Maison Commune), where Rousseau 
wrote his "Lettres de la Moutagne". Then to the r. Fleurier 
(Couronne), a small town of some importance with considerable 
watch-manufactories. 

The line gradually descends to stat. Couvet (Ecu), a picturesque 
town, and stat. Travers. 

To the r. rises the Creux du Vent (4510 ft), which may he ascended 
hence or from Noiraigue. On the summit is a crater in the form of a 
horse-shoe opening towards the K.E., about 500 ft. in depth, and 21/2 M. 
in circumference. When the weather changes this crater hecomes filled 
with white vapour, resembling a vast boiling cauldron. 

Stat. Noiraigue. The Val de Travers here terminates and the 
line enters a narrow ravine, traversed by the Reuse. Frequent 
tunnels and viaducts. At Troisrods, where the ravine is quitted, 
the extensive viaduct of the line to Yverdon is perceived far 
below to the r. A striking prospect is now obtained to the r. 
of the Lake of Neuchatel and the Alps. The line descends 
gradually to stat. Auvernier, the junction for Yverdon; it then 
crosses the Ravine of Serritres (village of Serri'eres to the r. on 
the lake below) by a lofty viaduct and finally reaches the station, 
situated high above the town, of 

Neuchatel (*H6tel Bellevue, in an open situation on the lake, 
omnibus 3 / 4 fr. ; *H6tel des Alpes, near the lake; *Faucon, in the 
town ; Hotel du Lac, on the lake, moderate ; Hotel du Commerce 
near the post-office); see Baedeker's Switzerland. 

54. From Paris to Geneva by Macon, Amberieu 
and Gnloz. 

Express to Macon in 91/2 , ordinary trains in 121/2 brs. ; fares 49 fr. 40, 
37 fr. 5, 27 fr. 15 c. From Macon to Geneva by express in 51/2, ordinary 
trains in 7 hrs. ; fares 20 fr. 60, 15 fr. 45, 11 fr. 35 c. Station in the Boule- 
vard Mazas, comp. p. 24. 

As far as Dijon see p. 273. The line to Macon crosses the 
Ouche and the Canal de Bourgogne (p. 273) and skirts the base 
of the sunny vineyards of the Cote d'Or, which extend almost 
the entire distance from Dijon to Chalons and produce the choicest 
qualities of the Burgundy wines (Chambertin, Clos de Bize, Clos 
de Vougeot, Romanic, Taehe, Nuits, Beaune etc.). To the r. of 
stat. Corgoloin is the village of Aloxe, another well-known wine 
producing place (Corton, Charlemagne, Clos du Roi). Stat. Beaune, 
with 11,000 inhab., on the Bouzoise, a town with several Gothic 
edifices and a monument of the mathematician Monge, who was 
born here in 1746 (d. 1818). 



54. CHAL0NS-SUR-Sa6ne. 277 

From stat. Chagny a branch-line diverges to Creuzot. The 
line passes under the Canal du Centre, which connects the Saone 
and the Loire, by means of a tunnel, intersects the Col de Chagny 
and enters the valley of the Thalie. 

Chalons-sur-Sa6ne (Trois Faisans; H6tel du Chevreuil; H6tel 
de VEurope) with 19,000 inhab., the Cabillonum of the Romans, 
is situated at the junction of the Canal du Centre with the Saone, 
which is here navigated by steamboats (to Lyons in 5 — 6 hrs.). 
The town contains little to detain the traveller. The early Go- 
thic Cathedral, recently restored, exhibits the transition to that 
style from the Romanesque. (The express trains do not touch 
Chalons, the branch line to which diverges from the junction 
St. Cosme.) 

The line follows the r. bank of the Saone; to the 1. in the 
distance the Jura is visible ; to the r. in clear weather the snowy 
summit of Mont Blanc, 150 M. distant. Stat. Tournus (5500 inhab.) 
possesses a fine abbey-church (St. Philibert). 

Macon (Hotels du Sauvage, des Champs Elysees, de VEurope; 
Rail. Restaurant) , capital of the Department of the Saone and 
the Loire, with 18,000 inhab., is another great focus of the wine- 
trade. The remains of the early Romanesque cathedral of St. Vin- 
cent are interesting to architects. 

Macon is the junction for Lyons, the line to which diverges 
to the r. at St. Clement. The Saone is now crossed and the De- 
partement de l'Ain entered by the r. bank of theVeyle; in front 
and to the 1. the Jura Mts. continue to be visible. 

Bourg (Hotels de VEurope, du Midi, du Palais), with 14,000 in- 
hab., the ancient capital of Bresse, is situated on the 1. bank of 
the Reyzousse, % M. from the station. The church of Notre 
Dame de Bourg, erected from the 15th to the 17th cent, in a 
variety of styles, contains several pictures, sculpture and fine 
wood-carving. On the promenade Le Bastion is a *Monument 
of Bichat (d. 1802), who once studied at Bourg, by David d'Angers. 
The house in which Lalnade (d. at Paris in 1807) was born is 
indicated by a tablet. — Bourg is the junction for Lyons, Mou- 
chard, Besancon and Mulhouse, the direct line between Lyons 
and Strasbourg. 

The celebrated 'Church of Brou, in the florid Gothic style, erected in 
1511—36 by Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands, is situated 
1/2 M. from the town. It contains the sumptuous *Monuments of the 
foundress, her husband Philibert, Duke of Savoy, and her mother-in-law 
Margaret of Bourbon. Her well-known motto: "Fortune infortune forte une" 
may be seen in different parts of the church. 

The line intersects the forest of Seillon. Near stat. Pont 
d'Ain the Ain is crossed. 

Amberieu, a pleasant little town on the Albarine, situated 
at the base of the Jura Mts., is the junction for Lyons. 



278 54. CULOZ. 

The valley of the Albarine is now ascended. To the 1. the 
ruined chateaux of Vieux - Mont - Ferrand and St. Germain. The 
valley which soon becomes wilder and more imposing, is quitted 
at stat. Tenay. Beyond stat. Rossillon a tunnel (587 yds.); then 
to the r. the lakes of Pugieu. The line enters the Valley of the 
Rhone at 

Stat. Culoz, junction for Chambery and St. Michel (Susa and 
Turin), at the S. base of the Colombier (4700 ft.), which is 
occasionally ascended for the sake of the view. 

The broad, marshy valley of the Rhone is next traversed. 
Stat. Seyssel lies on both banks of the river, which is here crossed 
by a double suspension-bridge. To the r., on the opposite bank, 
the loftily situated church of Bassy. Near stat. Pyrimont are 
mines of asphalt. Then four tunnels. 

Stat. Bellegarde (Poste), at the entrance of the valley of the 
Valserine, is the last French station. Custom-house formalities 
for travellers entering France. 

Above the influx of the Valserine, 8/4 M. from the Hotel de la Poste, 
is the so-called Perte du Rhone. When the river is low, the water is 
"lost" in a rocky gulf, which however has been considerably widened by 
blasting. These rocks are covered when the stream is high. 

Immediately beyond Bellegarde the train crosses the great 
Valserine Viaduct (to the r. far below is the bridge of the road) 
and enters the long Credo Tunnel (273 M.). The rocky Tavine 
next traversed is bounded by Mont Vuache (3475 ft.) on the r. 
and the Jura (Les Orandes Cretes; Col de Farges etc.) on the 1. 
The Fort de I'Ecluse high above on the 1 , completely commands 
this defile. Several small stations, then 

Geneva (On the 1. bank: *Metropole; *Ecu de Geneve; *Cou- 
ronne. — *H6tel de la Poste and *H6tel du Rhone, moderate. — 
On the right bank: * Hotel des Bergues; d'Angleterre: Victoria, 
Geneve) see Baedeker's Switzerland. 



Index. 



Aa, the 209. 
Abbeville 206. 
St e . Adresse 222. 
Aigremont 246. 
Ain, the 277. 
Aix-la-Chapelle 247. 
Albarine, the 277. 
Alencon 241. 
Allort 146. 
Amance, the 272. 
Amberieu 277. 
Amboise 227. 
Amiens 206. 
Ancenis 234. 
Andelys, Les 219. 
Angers 232. 
Anzin 248. 
Apremont 202. 
Arbois 275. 

Arches-sur-Moselle 265. 
Archwiller 259. 
Arc-Senans 275. 
Arcis 271. 
Ardres 209. 
Argentan 241. 
Argenteuil 189. 
Armainvillers 270. 
Armancon, the 273. 
Arnual 267. 
Arques 212. 
-, the 210. 
Arras 209. 
Ars 265. 
Arsonval 271. 
Asnieres 168. 187. 
Athis-Mons 223. 
Aube, the 271. 
Aubrais, Les 224. 
Aulne, the 237. 
Auray 237. 
Auteuil 88. 170. 
Auvernier 276. 
Auxerre 273. 
Auxonne 272. 275. 
St. Avoid 267. 

Bacharach 269. 
Kale 273. 
Bar-le-Duc 256. 
Bar-sur-Aube 271. 



Bar-sur-Seine 271. 
Barentin 223. 
Bas-Breau 202. 
Bassy 278. 
Batignolles, Les 189. 
Bayeux 243. 
Beaune 276. 
Beauvais 208. 
Belfort 272. 
Bellegarde 278. 
Bellevue 169. 229. 
Bernay 240. 
Besancon 272. 
Bethune, the 212. 
Bexbach 267. 
Bezons 220. 
Bingen 269. 
Bingerbruck 269. 
Birkenfeld 269. 
Bizy 219. 

Blainville-la-Grande 272. 
Blaisy-Bas 274. 
Blanc-Misseron 249. 
Blesme 272. 
Blois 226. 
Bockelheim 269. 
Bois-le-Roi 197. 
Bolbec 223. 
Bondy, forel de 252. 
Bonneville, La 240. 
Bonnieres 219. 
Boppard 269. 
Borcette 248. 
Bouille, La 218. 
Boulogne-sur-Mer 203. 
Boulogne-sur-Seine 185. 
Bourbonne-les-Bains 272 
Bourg 277. 
Bourgogne, Canal de 273. 

276. 
Boursault, chateau 253 
Bouzoise, the 276. 
Boveresse 276. 
Boves 207. 
Braine-le-Comte 250. 
Bresse, the 277. 
Brest 237. 
Bretignv 224. 
Bricon 274. 
Brie 270. 



Brienne 271. 
St. Brieuc 239. 
Brittany 237. 
Brou, church of 277. 
Broz<!, the 271. 
Brunoy 196. 
Brussels 250. 
Bueil 240. 
Burtscheid 248. 

Caen 241. 
Calais 208. 

Calvados, rochers de 222. 
Cancale 211. 
Capellen 269. 
Carentan 243. 
Carlsberg 268. 
St. Catherine, Mont 218. 
Caux, Pays de 223. 
Centre, Canal du 277. 
Cesson 197. 
Chablis 273. 
Chagny 277. 
Chalifert 253. 
Chalindrey 272. 
Chalmaison 270. 
Chalons-sur-Marne 255. 
Chalons-sur-Saone 277. 
Chamarande 224. 
Chambe>y 278. 
Chambord 226. 
Champvans 275. 
Champtoce' 234. 
Chantilly 160. 
Charenton 127. 196. 
Charleroi 246. 
Charmoy 272. 
Chartres 229. 
Chateaudun 224. 
Chateaulin 237. 
Chateau- Thierry 253. 
Chatillon - sur - Seine 271 . 

274. 
Chatou 188. 
Chaudfontaine 247. 
Chaumont 227. 271. 
Chauny 245. 
Chaux, foret de 275. 
Chaville 169. 
Chenonceaux 227. 



280 

Cher, the 227. 

Cherbourg 243. 

Chokier 246. 

Cinq-Mars 228. 

Clairvaux 271. 

Clamart 169. 

St. Clement 277. 

Clermont 208. 

Clichy 168. 220. 

St. Cloud 185. 

Cluse, la 275. 

Coblenz 269. 

Cologne 248. 

Colombes 189. 220. 

Colombier, the 278. 

Combs-la-Ville 197. 

Commercy 256. 

Compiegne 245. 

Conches 240. 

Conflans 220. 

Corbeil 223. 

Corgoloin 276. 

St. Cosme 277. 

Cote de Grace 222. 

Cote d'Or, the 276. 

Courbevoie 168. 

Courcelles 219. 

Courgain 208. 

Couvet 276. 

Couville 243. 

CreMo, Tunnel du 278. 

Crei! 208. 245. 

Creux du Vent, the 276. 

Creuznach 269. 

Croix de Bourgogne, the 

259. 
Cuisanee, the 275. 
Culoz 278. 
St. Cyr 229. 

Damard 252. 
Damery 253. 
St. Denis 189. 
Dhaun 269. 
Dieppe 210. 
Dijon 274. 
Dissibodenberg 269. 
DSle 275. 
Dolhain 247. 
Douai 248. 
Doubs, the 275. 
Dourdan 224. 
Dover 208. 
Dreux 229. 
Durgeon, the 272. 
Duttvveiler 267. 

Eaulne, the 212. 
Kbernburg 269. 
Ecluse, Fort de 1' 278. 
Elbeuf 219. 
Elorn, the 239. 
Empereur, Fort de 1' 202. 



INDEX. 

jEnghien-les-Baint 195. 
Epernav 253 
Epinal 272. 
Epinay 189. 
Ermont 189. 
Erquelines 246. 
Escaut, the 248. 
Etampes 224. 
Etaples 206. 
Etrechy 224. 
Eure, the 219. 240. 
Evreux 240. 

Feignies 248. 
Fert^-Bernard, La 230. 
Finisterre, Cape 238. 
Fischbach 269. 
Flamboin 270. 273. 
FMmalle 246. 
Fleurier 276. 
St. Florentin 274. 
Folkstone 203. 
Fontainebleau 196. 
Fontenoy 156. 
Forbach 267. 
Forest 250. 
Foulain 272. 
Fraipont 247'. 
Franchard 201. 
Friedrichsthal 267. 
Frouard 256. 

Gaillard 219. 

Gaillon 219. 

Gans, the 269. 

Geneva 278. 

St. Germain - en Laj e 

188. 
Gevrov 275. 
St. Gh'islain 249. 
Girard, Monts 202. 
St. Goar 269. 
St. Gobain 245. 
Gouet, the 239. 
Goulet, le 238. 
Granville 211. 
Gravelle 127. 
Graville 222. 
Gray 272. 
Greifenstein 259 
Gretz 270. 
Guinette 224. 

Haaidt Mounts, the 268. 
JHainault, the 249. 
I Hal 250. 
jHam 245. 
jHarfleur 223. 

Haumont 246. 

Haut-Barr 259. 

Havre, Le 220. 
■Hazebrouck 209. 

Heiuibach 269. 



Herbesthal 247. 
Hive, La 222. 
Hombourg 267. 
Homburg 267. 
Honfleur 222. 
Hortes 272 
Hiiningen 273. 
Huy 246. 

Ill, the 260. 
Ille, the 239. 
Indre, the 207. 
Ingouville 222. 
Ingrandes 284. 
Isigny 243 
Issy 169. 
Itou, the 240. 
Ivry 196. 223 

St. James 90. 
Jemappes 249. 
Jessains 271. 
Jeumont 246. 
Joigny 273. 
Joinville-le-Pont 127 
jJoux, Fort de 275. 
Jouy-aux- Arches 265. 
jJura Mts., the 278. 
IJurbise 250. 
..Tuvisy 223. 

'Kaiserslautern 268. 
;Kehl 264. 

Kerhuon 239. 

Kirn 269. 

Konigsdorf 248. 

Kronweiler 269. 

Kyrburg 269. 

La Bonneville 240. 

— Bouille 218. 

— Cluse275. 

— Fert^-Bernard 230. 

— Heve 222. 

— Marche 160. 

— Muette 90. 

— Pointe 234. 

— Roche 273. 

— Roche Maurice 239. 

— Rochette 247. 

— Rothiere 271. 

— Suze 231. 
Laigle 229. 240. 
Laferte"-sur-Amance 272. 

— -sous- Jouarre 253. 
Lagny 252. 
Landerneau 239. 
Landreciea 246. 
Landstuhl 268. 
Langres 272. 
Laval 240. 
Le Havre 220 

— Mans 230 



Le Mourmelon 282. 

— Muet 270. 

— Pecq 188. 

— Pollet 211. 

— Trooz 247. 

— Ve"sinet 188. 
Lee Andelys 219. 

— Aubrais 224. 

— Batignolles 189. 

— Loges 189. 

— Verrieres 275. 
St. Leu 160. 
Uancourt 208. 
Llane, the 203. 
Lie"ge 246. 
Lieusaint 197. 
Limburg 247. 
Lisieux 222. 240. 
Lison 243. 
Liverdun 256. 
St. Lo 243. 
Loges, Les 189. 
Loing, the 273. 
Loire, the 227. 
Longueau 207. 209. 
Longueville 270. 
Lons le Saulnier 272. 
Lorient 237. 

Loue, the 275. 
St. Louis 273. 
Louveciennes 188. 
Lou vi era 219. 
Ludwigshafen 268. 
Lun<5ville 259. 
Lure 272. 
Lutzelbourg 259. 
Luxembourg 267. 
Lyon 272. 

Macon 277. 
Maintenon 229. 
Maisons-Laffitte 220. 
Maisse 223. 
Malain 274. 
Malaunay 212. 223. 
Malmaieon 187. 
St. Malo 240 
Malplaquet 249. 
St. Mammes 273. 
St. Maude" 126. 
Mannheim 268. 
Mans, Le 230. 
Mantes 220. 
Maranville 271. 
Marche, La 160. 
Marlotte 202. 
Marly 188. 

Marne, the 253. 270. 272. 
Marnotte, la 272. 
Martinvast 243. 
Masures, chateau des 247, 
Maubeuge 246 
St. Maur 127. 



INDEX. 

Maxburg, the 268. 
Mayenne, the 240. 
Mayence 269. 
Meaux 253. 
Melun 197 
Menars 226. 
Mesnay 275. 
Metz 265. 
Meudon 169. 
Meurthe, the 266. 
Meuse, the 146. 256. 
AKzidon 241. 
St. Michel 278. 
Mons 248. 
Montargis 273. 
Montbard 274. 
Jlontereau 273. 
Montescourt 245. 
Montgeron 196. 
Montjean 234. 
Montlhe"ry 223. 
Montlouis 227. 
Montmorency 195. 
Montreuil 206. 
Monzingen 269. 
Moret 273. 
Morlaix 239. 
Motiers 276. 
Moulins 273. 
Mourmelon, Le 255. 
Mousson 264. 
Muet, Le 270. 
Muette, La 90. 
Mulhouse 272. 
Munster am Stein 269. 

Namur 246. 
Nancy 257. 
Nangis 270. 
Nanterre 187. 
Nantes 234. 
Napole"onville 237. 
St. Nazaire 236. 
Nessonvaux 247. 
Neuchatel 276. 
Neufchatel 206. 
Neuilly 87. 
Neunkirchen 267. 
Neustadt 268. 
Nevers 273. 
Newhaven 210. 
St. Nicolas 259. 
Nogent - sur • Marne 127. 

270. 
Nogent-le-Rotrou 230. 
Nogent-sur-Seine 270. 
Nointot 223. 
Noiraigue 276. 
Noisy-le-Sec 252. 
Norrey 243. 
Notre-Dame desFlammea 

169. 
Nove"ant 265. 



281 

Noye, the 207. 
Noyelle 206. 
Noyon 245. 

Nuits-sous-Ravieres 271. 
274. 

Oberstein 269. 
Oberwesel 269. 
Odon, the 243. 
Ognon, the 272. 
Oise, the 208. 245. 
Oissel 219. 240. 
St. Omer 209. 
Onzain 227. 
Orge, the 223. 
Orleans 224. 
Ornain, the 256. 
Orne, the 241. 
Ottweiler 269. 
Ouche, the 274. 276. 
Oudon 234. 
iSt. Ouen 189. 

jPagny 265. 
iPantin 252. 
Paraclet 270. 
I Paris 1 . 

I AcademieFrancaisel49 
! Alle"e des Veuves 84. 
I St. Antoine, Faubourg 
i 35. 
*Arc de Triomphe du 
Carrousel 74. 

* de l'Etoile 85. 

Arrival 1. 
Auctions 18. 
Augustins, e"gl. des 41. 
Avenue de l'lmpera- 
trice 89. 

— de Neuilly 87. 
Balls 31. 

Barriere du Trfine 124. 

Bastille, Place de la 34. 

Baths 19. 

— , Roman 137. 

Bazaars 18. 

Beer 14. 

Bibliotheque Imperials 

— St e . Genevieve 140. 

— Mazarine 150. 
Blind Institution 170. 

*Bois de Boulogne 89. 

— de Vincennes 126. 
Booksellers 16. 
Botanic Garden 145. 
Bouffes Parisiens 29. 
Boulevard Beaumar, 

chais 36. 

— Bonne-Nouvelle 88. 

— des Capucines 40. 

— du Crime 36. 



282 

Paris : 
Boulevard des Filles- 
du-Calvaire 36. 

— St. Germain 47. 

— HausBmann 41. 

— des Italiens 39. 

— de la Madeleine 41. 

— de Magenta 37. 

— Malesherbes 41. 

— St. Martin 37. 

— St. Michel 45. 47. 

— Montmartre 38. 

— Poissonniere 38. 

— du Prince-Eugene 36 

— Richard-Lenoir 35. 

— de Sebastopol 45. 

— de Strasbourg 45. 

— du Temple 36. 
**Boulogne, Bois de 89. 

Bourse, la 38. 
Cabinets de lecture 17. 
Cadran bleu 36. 
Cafes 14. 

Cafes Chantants 16. 30. 
Canal St. Martin 35. 
Carmes-Billettes, 
temple des 112. 
Caserne Napoleon 94. 

— du Prince-Eugene36 
Catacombs, the 167. 
Chalet des lies 31. 90. 
Champ de Mars 159. 
Champs Elyse'es 82. 
ChapelleExpiatoire 42. 
Chateau d\Eau 37. 
Chateau desFleurs31. 
Chemins de fer 23. 
Chemin de fer Ame'- 

ricain 23. 
Chemists 3. 
Cigars 18. 
Circuses 30. 
Cite, island 94. 
*St e . Clotilde 165. 
College de France 47. 
Colonne de Juillet 35. 

— Vendome 40. 
Concerts 30. 
Conciergerie 96. 
Confectioners 16. 
Conjurers 30. 
Conservatoire des Arts 

et Metiers 102. 

— de Musique 30. 
Cours la Eeine 84. 
Custom-house XII. 
Daubenton's monu- 
ment 143. 

Deaf and Dumb Insti- 
tution 161. 

Dentists 2. 

D(5pdt Central d'Artil- 
lerie 153. 



INDEX. 

Paris: 
Desaix's monument 97. 
Diners a Prix fixe 1 1 . 
Docks Napoleon 168. 
Dog-market 19. 
Douane XII. 1. 
Ecole desBeauxArts 150 

— de Droit 138. 140. 

— de M^decine 138. 

— Militaire 159. 

— des Mines 47. 
Embassies XIII. 
English Churches 112. 
Etablissements hydro- 

therapiques 19 
*St. Etienne du Mont 163 
St. Eugene 112. 
Eugene Beauharnais, 

Statue of 37. 
*St. Eustache 107. 
Exchange 38. 
Extent XXI. 
St. Ferdinand, Cha- 

pelle 87. 
Fiacres 19. 
Fontaine Cuvier 143. 

— des Innocents 18. 

— St. Michel 46. 

— Moliere 101. 

— St. Sulpice 163. 
Fortifications 91. 
Frascati 39. 

Ste Genevieve, Biblio- 
theque 140 

St. Germain l'Auxer- 
rois 105. 

St. Germain des Pr^s 
164 

Gobelins, the 145. 

Greve, Place de 94. 

Gymnastic Establish- 
ments 85. 

Halle aux Vins 18. 
"Halles Centrales 18. 

Henry IV., Statue of 98. 

Hippodrome 30. 90. 

History XV. 

Hopital des femmes in- 
curables 169. 

— Lariboissiere 112. 

— du Val de Grace 47. 
Horse-Market 19. 
Horse Railway 23. 
Hotels 3. 

Hotel de Cluny 135. 

— Dieu 105. 

— des Invalides 155. 

— des Monnaies 148. 

— Pompejen 84. 

— des Ventea Mobilie- 
res 18. 

*— de Ville 92. 
Ices 16. 



Paris : 
Imprimerie Impdriale 

36. 
Institut de France 149. 
Institution des Jeunes 

Aveugles 160. 

— des sourds-muetsl61 
Invalides, Hotel des 155 

*St. Jacques de la 

Boucherie, Tour 46. 
Jardin d'Acclimatation 
91. 

— du Luxembourg 133. 

— Mabille 31. 
**— des Plantes 141. 

*— des Tuileries 77. 
*St. Jean-Baptiste 112. 
July-Column 35. 
St. Leu 45. 
Longchamps 89. 
LouisXIII., Statue of 35 
Louis XIV., Statueof50 
St. Louis, lycee 47. 
**Louvre 50. 

Luxembourg, palais du 
128. 
*Madeleine, la 109. 
Madrid 90. 
Malesherbes, statue of 

95. 
Maison d'Educat. de la 
Legion d'Honneurl95 
Maison de Francois I 84 
Maisons meuble'es 3. 

— de sante 3. 
Marais, Quartier du 36. 
Marche aux Chevaux 19 
St e . Marie 112. 
Markets 18. 

Ma?as, prison 24. 

Measures XXV. 

St. Medard 147. 

St. Merry 107. 

Messageries Imperiales 
XII. 
■""Monceaux, pare de 88. 

Money XI. 

Montmartre 122. 

— , cemetery of 123. 

Montparnasse , ceme- 
tery of 166. 

Morgue, the 99. 

Musee d'Artillerie 153. 

— Ceramique 187. 

— des Thermes 135. 
Museum of Natural H A - 

storyl41. 
"Napoleon's I. Tomb 158. 
Newspapers 17. 
Ney's Statue 134. 
St. Nicolas des 
Champs 103. 
*Notre Dame 104. 



Paris : 
*Notre Dame de Lo- 

rette 110. 
*Obelisk of Luxor 80. 

Observatoire 134. 

Oculists 2. 

OdiSon 27. 

Omnibuses 1. 21. 

Op<!ra 26. 

Ope'ra Comique 27. 

Oratoire, V 112. 

Palais de la Bourse 38. 

— du Corps Legislatif 
152 

— de' PElysee 83. 

— de Tlndustrie 83. 

— de Justice 95. 

— du Louvre 50. 

— de la Le'gion d'hon- 
neur 153. 

— du Luxembourg 128. 

— Royal 47. 

— du S(5nat 129. 

— des Tournelles 35. 

— des Tuileries 75. 
*Pantheon 138. 
*Parc de Monceaux 88. 

Passports XII. 
Patissiers 10. 
Pentemont 112. 
*Pere-Lachaise, ceme- 
tery of 113. 
Physicians 2. 
Picpus, cemetery 122. 
Place de la Bastille 34. 

— de la Bourse 38. 

— du Carrousel 74. 

— du Chatelet 46. 
**— de la Concorde 78. 

— Dauphine 97. 

— de Francois 1. 84. 

— de Greve 94. 

— des Innocents 18. 

— Louvois 99. 

— Napoleon 51. 

— Royale 35. 

— des Victoires 49. 
Policemen 2. 

Pont de TAlma 85. 

— au Change 46. 95. 

— d'lena 85. 

— des Invalides 160. 
«— Neuf 98. 

Population XXI. 
Porte Dauphine 89. 

— St. Denis 37. 

— Maillot 87. 

— St. Martin 37. 
Post Office XII. 
Pr<5 Catelan 90. 
Prefecture de Police 

97. 

— de la Seine 92. 



INDEX. 

Paris: 
Prison de la Concier- 
gerie 96. 

— des jeunes detenus 
114. 

— Mazas 24. 

— de la Roquette 114. 
Protestact churches 112 
Railway Omnibuses 23 
Railway Stations 23. 
Ranelagh 90. 
Reading Rooms 17. 
Restaurants 8. 
Revenues XXI. 
Rivoli, Rue de 94. 

St. Roch 108. 

Roman Baths 137. 

Roquette, Prison de la 
114. 

Russian Church 86. 
*Sainte-Chapelle 96. 

Sanitary establish- 
ments 3 

Savonnerie, la 146. 

Sergents de Ville 2. 

Shops XIII. 17. 

Sorbonne, the 156. 

Square des Arts et Me- 
tiers 45. 

Stations 23. 

Statistics XXI. 

Steamboats 25. 
*St. Sulpice 162. 

Swimming-baths 8. 19. 

Tabacs , manufacture 
des 160. 

Tattersall Francais 19. 

Telegraph Offices 
XIII. 

Theatres 25. 

Theatre Francais 27. 

— Italien 27. 

St. Thomas d\Aquinl54 

Timbre Imperial XI. 

Tournelles, palais des 
35. 

Tribunal de Commerce 
39. 46. 

Tuileries, the 74. 

Vendome Column 40. 

Vincennes, Bois de 126. 
*St. Vincent de Paul 111 

Voitures 19. 

Weights XXV 

Wines 10. 18. 

Zoological Garden 144 
Passy 90. 170. 
Pecq, Le 188. 
Pepinster 247. 
St. Pierre 212. 
St. Pierre de la Cluse 275. 

— des Corps 227. 

— de Vauvray 219. 



283 

Pointe, La 234. 
Poissy 220. 
Pollet, Le 211. 
Pont d'Ain 277. 

— de PArche 219. 

— de Brique 206. 

— du Diable 265. 

— TEveque241. 

— -a-Mousson 264. 

— sur-Seine 270. 
Pontarlier 275. 
Pontigny 274. 
Pontivy 237. 
Ponts de Ce 234. 
Port d'Atelier 272. 

— -a-Binson 253. 

— sur-Saone 272. 
Portztrein 238. 
PriSny 265. 
Provins 270. 
Pugieu 278. 
Puteaux 168. 
Pyrimont 278. 

St. Quentin 246. 
Query 248. 
Quievrain 249. 
Quimper 237. 

Rambouillet 229. 
Recouvrance 238. 
Redon 237. 
Rennes 239. 
Reuse, the 276. 
Reyzousse , the 277. 
Rheims 253. 
Rheingrafenstein 269. 
Rhine, the 269. 273. 
Rhine-Rhone Canal , the 

272. 
Rhone, the 278. 
— , the Perte du 278. 
Roche, La 273. 
Roche Maurice , La 239. 
Rochette, La 247. 
Rolampont 272. 
Rolleboise 219. 
Romilly 270. 
Rosny 219. 
Rossillon 278. 
Rothenfels 269. 
Rothiere, La 271. 
Rouen 212. 
Rouilly 271. 
Roule, Fort du 244. 
Rueil 187. 

Saarbriicken 267. 
Sable 232. 
Salins 275. 
Sambre, the 246. 
Sannois 189. 
Saone , the 272. 



284 

Sarrebourg 259. 
Sarthe, the 230. 
Saumur 228. 
Savenay 237. 
Saverne 259. 
Savoureuse, the 272. 
Scarpe, the 248. 
Scellieres 270. 
Scheldt, the 247. 
Schifterstadt 268. 
Scie, the 212. 
Seillon 277. 
Senne, the 250. 
Sens 273. 
Seraing 246. 
Serquigny 240. 
Serrieres 276. 
Sevres 187. 

Seyssel 278. 

Sobernheim 269. 

Soignies 250. 

Solesmes 232. 

Somme, the 206. 

Sottevast 243. 

Sotteville 219. 

Southampton 220. 

Souzon, the 274. 

Spa 247. 

Speyer 268. 

Staudernheim 269. 

Stolzenfels 269. 

Strasbourg 260. 

Suevres 226. 

Suize, the 271. 

St. Sulpice 276. 

Sulzbach 267. 

Suresnes 168. 

Suze, La 231. 



INDEX. 

Tanlay 274. 

Tenay 278 

Tergaier 245. 

Thalie, the 277. 

Thionville 267. 

Thomery 273. 

Thuin 246. 

Tonnerre 274. 

Toul 256. 

Tournus 277. 

Tours 227. 

Tourville 219. 

Travers 276. 

— , Val de 276. 

Treves 267. 

Trianon, Grand and Petit 

184. 
Troisrods 275. 
Trooz, Le 247. 
Trouville sur Mer 222. 
Troyes 270. 

St. Vaast 211. 
Vaivre 272. 
Valenciennes 248. 
ValtSrien, Mont 168. 
St. ValiSry 212. 
Valognes 243. 
Valserine, the 278. 
Vannes 237. 
Vanvres 169. 
Varades 234. 
Varangeville 259. 
Vendee, the 234. 
Vendeuvre 27 1 . 
Vend6me 224. 
Vernon 219. 



Verrieres, Les 275. 
— , col des 275. 
Versailles 168. 
Verton 206. 
Verviers 247. 
Vesdre, the 247. 
Vdsinet, Le 188. 
Vesoul 272. 
Veyle 277. 
Ve"zouse, the 259. 
Vichy 273. 

Vieille Montagne 247. 
Vieux - Mont - Ferrand 

278. 
Vilaine, the 239. 
Ville d'Avray 169. 
Ville d'Eu 212. 
Villeneuve St. Georges 

196. 
Villers 219. 
Villiers-le-Sec 271. 
Vincennes 124. 
Viroflay 170. 
Vitry-le-Francois 255. 
Vosges, the 2'59. 272. 
Vouzie , the 270. 
Vuache, Mont 278. 

Waldbtickelheim 269. 
Wallhausen 269. 
St. Wendel 269. 
Winzingen 268. 

Yeres, the 196. 
Yonne, the 273. 
Yverdon 276. 
Yvetot 223. 



List of Names in the Plan. 



The plan is divided into three sections, the upper red, the cen- 
tral white, and the lower blue. Each section contains 14 squares, 
to which the three columns of numbers refer. Thus, for example, 
the Rue de VAbbaye is in the 6th square of the white (central) 
section; the Rue d' Abbeville in the 8th square of the red (upper) 
section, and so on. 

The numbers of the houses, in streets parallel to the Seine, 
range from E. to W. ; in the streets at right angles to these, they 
commence from the river, the even on the right, the uneven on 
the left. No. 1 of the Rue de la Monnaie, as well as No. 1 of 
the Rue Dauphine, are therefore contiguous to the Pont Neuf on 
their respective sides of the river. 

R. W. B. R. W. B. 



Abbaye, place de V . . . 

— , de V 

Abbaye-aux-Bois, 6g\. de r 
Abbi de l'Epee, de 1" . . 

Abbeville, d' 

Aboukir, d' 

Acacias, pass, des (Vaugi- 

; rard) 

— , des (Montmartre) 

— , des (les Ternes) . . 
Affaires Etrangeres, mini- 

stere des 

Affre 

Agricole, 6cole 

Agriculture, ministere de V 

Aguesseau, d' 

Aignan, Hotel St- .... 

Alain- Chartier 

Albe, d' 

Albouy 

Alexandre, passage . . . 

Alger, d' 

Alibert 

Alice, villa Sainte- . . . 
Alienes, asile d 1 . . . . 

Aligre, d" 

Allemagne, d' 

Alleray, place d' . . . . 



Alma, avenue de 1' . . . 

— , passage de V , . . 

— , pont de r . . . . 

Alouettes, des 

Amandiers, boulevard des . 

— , cite des (Charonne) . 



12 



Amandiers, imp. des (Belle- 
ville) 

— , des (Belleville) . . 

— -Popincourt, des . . 
Ambassade d'Angleterre 

— d'Autriche .... 

— de Prusse 

— de Russie 

Amboise, d' 

Ambroise, dglise St- . . 

— , impasse St- ... 

— , St- 

Ambroise-Pare 

Ame'lie 

Amelot 

Ampere 

Amsterdam, d' 

Anastase, Ste- 

Anatomie, Amphitheatre d' 
Ancienne-Com^die, de V . 
Andre 1 , chapelle St- . . . 

— , Saint-(Charonne) . . 

— , Saint- (Montmartre) . 

— -des-Arts, place St- . 

— -des-Arts, St- . . . 

Anglais, des 

AngouUme-du-Temple , d' 
Anjou, quai d' .... 
Anjou-Saint-Honor^, d' 
Anjou au Marais, d' . . . 
Anne, Sainte- (Bercy) . . 

Popincourt, pass. Ste- 

— , Ste- 

Annelets, des 

Antin, avenue d' . . . . 



10 



10 



11 



286 



LIST OF NAMES 
R. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



An tin, cite^ d' 

— , impasse d' . . . . 
-, d' 

Antoine, St- 

— , du Faubourg-St- . . 
— , hopital Saint- . . . 
— , passage St- . . . . 

Apolline, Ste- 

Aqueduc, de 1' . . 

Arago, boulevard .... 

Arbalete, de 1* 

Arbre-Sec, de V . . . . 

Arc de Triomphe du Car- 
rousel 

— — de TEtoile . . . 
Arcade, passage de T . . 
Archeveche', palais de 1' . 

— , pont de r .... 

— , quai de T . . . . 
Archives de TEmpire . . 
Arcole, pont d" .... 

Arcole, d' 

Argenson d' 

Argenteuil, d' 

Arnaud, de St- 

Arras, d' 

Arrivee, de V 

Arsenal, gare de V . . . 
Arsenal, place de T . . . 
Artillerie, Depot d' . . . 
Arts, passage des . . . 

— , pont des 

— et-Metiers, Square des 
Asile, passage de V . . . 
Assas, impasse d' . . . 
Assises publiques . . . 
Assomption, £glise de r . 

Astorg, d' 

Auber 

Aubert, passage .... 
Aubry-le-Boucher . . . 

Auger 

Augustin, eglise Saint- . . 
Augustins, quai des Grands- 

— , des Grands- . . . 

Aumale, d 1 

Austerlitz, boulevard d' . 

— , pont d' 

— , quai d' 

Babylone, de 

Bac, du 

— -d'Asnieres, du . . 

Baduel, cour 

Bagneux, de 

Baillet 

Bailleul 

Balettes, des 

Balzac 

Banque de France . . . 

— , de la 

Banquier, du 



Barbe, e'glise Sainte- . . 

— , Sainte- 

Barbet-de-Jouy .... 

Barbette 

Bargue 

Barouillere, de la ... 

Barres, des 

Barriere-des-Gobelins, de la 
Barthe'lemi, cite' .... 

Barthe'lemi 

Basfroi 

Basse (Passy) 

— -du- Transit .... 

— -Vignolles, des . . 

Bassins, des 

Bastille, place de la . . 
Batignollaises, des . . . 
Batignolles, boulevard des 

Battoir, du 

Baume, de la 

Bausset 

Bayard 

Bayen 

Beaubourg 

Beauce, de 

Beaucour, impasse . . . 
Beau-Grenelle, place . . 
Beaubarnais, cite . . . 
Beaujolais-St-Honor(5, de . 

— -Marais 

Beaujon, cite' 

— , hopital 

Beaujon 

Beaumarchais, boulevard . 
Beaune, de 

— , de (Bercy) .... 
Beauregard-Bonne-Nouvelle 

Beaurepaire 

Beautreillis 

Beauveau, place . . . 
Beaux-Arts, 6cole des . 

— -Arts, des . . . 

Beethoven 

Beccaria, de . . . . 
Bel-Air, avenue du . . 
Belle-Chasse, de . . . 
Bellefond, de . . . . 
Belleville 

— , boulevard de . . 
Bellevue, de (Belleville) 

Bellievre 

Bel-Respiro, du . . . 

Belzunce 

Benard (Batignolles) 

— (Montrouge) . . . 
Benoit-St-Germain , St- 

Be>anger 

Bercy, boulevard de 

— , pont de . . . • 
— , port de . . . . 
— , quai de . . . . 



13 



10 

4 

12 

1 

14 

10 



10 
2 



14 
7 
9 



12 



7 

10 

12 

5 

8 

1 

12 



14 



11 



12 
12 
13 
11 



IN THE PLAN. 



287 



R. W. B. 



E.W.B. 



Bercy, de 

Berger 

Bergere, cite 

Bergere 

Berlin, de 

Bernard, impasse St- . . 

— , passage St- ... 

— , quai St- 

— , St- 

Bernardins, des . . . . 
Berri- St- Honored de . . . 

Berryer, cite' 

Berthaud," impasse . . . 

Berthe 

Bertholet 

Bertin-Poiree . . . 

Bertrand, cite 

Beslay, impasse .... 
Be'thune, quai de ... 

Beudant 

Beuret 

Beurriere 

Bibliotheque Impe'riale 

— Sainte-Genevieve . . 

Bichat 

Bienfaisance, de la . . . 

Bievre, de 

Billettes, des 

Billy, quai de . . . 

Biot 

Birague, de 

Biscornet 

Bizet 

Blanche 

— , cite 

— , place 

Blancs-Manteaux, des . . 

Bleue 

Blomet 

Blondel 

Blottiere 

Bochard-de-Saron . . . 
Boi'eldieu, place .... 
Bois, des (Belleville) . . 

— , du (Charonne) . . . 

— de TOrrne, du . . . 

Boissiere 

Boissy-d'Anglas .... 
Bon, Saint- ... . . 

Bonaparte, lycce .... 

Bonaparte 

Bondy, de 

Bonne-Graine, passage de la 
Bonne-Nouvelle, boulevard 
Bons-Enfants, des . . . 
Bons-Hommes, des . . . 

Bordeaux, de 

Borr^go, du 

Bosquet, avenue .... 

Bossuet, de 

Bouchardon 



13 



12 



12 



10 



12 



Boucher 

Boucherie-des-Inval., dela 
Bouchet, impasse .... 

Boudreau 

Bouffes Parisiens .... 

Boufflers, cite 

Boulangers, des . • . . . 

Boulard . 

Boulets, des 

Boulevard, du 

Boulogne, de 

Bouloy, du 

Bouquet-de-Longchamp, du 

Bourbon, quai 

Bourbon, passage .... 
Bourdon, boulevard . . . 
Bourdounais, impasse des 
Bourdonnais, des .... 

Bouret 

Bourgogne, de 

Bourgogne, de (Bercy) . . 

Boursault 

Boursault (Batignolles) . . 
Bourse, palais de la . 
Bourse, place de la . . . 

Bourse, de la 

Bourtibourg 

Bouvines, avenue de . . 

Brady, passage 

Brancion 

Brantome 

Braque, de 

Bras-d'Or, cour du . . . 

BreX de 

Breche-aux-Loups , ruelle 

de la 

Br^da 

Bremontier 

Bretagne, de 

Breteuil, avenue de . . . 
Breteuil, place de . . . 
Bretonvilliers, de ... 

Brey 

Bre"zin 

Briare, passage .... 

Brissac, de 

Bruant 

Bruxelles, de 

Bucherie, de la . . . . 

Buci, de 

Buffault 

Buffon, de 

Bugeaud, avenue .... 
Buisson-Saint-Louis, du . 
Butte Chaumont, de la 

Buttes, des 

Buttes-Chaumont, Pare des 
Buzelin, passage .... 

Cadet 

Cadran, impasse du . . . 
Caire, passage du . . . 



9 

14 



12 



7 
1 
10 



10 
7 
7 



12 



9 

14 



9 

9 

12 



6 

14 



10 



10 



5 
9 

10 
14 



288 



LIST OF NAMES 



B. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Caire, place du . . . . 
— , du 

Caisse d^Epargne, adminis- 
tration de la .... 

Calais, impasse de . . . 
— , de (Belleville) . . . 
-, de 

Cambaceres 

Cambronne, place . . . 

Cambronne 

Campagne-Premiere . . . 

Campo-Formio, de . . . 

Canal-Saint-Martin, du . . 

Canettes, des 

Capucines , boulevard des 

Cardinal-Lemoine, du . . 

Cardinet 

Carlier, impasse .... 

Carmelites, chapelle des . 

Cannes, couvent des . . 

Carmes, des 

Carnot .• 

Caroline, passage . . . . 

Caroline (Batignolles) . 

Caroline (Belleville) . . 

Carpentier 

Carriere, de la .... 

Carrieres, chemin des 

Carrieres, des 

Carrousel, place du . . . 

Carrousel, pont du . . . 

Cascades, des 

Casimir-Delavigne . . . 

Casimir-Perier 

Cassette 

Cassini 

Castellane, de 

Castex 

Castiglione, de . . . . 

Catherine, Ste- . . . . 

Caumartin 

Ce"cile, Ste- 

C61estins, caserne des . . 

CeUestins, quai des . . . 

Cels 

Cendriers, des 

Censier 

Centre, du 

Centre, du (Charonne) . 

Cerisaie, de la 

Chabannais, de . . . . 

Chabrol, impasse . . . . 

Chabrol (Grenelle) . . . 

Chabrol 

Chaillot, de 

Chaise, de la 

Chalgrin 

Chaligny 

Chalons, de 

Champ-de-l'Alouette, du . 

Champ-d'Asile, du . . . 



13 



13 



10 



Champ-de-Mars, le 

— , gare du . . 

— , du . . . . 
Champagne, de (Halle aux 

Vins) 

Champs, des . . . 
Champs-Elyse'es, aven. de 

— , Rond-Point des . 
Chanaleilles .... 
Chancellerie de France 
Change, pont au . . . 
Chanoinesse .... 
Chantier, passage du 
Chapelle expiatoire . . 
Chapelle , boulevard de la 
Chapelle, cite" de la . . 
Chapelle, place de la . 

Chapon 

Chaptal 

Chaptal, college . . . 
Charbonniere, de la . . 
Charbonniers - St - Antoine 

des . 

Charenton, porte de 
Charenton, de . . . 
Charenton, de (Bercy) 
Charite, hopital de la . 
Charlemagne, lycee . . 
Charlemagne . . 
Charles, avenue St- 
Charles, passage St- 

Charles V 

Chariot 

Charonne, boulevard de 
Charonne, de . . . . 
Charonne, de (Belleville) 
Charonne, Petit . . . 

Chartiere 

Chartres, de (La Chapelle) 
Chateau, du (Montrouge) 
Chateaubriand, de . 
Chateau-d'Eau, le 
Chateau-d'Eau, du . 
Chateau-Landon, de 
Chatelet, place du 
Chaudron .... 
Chaudron (Belleville) 
Chaume, du ... 
Chauss^e-d'Antin, de la 
Chauss^e-de-Clingnancourt 
Chausse'e-du-Maine , aven 

de la .... 
Chausson, impasse 
Chauveau-Lagarde 
Chauvelot . . 
Chazelle .... 
Chemin-de-Fer, du 
Chemin- Vert, du . 
Chene-Vert, cour du 
Cherche-Midi, du . 
Cheroy .... 



13 



8 

8 

12 



10 



10 



6 

10 
10 



12 
13 
12 
13 



13 



10 
9 

14 
12 

14 
8 



11 
12 

6 



IN THE PLAN. 



289 



E. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Cheval-Blanc , passage du 
Chevaliers, impasse des . 

Chevert 

Chevreuse, de 

Chine, de la ..... 
Choiseul, passage . . . 

Choiseul, de 

Choisy, route de . . . . 
Chopinette, de la . . . . 
Chretien, impasse . . . 

Christiani 

Christine (Passy) .... 

Christine 

Cimarosa 

Cimetiere-St-Benoit, du . 
Cirque de rimpe'ratrice . 

— Napoleon 

Cirque, du 

Cite, de la 

— , ile de la 

— -d'Antin, passage de la 

Citeaux 

Clary, square 

Claude-Marais, St- . . . 

Vellefaux .... 

Clausel 

Clef, de la 

Clement 

Cl^ry, de 

Clichy, boulevard de . . 

-de 

— , place de 

— , prison pour dettes 
Clignancourt , chaussee de 
Clinique de la Faculty de 

Me'decine 

Clisson 

Cloitre-Notre-Dame, du 

Clos-Payen 

Clotaire 

Clotilde 

— , eglise Sainte- . . . 
Clovis, de 



— , impasse .... 
Cluny, hotel de . . . 
Cochin, hospice . . . 
Coeur-de-Vey, impasse . 

Colbert 

Coligny, de 

Colisee, du 

College de France . . 
Colombe, de la . . - 
Colonne de Juillet . . 

— Vend6me .... 

Combes 

Comete, de la . . . . 
Commandeur, avenue du 
Commerce, cour du . . 

— , cour du . . . . 

— , du (Bercy) . . . 

— , du (Grenelle) . . 



13 



12 



12 



10 



10 



Btedeker. Paris. 2nd Edition. 



Commerce, Tribunal de . 

Commines 

Compans 

Compiegne, de 

Comptes, cour des . . . 
Concorde, place de la . . 

— , pont de la . . . . 

Conde" 

Conference, quai de la 

Conseil d'Etat 

Conservatoire des Arts et 

Metiers 

Conservatoire de Musique 
Conservatoire, du . . . 
Constantine, pont de . . 

-, de 

— , de (Belleville) . . . 

— , de (Plaisance) . . . 
Constantinople, de . . . 

Conti, quai de 

Contrescarpe, boulevard . 

Copernic 

Copreau 

Coq-H^ron 

Coquenard, cite 1 .... 

Coquilliere 

Corbeau 

Corbineau 

Cordelieres, des .... 

Cordiers, des 

Comes, des 

Corps l^gislatif, palais du 
Cossonnerie, de la . . . 

Cotte, de 

Couesnon 

Courcelles, boulevard de . 

— , place de 

— , de (les Ternes) . . 
Couronnes, des (Belleville) 
Cours la Reine .... 

Courty, de 

Coutellerie, de la ... 
Coutures-Saint-Gervais . . 

Cretet 

Crillon, de 

Crim^e, de 

Croissant, du 

Croix, de la (Bercy) . . 
Croix-Boissiere, de la . . 
Croix-de-la-Bretonnery, St e 

Croix-Nivert 

Croix-Rouge, de la (Ivry) 

— , de la (St-MandeO . . 

— , carrefour de la . . 
Croix-du-Roule, de la . . 
Croulebarbe, de . . . . 

Crozatier 

Crussol, cite 

Crussol 

Cujas 

Culturc-St e -Catherine . . 

19 



14 
10 



10 



12 



12 
7 



5 

7 

12 



4 

2 

2 

11 



10 



13 



2 
11 
14 



7 
12 



290 



LIST OF NAMES 



R. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Cure, de la 

Cuyier 

Cygne, du 

Cygnes, allele des .... 
Barnes, des (Batignolles) . 
Dames, des (Ternes) . . 
Dames-St-Michel, couvent 

des 

Dames-St-Thomas, couvent 

des 

Dany, impasse .... 

Dareau 

Daubenton 

Daumesnil, place .... 
Daumesnil, avenue . . . 

Dauphin, du 

Dauphine, place .... 

Dauphine 

Daval 

Debelleyme 

D^chargeurs, des .... 

Decres 

Delaitre 

Delambre 

Delamichodiere . . . . 
Delecourt, avenue . . . 
Delorme , passage 

Delta, du 

Demours 

Denain, boulevard de . . 
Denis , boulevard Saint- . 

— , porte Saint- . . . 

— , St- 

Dcnis-St-Antoine, St- . . 
Denis-du-St-Sacrement, 

e'glise Saint- 

Denis, du Faubourg-St- 

D^part, du 

De'partement, du . . . . 

Deprez 

Desaix, quai 

Desaix 

Descartes 

Deecombres 

De Seze 

DiSsir, passage du . . . 

D^sir^e 

Desnouettes 

Desrenaudes 

Deux-Cousins, impasse des 

Ecus, des .... 

— -Moulins, des . . . 
Ponts, des .... 

— -Portes-St-Sauveur,d. 

— -Portes-St-Jean, des . 

— -Sceurs, pass, des . . 
Devillas, hospice .... 

Didier, Saint- 

Docks-Napoleon . . . . 

Domat 

Dombasle 



13 



10 



Dome, du 

Dominique, imp. St- . . . 

— , pass. St- 

-, St- 

Dore\ cite 

Douai, de 

Douane, de la 

— , hotel de la . . . . 
Double, Pont-au- . . . . 

Dragon, du 

Droit, ^cole de . . . . 

Drouot 

Dubail, passage . . . . 
Dubois, impasse . 

— , passage 

Ducouedic 

Duguay-Trouin . . . . 

Duguesclin 

Dulac, passage . . . . 

Dulong 

Dume>il 

Dumont-d'Urville . . . . 

Dunkerque, de 

Dunois 

Duperr^ 

Dupetit-Thouars . . . . 

Duphot 

Dupin 

Dupleix, place . . . . 

Dupleix 

Dupleix, ruelle . . . . 

Dupont, citd 

Dupuis 

Dupuytren 

Duquesne, avenue . . . 

Duranti 

Duras, de 

Duris 

Duroc 

Dutot 

Duvivier 

Eaux, passage des . . . 
Eaux-de-vie , entrepot des 

Ebl<5 

Echaude'-St-Germain, de T 

Echelle, de r 

Echiquier, de V . . . . 
Ecluses-Saint-Martin , des 
Ecole, impasse de T . . 
Ecole, quai de V . . . 
Ecole-de-Medecine, de V . 
Ecole Militaire .... 

— -1'oly technique, de 1' 

Ecoles, des 

Ecouffes, des 

Ecuries de TEmpereur . . 
Ecuries d'Artois, des . . 
Eglise, de T (Batignolles) . 

— , de 1' (Grenelle) . . 
Eglise, place de 1' . . . 
Egout, de T 



10 



IN THE PLAN. 



291 



B. W. B. 



K. W. B. 

4 
4 



Elisabeth, eglise Sainte- . 
Eloi, e'glise Saint- . . . 
Elysee, de 1' 

— , palais de T . . . . 
Elysee - des - Beaux - Arts, 

place de T 

Embarcadere de Lyon . . 

— du Nord 

— d'Orleans 

— de TOuest, rive droite 

— del'Ouest, rive gauche 

— de Strasbourg . . . 

— de Vincennes . . . 

Emeriau 

Empereur, avenue de 1* . 
Enfant- Jesus, imp. de r 
Enfants-Malades, hop. des 

— -Trouv^s, hospice des 
Enfer, avenue d' . . . . 

, boulevard d' . . 

— , place d' 

-, d 1 

Enghien, d' 

— , hospice 

Entrepot, de 1' .... 
Entrepreneurs, des . . . 
Envierges, passage des 
Epe'e-de-Bois, de r . . . 

Eperon, de V 

Erard 

Ermitage, de r .... 

— , villa de 1' . . . . 
Esprit, se'minaire Saint- . 

Esquirol 

Essling, avenue d' . . . 
Estrapade, place de 1' . . 

Estre'es, d' 

Etat-Major de la Place 
Etat-Major, ^cole d' . . 
Etienne, eglise Saint- . . 

— -Bonne-Nouvelle, St- 
Etoile, place de T ... 

— , impasse de 1' . . . 
— , place de r . . . . 

— -d'Or, impasse de 1' 
Eugene, e'glise Saint- . . 
Eugenie, avenue Ste- . . 

— , hopital Ste- . . . 

— , impasse Ste- . . . 

Eupatoria, d' 

Europe, place de 1' . . . 
Eustache, eglise Saint- 

— , place St- 

EvSque, de r 

Exposition de 1867 . . . 
Eylau, avenue d' . . . . 

— , place d' 

Fabert 

Fargeau, St- 

Fauconnier 

Favart 



10 



10 



13 



12 



13 



10 



14 



14 



12 



Favorites, passage des . 
Fe'licite', impasse de la 
Femmes-Incurables,hopital 

des . . . 
Fe^ielon, de . 
Fenoux . . 
Fer-a-Moulin 
Ferdinand, St- 
Ferdinandville, citd 
Fermat .... 
Ferme-de-Gravelle, de la 
Ferme-des-Mathurins, de la 

Ferou 

Ferronnerie, de la 
Fessart .... 

— , impasse . . 
Fete, place de la . 
Feuillantincs, des 
Feuillet, passage . 
Feydeau .... 
Fiacre, passage St- 

-, St- . . . . 
Fide^lite", de la . . 
Figuier, du . . . 
Filles-du-Calvaire, boulev 

des • 

Filles-du-Calvaire, des . 
Filles-Dieu , impasse des 
Filles-Saint-Thomas, des 
Finances, ministere des 
Flandre, de . 
Fleurus, de . 
Florence . . 

— , de . . 
Florentin, St- 
Foin-au-Marais, du 
Folie-Me"ricourt, de la 
Folie-Eegnault, de la 
Fondari (Vaugirard) 

— (Grenelle) . . 
Fontaine, de la . . 
Fonlaine-St- Georges 

— -Moliere, de la 
Fontaine-au-Eoi . . 
Fontaines, des . . . 
Fontarabie, de . . 
Fontenoy, place . . 
Forge-Royale, pas. de la 
Fortifications, d^pot des 

Fortin 

Fo6se"s-St-Bernard, des 

— -St-Jacques, des 
St-Marcel, des 

— -St-Martin, des 
du-Temple, des 

— -St-Victor, des 
Fouarre, du ... 
Four-St-Germain, du 
Fourcy-St-Antoine, de 
Fourneaux, des . . 
Fourneaux, passage des 

19" 



2 

10 



-12 
12 

14 



10 

7 



10 



9 

7 
7 

12 



9 
13 



13 



11 



9 

13 
4 

12 
5 

10 



10 



8 



8 

6 

10 



292 



LIST OF NAMES 
R. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Fournial 

Francois I er 

— , maison de . . . . 

— , place 

Francois-Miron .... 
Francois-Xavier, egl. Saint- 
Francs - Bourgeois , des 
Franklin, avenue . . . 

Fr^micourt 

Fr^quel, passage .... 
Friedland, avenue de . . 

Frochot 

Froissard 

Fulton 

Gabriel, avenue .... 

Gaillard, cite 

Gaillard, passage .... 
Gaillon ..-;.... 
Gaite\ chemin de la . . 
Gaite\ impasse' de la . . 

Galande 

Galilee 

Gallois, de 

Galvani 

Gambey 

Garanciere 

Gare, la 

— , boulevard de la . . 

— , de la 

— , quai de la .... 
Gaudelet, impasse . . . 

Gay-Lussac 

Gaz, du 

Geffroy Didelot, passage . 
Genevieve, college Sainte- 
Genie, passage du . . . 
Genty, passage .... 
Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire . . 
Geoffroy-Langevin . . . 
Geoffroy-Lasnier .... 

Geoffroy-Marie 

Georama, du 

Georges, place St- . . . 

Georges, St- 

Gerard 

Gerbert 

Gerbier 

Germain, boulevard St- . 

— , march£ Saint- . . . 

l'Auxerrois, eglise St- 

— -l'Auxerrois, St- . . 

des-Pr^s, Eglise Saint- 

Gerson 

Gervais, eglise Saint- . . 

— , St- 

— , le Pr6 Saint- . . . 
Gevres, quai de . . . . 

Gilles, St- 

Ginoux 

Git-le-Coeur 

Glaciere, la j 



14 



11 



14 



12 



11 



Glaciere, de la .... 

— , de la (Gentilly) . . 

Gobelins, manufacture des 

Gobelins, des 

Godefroy 

Godot-de-Mauroy .... 

Gomboust 

Goutte-d'Or, de la . . . 
Goutte-d'Or, passage de la 
Gouvion St-Cyr, boulevard 
Gozlin 



Gracieuse, passage . . . 

Grammont, de 

Grand-Hotel 

Grand-Saint-Michel, du 
Grand-Prieurd, du . . . 
Grande-Arm^e, aven. de la 
Grande-Chaumiere , de la 
Grande-Pinte, la ... . 
Grande-Rue (Batignolles) . 
Grande-Truanderie , de la 
Grands-Augustins, quai des 
Grands-Augustins, des . . 
Grange-Bateliere, de la 
Grange-aux-Belles, de la . 
Gravilliers, des .... 
Gregoire-de-Tours . . . 
Grenelle, boulevard de . . 

— , gare de 

Gros-Caillou, pass, de 

Saint - Germain, de 

Saint-Honor^, de . . 

Grenelle, quai de . . . 

Grenier-Saint-Lazare . . 

Gr^try 

Greuze 

Greve, quai de la ... 

Griset, impasse . . . • 

Groult-d'Arcy 

Guemen^e, impasse . . ■ 

Guen^gaud 

Guerre, bureaux de la . . 
— , conseil de . . . . 
— , depot de la . . . . 
— , ministere de la .. • 

Guillaume 

— , cour St- 

— , St- 

Guilleminot 

Guisarde 

Guy-Patin 

Guy-de-la-Brosse .... 

Guyot 

Haies, des 

Halevy 

Hall<5 

Halle au bl^ 

Halle aux vins .... 

Halle-aux-Veaux, place 

Halles centrales .... 

Hambourg, de .... 



6 
13 



11 



1 
10 



10 



10 
8 
5 
6 
5 
5 

10 



14 



10 

5 
10 



IN THE PLAN. 



293 



R. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Hameau, du 

Hanovre, de 

Harlay-du-Palais, de . . 

— -au-Marais, de . . . 

Harpe, de la 

Harvey 

Hasard, du 

Hassard 

Haussmann, boulevard . . 

Hautefeuille 

Hauteville 

Hautpoul, d' 

Hautes-Gatines, des . . . 

Vignolles, des . . . 

Havre, passage du . . . 

— , du (Batignolles) . . 

— , du 

Haxo 

HSbrards, ruelle des . . 

Helder, du 

Helene 

Hennel, impasse .... 
Henri-Chevreau .... 
Henri IV., quai .... 

Hericart 

Herr 

Hilaire, St- 

Hippodrome 

Hippolyte, St- 

Homme-Arme\ de P. . . 
Honored marclie Saint- . . 

— , Saint- 

— , du Faubourg-St- . . 
Honors-Chevalier . . . 
Hopital, boulevard de r 
Hopital militaire . . . 
Hopital-St-Louis, de T 
Horloge, cour de T . . . 

— , quai de T . . . . 
Hotel-Colbert, de V . . . 

Hotel-Dieu 

Hotel du Louvre .... 
Hotel-de-Ville .... 

— -de-Ville, avenue de r 

— -de-Ville, place de r 

— -de-Ville, de r 

Houdart 

Houdon 

Huchette, de la . . . . 

Humboldt 

Hyacinthe-St-HonorS, St- . 
Ie*na, avenue d 1 .... 

— , pont d' 

-, d' 

Ile-Louviers, de 1' ... 

Immacule'e Conception, Col- 
lege de 1' 

Imperatrice, avenue de V . 

Imprimerie Impe>iale . . 

IncurablesFemmes,hosp.des 

— Hommes, hospice des 



13 



14 



Industrie, pass, de T . . 9 

— , passage de T . . . 

— , place de T . . . . 
Institut , palais et place 

del' 

Instruction publique, mi- 

nistere de T 

Intendance militaire . . . 
IntSrieur, ministere de 1" . 
Invalides, boulevard des . 

— , dome des .... 

— , esplanade des . . . 

— , hotel des ..... 

— , pont des 

Irlandais, des 

Isly, passage d' (Belleville) 13 

— , passage d'(Vaugirard) 

-, * 5 

Issy, porte d' 

Italie, boulevard d' . . . 

— , place d' 

— , route d' 

Italiens, boulevard des 

Jacob 

Jacques, boulevard St- . . 

— , place St- 

— , St- 

— , du Faubourg-St- . . 
Jacques - de - la - Boucherie, 
Tour Saint- .... 
Jardin-des-Plantes . . . 
Jardinets, impasse des . . 
Jardiniers , des 

— , ruelle des .... 
Jardins, des 

— , des (les Ternes) . . 

Jarente, de 

Javel, de 

Jean-Baptiste, eglise St- . 

Jean-Bart 

Jean-Beausire 

Jean-de-Beauvais . . . 

Jean-Goujon 

Jean- Jacques-Rousseau 

Jean-Lantier 

Jeanne 

Jeanne-d'Arc 

Jeanne-d'Arc, place . . . 
Jemmappes, quai de . . 9 

Jessaint, de 10 

Jeunes -Aveugles , hopital 

des 

Jeunes-Detenus, prison des . 11 

Jeuneurs, des 7 

Joinville, passage .... 12 

Jolivet 

Joquelet 7 

Joseph, chapelle Saint- . 11 

— cour St- 12 

St- 7 

Josephine, avenue ... 1 



11 
10 



10 

3 

13 



10 



6 

10 

8 

3 

7 
7 



294 



LIST OP NAMES 



R. W. B. 



R. W.B. 



Joubert 

Jouffroy 

— , passage 

Jour, du 

Jouy, de 

Juge 

Juifs, des 

Juillet 

Jules-C^sar ...... 

Julien-Lacroix 

Julienne 

Jussienne, de la . . . . 

Jussieu, de 

Justice, ministere de la . 

— , palais de .... 

Kabylie, de 

Keller 

Keppler 

KlfSber 

Kutzner, passage .... 

Labie 

Laborde, march^ .... 
Labourdonnaie, avenue de 

Labruyere, de 

Lacepede, de 

Lacue"e, avenue .... 
Lafayette, passage de . . 

— , place de 

— , de 

Laferriere, passage . . . 

Laffitte 

Lagny, de 

Lahire 

Lalande 

Lallier 

Lamare 

Lamartine 

Lambert, <5glise St- . . . 

— , St- 

Lamotte-Piquet, avenue de 
Lancette, de la .... 

Lancry, de 

Landrieux, passage . . . 

Languedoc, du 

Laperouse 

Laplace 

La Quintinie 

LariboissierG, hopital . . 

Laroche 

La Rochefoucauld, hospice 

— , de (Montrouge) . . 

— , de 

Larrey 

Las Cases 

Lathuille, passage . . . 
Latour-Maubourg , boulev. 

Laugier 

Laurent, St- 

Lauriston 

Lauzin 

Laval, de 



Lavandieres, des . . . 

Lavoisier 

La Vrilliere, de . . . 
Lazare, prison St- . . 

Lazare, St- 

Lazaristes, couvent des . 
Lebouis ...... 

Lebouteux 

Leclerc 

Lecluse 

Lesourbe 

Lefevre, boulevard . . 

Legendre 

Legraverend 

Lemaire, passage . . . 
Lemiere, cite 1 .... 
Lemoine, passage . . 
Lenoir-Saint-Antoine 
L^onidas, passage . . 
Leonie 

— (Montmartre) . . 

— , villa Ste- . . . 

Leopold 

Lepage, passage . . . 
Le Peletier 



— , quai .... 

Lepeu 

Lepic 

Leprince, hospice 
Le Regrattier . . . 

Leroux 

Lesage 

Lesdiguieres, de . . 

Lesueur 

Letellier 

Leu, iglise St- . . . 
Levert, passage . . 
Levis, place de . . 

— , de 

Levisse 

Libert 

Lilas, des .... 

— , ruelle des . . 

Lille, de 

Limace, de la . . . 

Linne 

Linois 

Lions-Saint-Paul, des 
Lisbonne, de . . . 
Lobau, place . . . 

Lobineau 

Lodi, de 

Loire, quai de la . . 
Lombards, des . . 
Londres, cite^ de . . 

- de 

Longchamp, de . . 
Lord-Byron .... 
Louis, eglise St- . . 

— , hopital Saint- . 

— , ile Saint- . . 



4 
14 



12 



5 

7 

2 
1 

12 
2 

3 

5 



12 
7 



5 
11 



12 



3 

10 



1 
11 



10 

2 

7 

12 



14 



14 



11 
5 
7 



2 
10 

10 
8 



10 



12 



1 

4 

10 



IN THE PLAN. 



295 



R. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Louis, pass. St- .... 
Louis, pont St- .... 
Louis, St- (Bercy) . . . 
Louis, St- (Grenelle) . . 
Louis, St- (Plaisance) . . 
Louis-en-1'Ile, St- ... . 
Louis-le-Grand, lycde . . 
Louis-le-Grand .... 
Louis-Philippe (passage) . 
Louis-Philippe, pont . . 

Louis-Philippe 

Lourcine, hopital de . . 

— , de 

Lourmel 

Louvain, de (Belleville) 

— , de (les Ternes) . . 

Louvois, de 

Louvre, palais du . . . 

— , place du .... 

— , quai du 

— , du 

Lowendal, avenue de . . 

Lubeck, de 

Lucie, Ste- 

Lune, de la 

Luxembourg, avenue du . 

— , jardin du .... 

— , palais du .... 

-de 

— , Petit 

Lyon, de 

Lyonnais, des 

Habille, jardin .... 

Mabillon 

Macon, de 

Macons, des 

Madame, de 

-, de 

Madeleine, boulevard de la 

— , eglise de la ... 

— , place de la . . . . 
Madelonnettes, prison des . 
Mademoiselle, de ... 

Madrid, de 

Magdebourg, de . . . . 
Magenta, boulevard de 

— , de 

Magloire 

Magnan 

Maillot, porte 

Main-d'Or, pasage de la . 
Maine, avenue du . . 

— , impasse du . . . . 

— , place du 

Mairie, de la 

— , place de la ... 

Maison-Dieu 

Maison-Neuve, cite . . . 

Maitre-Albert 

Malakoff, avenue de . . 



impasse 



13 



12 



12 



Malaquais, quai .... 

Malar 

Malesberbes, boulevard 

— , cite 1 

— , cite 1 

— , place de 

Malher 

Malte, de 

Mandar 

Mande% avenue de St- . . 

Mansart 

Marais, des 

Marbeuf, avenue .... 

Marbeuf 

Marc, St- 

Marcel, boulevard St- . . 

— , chapelle Saint- . . 
Marces, impasse .... 
Marched du 

— -d'Aguesseau, du . . 

— -aux-Chevaux, av. du 

— -Saint-Honor^, du 

— -Neuf, quai du . . . 

— des Patriarches, place 

du 

Mare, de la . . ... 

Marguerite, eglise Sainte . 
Marguerite-St Antoine, Ste- 
Marie, Ste- (Ternes) . . 
— , Ste- (Grenelle) . . 

— -St- Antoine, cour Ste- 

— -St- Antoine, pass. Ste- 

— -du -Temple, pass.Ste- 

Marie, pont 

Marie- Antoinette .... 

Marie-Stuart 

Marie-The'rese, hospice 

Marignan, de 

Marigny, avenue .... 
Marine, ministere de la . 

Marivaux, de 

Marmontel 

Marquefoy 

Marseille, de 

Martel .... ... 

Martignac, de 

Martin 

— , St- 

— , boulevard St- . . . 

— , canal Saint- . . . 

— , Eglise Saint- . . . 

— , porte Saint- . . . 

— , du Faubourg-St- . . 

Martyrs, des 

Masseran 

Maternity, hospice de la . 
Mathurins-St-Jacques, des 
Matignon, avenue de . . 

Matignon de 

Maubert, place .... 
Maubeuge, de 



10 
9 

7 



14 



10 
10 



11 



10 



13 



12 
12 



12 
12 

10 

7 



296 



LIST OF NAMES 



R. W. B. 



K.W.B. 



Maublanc .... 
Mauconseil .... 
Maur, cite Saint- . . 

— , cour St- . . . 

— , St- . . . . 

St-Germain, St- 

— , du 

Maurice, passage . . 
Maurice-Meyer . . . 

Mayet 

Mayran 

Mazagran (Plaisance) 
Mazagran .... 

Mazarine 

Mazas, boulevard 

— , place .... 

— , prison . . . 

Meaux 

Mi5chain 

Medard, e'glise Saint 

-, St- 

Medeah 

Medecine, Ecole de . 
Me"dicis, de . . . . 
Megisserie, quai de la 
Menages, hospice des 

Menars 

Menilmontant . . . 

— , boulev. de . . 



— , passage 

— , place 

Mercier 

Merlin 

Merry, e'glise Saint- . . . 

Meslay 

Mesnil 

Messageries Imperiales 
Messageries, des .... 

Messine, de 

Metz, de 

Meyerbeer 

Mezieres, de 

Michel, boulevard St- . . 

— , fontaine Saint- . . 

— , place St- ..... 

— , pont St- 

— , quai St- 

Michel le-Comte . . . • 

Midi, cite du 

Midi, hopital du . . . . 

Mignottes, des 

Milan, de 

Milcent, impasse . . . . 
Mines, ecole des .... 
Minimes, des . . 

Missions-Etrangeres, eglise 

et seminaire des . . 
Mobilier de la Couronne . 
Mogador, de 

— , de (Belleville) . . 
Moineaux, des 



12 



13 



14 



13 



Molay 

Moliere 

Monceau, de 

— , pare de 

Moncey 

Mondetour .".... 

Monge 

Monjol 

Monnaie, de la .... 
Monnaies, hotel des . . 

Monsieur, de 

Monsieur-le-Prince . . 
Montagne - St e - Genevieve, 

de la 

Montagnes, des (Les Ternes) 

-, des (Belleville) . . 
Montaigne, avenue . . . 

— , de 

Montebello, quai .... 
Montempoivre, chemin de 

Montesquieu 

Montfaucon 

Montgallet 

Montholon, de 

— , square 

Montmartel 

Montmartre 

— , boulevard .... 

— , cimetiere du . . . 

— , du Faubourg- . . . 
Montmorency, de ... 

Montorgueil 

Mont-Parnasse , boulevard 

— , cimetiere du . . . 

-, du 

Montpensier, de . . . . 

Mont-de-Piet^' 

Montreuil, de 

Montrouge, boulevard de . 

— , Petit 

Mont-Thabor, du . . . . 
Montyon, de ..... 

Morand 

Moreau 

Moret 

Morillons, chemin des . . 

— , impasse des . . . 
Morland, boulevard . . . 

Morny, de 

Moscou, de 

Mouffetard 

Mouffle, passage .... 
Moulin-de-Beurre, du . . 
Moulin-de-Pres, du . . . 
Moulin-Vert, impasse du . 
Moulin-Vert, du . . . . 
Moulin-de-la-Vierge, du . 

Moulins, des 

Mouton-Duvernet .... 

Moynet, cite" 

Muette, avenue de la . . 



10 



12 



14 
14 
13 



7 

6 

14 



7 
11 



12 



11 



10 



11 



11 



6 
9 
5 
5 
3 

5 
12 



IN THE PLAN. 



297 



K. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Muette, de la 

Mulhouse, passage . . . 

Murier, du 

Murs-de-la-Roquette, des . 
Musard, concerts .... 

Nancy, de 

Nanettes, ruelle des . . . 

Naples, de 

Napoleon, caserne . . . 

— , cirque 

— , cite 1 

— , cit<S (Belleville) . . 

— , lycee 

— , place 

Napoleon III, pont . . . 

— , quai 

Nationale 

Navarin, de 

Necker, hospice .... 

Negrier 

Nemours, de 

Neothermes 

Neuf, Pont- 

Neuilly, avenue de . . . 
Neuve-Saint-Augustin . . 

— -des-Bons-Enfants 

— -Bossuet 

— -des-Boulets . . . . 

— -Bourg-l'Abbe' . . . 

— -des-Capucines . . . 

— -Sainte-Catherine . . 

— -St-Etienne-du-Mont . 
■ Fenelon 

— -Guillemin . . . . 

— -de-Lappe . . . . 

— -du-Maine . . . . 

— -des-Martyrs . . . . 

— -des-Mathurins . . . 

— -Saint-Medard . . . 

— -Saint-Merry . . . . 

— -Pernetty 

— -des-Petits-Champs . 

— -de-la-Tombe-Isoire . 

— -ile-rUniversite . . 

— -de-Vanves . . . . 

Nevers, de 

Neveux, passage . . . . 

Newton 

Nice, de 

Nicolai' 

Nicolas , chapelle Saint- 

— , cloitre Saint- . . . 

— , imp. St- 

Nicolas d'Antin, St- . . 
Nicolas St-Antoine, St- . . 
Nicolas-du-Cliardonnet, 

e'glise Saint- 

— , port Saint- . . . . 

Nicot 

Niepce 

Nollet 



12 



11 



12 



12 



Nonnains d'Hyeres, des 
Normandie, de .... 
Notre-Dame, pont . . . 
Notre-Dame-de-Bercy, egl. 

— -des-Champs, ^glise . 

— -de-la-Gare, e'glise 

— -de-Lorette, iglise . . 

— -de-Nazareth , e'glise . 

— -de-Paris , e'glise . . 

— -de-Sion, e'glise . . 

— -des-Victoires, e'glise 

Noyers, des 

Nys, cite 

Nys 

Obe'lisque de Louqsor . . 

Oberkampf 

Observatoire 

— , carrefour de r . . . 

— , avenue de V . . . 
Octroi, halle de 1' . . . 
Odeon, carrefour de r . . 

— , place de T . . . . 

— , de r 

— , theatre de T ... 

Odiot, cite^ 

Oiseaux, couvent des . . 

Olier . • 

Olivier-de-Serres .... 

Olivet, d' 

Ollivier 

Omer-Talon 

Op^ra, passage de 1' . . 

— , place de T . . . . 

— , theatre de V . . . 
Ope*ra-Comique, theatre de 1' 
Oratoire-du-Roule, de T . 
Oratoire-St-Honore', de r . 
OrfeVres, quai des . . . 

Orillon, de r 

Orleans, cite' d' . . . . 

— , quai d 1 

— , route d' 

— , d' (Bercy) .... 

— , d' (Villette) . . . 

— , d' (Vaugirard) . . , 
Orle'ans-St-Honore , d' . . 
Orme, de V 

— , impasse de V . . . 
Ormeaux, des (Charonne) 
Ormes, quai des .... 

Orsay, quai d' 

Oseille, de 1' 

Oudinot 

Ouest, de r (Plaisance) 

-, de 1' 

Ours, aux 

Pagevin 

Paillet 

Paix, de la 

— , de la (Batignolles) . 

— , citi de la . . . . 



10 
9 
8 



13 

6 
9 

6 

6 



12 



5 
6 
12 



6 
11 



10 



5 
13 



7 
10 



14 

14 

10 

1 

9 



'298 



LIST OF NAMES 

R. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



du 



Pajol • 

Palais, boulevard du 
Palais-Bourbon , place 
Palais-Royal . ... 

Palais-Royal, place du . 

Palatine 

Palestro, de 

-, de 

Pali-Kao 

Panoramas, passage des . 
Panoyaux, impasse des . 

Pantheon, le 

— , place du . . . . 
Papier, passage . . . . 

Pupillon 

Papin 

Paradis - Poissonniere, de 
Paradis-au-Marais, de . . 

Parc-Royal, du 

Paris, de (Batignolles) . . 

— de (Belleville) . . . 

— de (Charonne) . . . 

Parme, de 

Parmentier 



— , avenue 

Parvis-Notre-Dame, pi. du 

Pascal 

Pasquier 

Passy, quai de 

Pastourelle 

Patriarclies, marche 1 des . 
Paul, eglise St- . . . . 

— , quai St- 

-, St- 

Pavee-St-Antoine .... 

Pavilions, des 

Payenne 

Pellet 

Pelagie, eglise St e - . . . 

Pelee, ruelle 

Pelouse, de la 

Penthievre, de . . . . 
Pepiniere, caserne de la . 

— , de la 

— , de la (Montrouge) . 

Perceval 

Perche, du 

Percier, avenue . . . . 
Pere-Lachaise, cimctieredu 

Pergolese 

Pereire, boulevard . . . 

Perle, de la 

Pernelle 

Pernetty, impasse . . . 

Perr^e 

Perrin, cite" 

Perronet 

Petel 

P^tersbourg, de St- . . . 
Petit 

— , passage 



10 



14 



14 



13 



13 



11 



13 



Petit-Bercy, avenue de 






11 


Petit- Carreau, du ... 


V 












7 


Petit-Lion-St-Sauveur . . 




Y 










10 






10 




Petit-Pont-de-PHotel-Dieu 




8 




Petite-Rue du Banquier . 






9 


Petite-Rue-St-Pierre . . 




9 




Petites-Ecuries, cite' des . 


7 






, passage des . . 


7 






Petits-Champs, des . . . 




7 




Petits-Hotels, des . . . 


ib 






Petrelle 


8 






Pharmacie centr. des hopit. 




8 




Pharmacie, £cole de . . 






8 


Philippe-Auguste, avenue . 




14 




Philippe-de-Girard . . . 


ib 






Philippe-du-Roule,£gliseSt- 


3 






Piat 


11 












11 


Picpus, boulevard de . . 






14 








14 


Pierre, impasse Saint . . 




11 




Pierre-de-Chaillot,egliseSt- 


1 






Pierre, egliseSt-,GrosCaillou 




3 




Pierre-du-Temple, pass. St- 


12 






Pierre-St- Antoine, pass. St- 




10 




Pierre, place Saint- . . . 


8 






Pierre, Villa St- ... . 




4 








9 








V 






11 




Pierre-Montmartre, Saint . 


7 








8 






Pierre-Popincourt, Saint . 




11 








8 




— , boulevard .... 


8 








8 








8 












9 








10 




11 










b 






2 










14 








3 








1 








12 


Planchette, ruelle de la 






14 








b 


Plateau, du 


12 






Platre-au-Marais, du . . 




9 










4 








R 






13 






7 






— , boulevard .... 


7 






— , du Faubourg- . . . 


8 










1(1 








5 





IN THE PLAN. 



299 



R. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Poitou, de 

Police, prefecture de . . 

Poliveau, de 

Polonceau 

Polytechnique, Ecole . . 

Pompe, de la 

Pompe-a-Feu, pass, de la 
Pompeien, palais .... 
Ponceau, passage du . . 
Pont-aux-Biches, du . . 
Pont-au-Choux, du . . . 
Pont-Louis-Philippe, du . 
Pont-Neuf, place du . . . 

Ponthieu, de 

Pontoise, de 

Ponts, ecole des .... 
Popincourt 

— , cite 

— , marche 

Port-Mahon, de . . . . 
Port-Royal, boulevard de . 

Portefoin 

Porte-St-Martin, marche de 

la 

Postes, administration des 

Postes, des 

Pot-de -Fer-Saint-Marcel , du 
Poterie-des-Halles, de la . 

— -St-Martin, de la . . 

Poules, des 

Poulletier 

Pradier 

Pre, du 

Presbourg, de 

Pressoir, du 

PrStres-Saint-SeVerin, des 
PreVost, passage .... 
Prince-Eugene , boulevard 

du 

Prince-Eugene, caserne du 
Prince-Eugene, cite du 
Prince-Eugene, place du . 
Prince-Imperial, avenue du 
Prince-Jer8me, avenue du 

Princesse 

Procession , passage de la 
Procession, de la ... 

Prony 

Prouvaires, des .... 

Provence, de 

Prunier 

Puebla, de 

Puits-de-1'Ermite, du . . 
Puits-qui-Parle, du . . . 
Puteaux, passage .... 
Pyraraides, des .... 
Pyramides, place des . . 
Quatre-Chemins, des . . 
Quatre-Fils, des .... 
Quatre-Vents, des . . . 
Quentin, de St- .... 



10 



10 



10 



10 



10 



14 



Quinault 

Quincampoix 

Quinze-Vingts, hospice des 

— , passage des . . . 

Rabelais . 

Racine 

Raguinot, passage . . . 
Rambouillet, de . . . . 
Rambuteau, de .... 

Rameau 

Rampon 

Raoul 

Rapee, quai de la ... 

Rapp, avenue 

Ratrait, du 

Rats, des 

Reaumur 

Reneval 

Recollets, hospice des . . 

Recollets, des 

Reculettes, ruelle des . . 

Regard, du 

Reims, de 

Reine, Cours la ... . 
Reine-Blanche, de la . . 
Reine-Hortense, avenue de 

la 

Renard, passage du . . . 
Renard-St-Merri, du . . 
Renard-St-Sauveur, du . . 
Rendez-Vous, du . . . . 

Rennequin 

Rennes, de 

Reservoirs, des .... 
Reuilly, de 

— , boulevard de . . . 

— , carrefour de . . . 

— , impasse de . . . . 

— , porte de 

Reunion, de la .... 

— , passage de la . . . 

— , place de la . . . . 
Richard-Lenoir, boulevard 
Richard-Lenoir .... 
Richelieu, de 

— , Square 

Richepanse 

Richer 

— (Charonne) .... 
Richerand, avenue . . . 

Rigoles, des 

Rimbault, passage . . . 

Riverin, cite 

Riviere, ruelle 

Rivoli, de 

— , cite de 

Robinau 

Roch, eglise Saint- . . . 

— , St- 

Rochechouart 

— , boulevard .... 



7 
12 
12 



13 



12 

12 



11 
9 
9 



3 
13 
13 

9 



13 
12 



4 
11 



14 



12 



14 
14 



14 
3 
14 
11 
12 



12 
13 



13 



9 
13 



11 



13 

7 

13 
5 



300 



LIST OP NAMES 



R. W. B. 



R. W. B. 



Rocher, du 

Rocroi, de 

Rodier 

Roger 

Rohan, cour de .... 

— , de 

Roi-de-Rome, avenue du . 

— , place du 

Roi-de-Sicile, du . . . . 
Rollin, college .... 

Romain, St- 

Romainville, de . . . . 

Rome, de 

Ronce, pass 

Roquepine 

Roquette, avenue de la 

— , prison de la ... 

— , de la 

Rosiere, de la 

Rosiers, des 

— , ruelle des .... 

Rossini 

Rotonde - du - Temple , pi. 

de la 

Roubaix, place de . . . 

Roubo 

Rouelle 

Rougemont, de .... 

Roule, du 

Roussel 

Rousselet-St-Germain . . 

Roussin 

Roux, impasse .... 

Royal, pont 

Royale, place 

Royale-St-Honore . . . 

Royer-Collard 

Rubens 

Ruffin, impasse .... 
Sabin, St- 

— , passage St- .... 
Sabliere, de la .... 
Sablonniere, de la ... 
Sablonville, porte de . . 

Sabot, du 

Sacre-Cosur, couvent du . 

Saintonge, de 

Saints-Peres, des . . . 

Salneuve 

Salomon de Caus . . . 
Salp^triere , hopital de la 
Sandrie\ impasse .... 
Sant<5, maison municipale de 

— , de la 

— , impasse de la . . . 

Saucie"-Leroi 

Saulnier, passage .... 
Saumon, impasse du . . 

— , passage du . . . . 

Saussaies, des 

Saussure 



10 



Sauvage, passage . . . 

Sauval 

Sauveur, St- 

Savart, passage .... 

Savoie, de 

Saxe, avenue de . . . . 

Say 

Scheffer, avenue . . . 

Schomer 

Scipion, place 

Scipion 

Scribe 

Sebastien, impasse St- 

— , St- 

Sevastopol, de .... 

— , boulevard de . . . 

Sedaine 

Siguier 

Segur, avenue de . . . . 
Seine, de 

— , quai de 

Senat, palais du . . . . 

Sentier, du 

Serpente 

Serrurier, boulevard . . 

Servan 

Servandoni 

SeVerin, St- 

— , eglise Saint .... 

Sevres, de 

Sibour 

Simon-le-Franc .... 

Singes, des 

Society centrale d' Agricul- 
ture 

Solterino, pont de . . . 

Solitaires, des 

Soly 

Sorbonne, la .... • 

— , place de 

— , de 

Souftlot 

Soulage 

Soupirs, passage des . . 

Source, de la 

Sourdiere, de la . . . . 
Sourds - Muets , institution 

des ... 

Stainville, passage . . . 
Stanislas, college . . . 
Stamslcs 



12 



7 

7 

14 

8 



5 
10 
10 



7 
12 



12 
7 
14 



14 



11 
6 

8 



13 
5 



— , passage .... 

Stemler cite 11 

Stockholm, de . . . . 
Strasbourg, boulevard de 9 

— , place de 9 

-, de 10 

Sud, passage du .... 12 
Suffren, avenue de . . . .2 

Suger 8 

Sully, de 10 



8 
11 



8 
14 
6 
6 
6 



IN THE PLAN. 



301 



B. W. B. 



R. W. B- 



Sulpice, eglise Saint- . . 

— , place St- 

-, St- 

— , seminaire St- . . . 

Surene, de 

T abacs, manufacture de8 . 
Taillebourg, avenue de 

Taitbout 

Tanger 

Taranne 

TeUegraphe, du .... 

— , du (Passy) .... 
Temple, du 

— , boulevard du . . . 

— , square du . . . . 

— , du Faubourg-du- . . 
Tenailles, impasse . . . 

Ternaux 

Ternes, avenue des . . . 

— , les 

— , porte des .... 
Terrasse, de la .... 
Terres-Fortes, des . . . 
Terrier-aux-Lapins, du . . 
Theatre de rAmbigu-co- 
mique 

— Beaumarchais . . . 

— du Chatelet .... 

— Dejazet 

— desFoliesdramatiques 

— Francais 

— de la* Gaite" .... 

— dtt Gymnase draina- 

tique 

— Italien 

— Lyrique 

— de la Porte St-Martin 

— du Vaudeville . . . 

— des Variete's . . . 
Theatre, du (Grenelle) . . 

— , du (Montmartre) . . 

Thenard 

Theray, de 

TheVese 

Thermes, Muse'e des . . 
Thermopyles, passage des 

Thevenot 

Thibaud ... .... 

Thiboumery 

Thierre', passage .... 
Thomas-d'Aquin, e'glise St- 

— -d'Aquin, place St- . 
Thomas-d'Enfer, St- . . 

Thorigny, de 

Thouin 

Tilsit, de 

Timbre 

Tipbaine 

Tiquetonne 

Tirechappe 

Titien 



13 



11 



11 



12 



Tivoli, passage de . . . 

— , place de 

— , de 

Tocanier, passage . . . 
Tombe-Isoire, de la . . 
Tonnellerie, de la . . . 
Tour-d'Auvergne, de la 

des-Dames, de la 

— -de-Vanves, passage 

de la 

Touraine, de 

Tournefort 

Tournelle, pont de la . . 

— , quai de la . . . . 
Tournelles, des . . . . 

Tournon, de 

Tourtille, de 

Tourville, avenue de . . 
Toutay, impasse .... 

Tracy, de 

Traktir 

Transit, du 

Traverse 

Traversiere, passage . . 
Traversiere-Saint-Antoine . 

Traversine 

Tre'vise, cite' 

— , de 

Trinite, e'glise de la . . 

Trioson, gare 

Trois-Bornes, des . . . 

— -Chandelles, des . . 

— -Chandelles, ruelle des 

— -Couronnes, passage 

des 

— -Couronnes, des . . 

— -Freres, des .... 

— -Pavilions, des . . . 

— -Sabres, des .... 

— -Soeurs, des .... 

— -Soeurs , impasse des 

Tronchet 

Trone, place du . . . . 
Trudaine, avenue de . . 

Truffaut, de 

Tuileries, jardin des . . 

— , palais des .... 

— , quai des 

Turbigo 

Turenne 

Turgot 

— , cit£ 

Turin, de 

TJlm, d' 

University, de 1" . . . . 

Ursulines, des 

Vacquerie, la 

Val de-Grace, hopital du . 

— , du 

Valence, de 

Valenciennes, place de 



14 
7 



10 



10 
10 
10 



11 



11 



11 
11 

8 



3 
13 



12 

8 



3 
12 



11 

14 
14 



11 
14 



14 
3 



10 



302 



LIST 'fW^wi!i£ 



lEE i"LAN. 



R. W. B. 



E. W. B. 



Valenciennes, de . . . . 
Valere, c"glise Saint- . . 
Valmy, quai de . . 
Valois-du-Koule, de . . 
Valois-Palais-Royal, de 

Vandamme 

Vanneau . 

Vanves, de 

Varenne, de 

Vauban, place 

Vaucanson, passage . . . 

Vaucanson 

Vaugelas 

Vaugirard, boulevard de . 

— , de 

Vauquelin 

Vavin 

Vendome, place . . . . 

Venise, de 

Verderet 

Verel, impasse 

Vernet 

Verneuil, de 

Vernier 

Vero-Dodat, passage . . 

Veron, cite" 

Veron 

Verrerie, de la . . . . 
Versailles, porte de . . . 

Vertbois, du 

Verte, alle'e 

Vertus, des (La Chapelle) 

— , des 

Viala 

Viallet, cite' 

Viarmes, de 

Vicq-d'Azir 

Victoire, de la . . . 

Victoires, place des . . . 
Victor, boulevard . . . 

— , place St- . . . 

— -Cousin 

Victoria, avenue . . . . 
Vieille-Estrapade, de la . 

— -Notre-Dame . . . 

— -du Temple .... 



Vieilles-Etuves-St-Martiu, 
des 

— -Haudriettes, des . . 
Vieillesse, hospice de la . 
Vienne, de ...... . 

Vierge, passage de la . . 
Vieux-Augustins, des . . 
Vieux-Colombier , du . . 
Vignes, impasse des . . 
Vignolles, ruelle des . . 

Vilin 

Villars, avenue de . . . 

Villedo 

Villejuif, de 

Villejust, de 

Villette, bassin de la . . 

— , boulevard de la . . 
Villiers, porte de . . . 

Villiot 

Vinaigriers, des . . . . 
Vincennes, de 

— , cours de . . . . 

— , bois de 

— , chateau de . . . . 

Vincent 

Vincent-de-Paul, e'glise St- 
Vincent-de-Paul, St- . . 
Vintimille, place de . . . 

— , de 

Violet 



— , passage .... 

— , place 

Virginie 

Visconti 

Visitation, couvent de la 

Vivienne 

Volontaire, ruelle . , 

Volta , 

Voltaire, quai 

Vrilliere, de la ... 
Wagram, avenue de . . 

— , place de . . . . , 
Walhubert, place . . . 

Xaintrailles 

Yonne, de 1' 

Yvart 



13 
6 



10 



11 



4 
7 
6 

14 

4 
7 



1 

12 
10 

2 



12 



12 
14 



13 

13 



11 
8 

10 
6 
6 



10 

11 

13 

3 



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